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Unix system administration bulletin, 2007

[Nov 27, 2007] Classification of Corporate Psychopaths

Unix administrators need to be aware of this pretty widespread danger.

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NEWS CONTENTS

Old News ;-)

[Jun 11, 2007] developerWorks AIX and UNIX Technical library view

System Administration Toolkit: Standardizing your UNIX command-line tools
Examine methods for standardizing your interface to simplify movements between different UNIX(R) systems. If you manage multiple UNIX systems, particularly in a heterogeneous environment, then the hardest task can be switching between the different environments and performing the different tasks while having to consider all of the differences between the systems. This article does not cover specific differences, but you'll look at ways that can provide compatible layers, or wrappers, to support a consistent environment.

System Administration Toolkit: Backing up key information
Most UNIX(R) administrators have processes in place to back up the data and information on their UNIX machines, but what about the configuration files and other elements that provide the configuration data your machines need to operate? This article provides detailed information on techniques for achieving an effective and efficient backup system for these key files.

Take a closer look at OpenBSD
OpenBSD is quite possibly the most secure operating system on the planet. Every step of the development process focuses on building a secure, open, and free platform. UNIX(R) and Linux(R) administrators take note: Without realizing it, you probably use tools ported from OpenBSD every day. Maybe it's time to give the whole operating system a closer look.

System Administration Toolkit: Managing NIS services for authorizations
Examine how to set up, configure, and update a Network Information System (NIS) installation for sharing information, and learn how NIS can be merged with other solutions, such as files and Domain Name System (DNS), to provide subnet, network, and worldwide data sharing facilities. In a large UNIX(R) network, the ability to share information among the many systems helps to alleviate many problems, such as sharing permissions across different systems with Network File System (NFS), or simply providing a single login for the entire network.

System Administration Toolkit: Migrating and moving UNIX directory trees
Occasionally, you need to copy around an entire UNIX(R) directory tree, either between areas on the same system or between different systems. There are many different methods of achieving this, but not all preserve the right amount of information or are compatible across different systems. This article discusses the various options available for UNIX and how best to make them work.

System Administration Toolkit: Migrating and moving UNIX filesystems
Learn how to transfer an entire file system on a live system, including how to create, copy, and re-enable the new file system. If you have a UNIX(R) disk or system failure or simply fill up your file system, then you need to create a new partition and file system and copy over the contents. You might even need to mount the new partition in place to preserve the location of vital files and components. To add further complications, you need to do this on a live system, where you'd need to preserve file permissions, ownership, and possibly named pipes and other components. Effectively transferring these components and retaining all of this information is a vital part of the migration process.

System Administration Toolkit: Monitoring disk space and usage
Look at methods for determining disk usage across multiple UNIX(R) systems and how to create a simple warning system to alert you of potential problems. Keeping an eye on your file systems and ensuring they don't fill up is a trivial, but vital, process in the day-to-day management of your UNIX systems. In this article, you'll look at methods for keeping an eye on disk space, discovering which files, users, or applications are using up the most space, and how to make use of quotas and other solutions to find the information you need.

[May 24, 2007] Cool Solutions supportconfig for Linux

Collects important system information for troubleshooting. The supportconfig now includes all of the siga and sitar functionality.
24 May 2007 21KB License: GPL /coolsolutions/tools/downloads/supportconfig-2.15-16.noarch.rpmPublisher: Jason Record

The supportconfig now includes all of the siga and sitar functionality. The SMART disk check has been removed by default due to problematic hardware. A Trap have been added to capture a SIGQUIT (Ctrl-\) to try and skip hanging functions.

  1. Download supportconfig-2.15-16.noarch.rpm
  2. Install the RPM
      rpm -Uvh supportconfig-2.15-16.noarch.rpm
  3. Run the supportconfig command as root; use -h or man page to see more options.
      supportconfig
  4. To view the information files, assuming the tarball filename is:
    /var/log/nts_host1_070406_1300.tar.bz2
      cd /var/log
      tar jxf nts_host1_070406_1300.tar.bz2
      cd nts_host1_070406_1300
      ls -l

Note: Detailed system information and logs are collected and organized in a manner that helps reduce service request resolution times. Private system information can be disclosed when using this tool. If this is a concern, please prune private data from the log files. Several startup options are available to exclude more sensitive information. Refer to the man page to see these options.

Novell Cool Solutions (corporate web communities) are produced by WebWise Solutions. www.webwiseone.com

Interview with Siem Korteweg System Configuration Collector

The Community's Center for Security

In this interview we learn how the System Configuration Collector (SCC) project began, how the software works, why Siem chose to make it open source, and information on future developments.

Introduction:

Have you ever noticed changes on your departmental server, but couldn't quite pinpoint what exactly happened? How many times have staff forgotten to make an entry in the log-book, or the entries made were not detailed enough? Administrators are faced with these problems on a day-by-day basis. The System Configuration Collector (SCC) project attempts to automate this process. Rather than depending on staff to keep accurate records, SCC enables a system to record all changes taking place. Additionally, the software has the functionality to send all configuration data to a central server so that it can be analyzed when needed.

System Configuration Collector Project Website: http://www.open-challenge.nl/scc/index.html

LinuxSecurity.com: Please tell us about the SCC project and how it began. When did it start, and who are some of the key contributors?

Siem Korteweg: In 2001 a younger colleague asked whether it was possible to automatically track the changes that were made to the configuration of a system. I told him that was impossible due to variable nature of the output of the commands we have to use to show the configuration of a system. Being a much younger colleague he accepted this answer. But I did not like to say it was "impossible" and it kept nagging me.

I thought that when I could split the variable and fixed parts of the output of system commands, I would be able to track changes. I started a small, hobby project by collecting configuration data and preceding each line with "fix:" or "var:". After some time I was able to detect some changes made to configuration. But when a kernel parameter was changed, all I saw was a change from 128 to 256. I had to search in the snapshot to find out what part of the configuration had changed. Therefore I extended the fix-var classification with a hierarchy of keywords indicating the nature of the data.

The development continued and the customer where I was developing the software, was wondering how to maintain this software without hiring me indefinitely. By that time I realized that this software also could/should be used by others. I talked to the manager of the customer and to the manager of the company I am working for and suggested to make SCC a GPL project. They both agreed and from then on, SCC was an Open Source project. To extend the collection of configuration data I looked at the code of cfg2html and check.sh (HP specific) and the FAQ's of several newsgroups. At the customer site where I started developing SCC, we deployed the software on some 300 systems. This gave us a great opportunity to tune the "fixed" and "variable" parts of the configuration to avoid unnecessary changes.

The first versions of the software collected configuration data and converted the data and logbook to HTML on a per system basis. At the customer site, Bram Lous started to collect all snapshots and logbooks on a server and built the first version of the CGI-interface. Later on, Paul te Vaanholt contributed much for the HP OpenView modules. His main contribution is the analysis and conversion to SCC-format of the Operations Center database. A colleague Oscar Meijer wrote the Windows version of the SCC-client, based on WMI and WSH. The configuration of the data we are collecting on Windows systems still needs to be tuned. The software itself is stable, but it detects too many changes. The whole process of tuning what data is "fixed" and what data is "variable" takes quiet some time.

LinuxSecurity.com: What is the most important benefit an administrator can get out of SCC? How can this improve the overall security of a network or host?

Siem Korteweg: Each administrator should document his/her systems. We all know that, but we all lack time to do this properly. SCC automates the documentation process. For HP-UX systems SCC collects more than 95% of the configuration of the system. For other system the percentage is somewhat lower at the moment.

The logbooks and snapshots can assist administrators in finding the cause of an incident. Configuration changes can have unwanted side-effects (on other systems). By examining the logbooks for the changes during the last days/weeks an administrator might find the cause of an incident easier/faster. Another way of using the SCC-data to find the cause of an incident is to compare (parts of) the configuration of a system with a comparable system that does function correctly.

Comparing the configuration of systems can also be used to assure that the systems in a cluster are consistent and identical. Do they run the same (versions of) software? Do they have the same kernel-configuration? It is also possible to check your security policies. Just check the snapshots on the server for the aspects of the policies. By default the server checks and signals accounts without a password.

Another use of the SCC-data on the server is to quickly identify systems. After an advisory from Sun, I was able to identify within one minute the 100 systems that needed to be addressed out of a total of 600 systems. Because the selection was automated and because the collection of SCC-data was accurate and outdate, I did not miss a system. This obviously contributes to the safety of the network.

LinuxSecurity.com: How difficult is it to get started? How long would it take for an administrator to get the system fully setup? Can you describe at a high level the steps necessary to setup SCC?

Siem Korteweg: The easiest way to start and get the feeling of the software is to install only the client part and keep the data and logbook on the client. Just create a simple cron-job after the installation of the client and you are finished. This way you are able to pilot the software before you deploy it more widely.

The setup of the server takes some more steps. First you have to decide how to transport the SCC-data from the clients to the server. Supported mechanisms are email (optionally encrypted, using OpenSSL), scp, rcp and cp. Then setup the webserver to display the data. To achieve this, you have to indicate the path under the document-root and indicate the CGI-script of SCC. Then schedule a cron-job to transfer the SCC-data that is sent by the clients from the transfer-area to the website Finally all cronjobs of the clients have to be extended with the proper options to transfer the SCC-data to the scc-server.

For several systems I recorded the entire process of configuring the server in logbooks. These logbooks are present at the website. For our HP-UX 11.i system: http://www.open-challenge.nl/scc/scc-web-demo/scc.hpux11i.log.html

LinuxSecurity.com: What improvement would you like to make in the future? What direction is this project heading?

Siem Korteweg: When running SCC on a system that uses clustering software, like MC ServiceGuard from HP, switching a "package" from one system to another, results in changes of the SCC-data for both systems involved in switching. We want to make the software cluster-aware by extracting the configuration data for each package and sending it separately to the scc-server.

Another future extension is the collection of the configuration of network devices like routers and switches.

LinuxSecurity.com: What advantage does SCC have over using a typical pen & paper log book for recording system changes?

Siem Korteweg: It is automated, so it does not "forget" to record a change (supposing the changed attribute is part of the SCC-snapshot). It is not lazy (once you run it through cron). - The pen & paper logbook is a physical item that can only be at one place. Each admin of a group of systems can be at a different place, without access to the paper logbook. Suppose 7x24 systems, where the admins "follow the sun". - By consolidating all snapshots on a system with scc-srv, you obtain much data that can be searched automatically. This enables you to quickly identify the systems that need an update or to compare two systems when one of them does not function correctly. This is impossible with pen & paper.

LinuxSecurity.com: What operating systems does SCC run on? What type of license is it under?

Siem Korteweg: HP-UX, Solaris, AIX, Linux (RedHat, Suse, Gentoo). As the code of SCC only uses "standard" Unix tools, I think it runs on almost all Unix/Linux systems. The coverage of the configuration data depends on the OS. For example the coverage of HP-UX configuration is more than 90%. For other systems this will be less. The license is GPL.

LinuxSecurity.com: If an administrator needs assistance setting up or configuring SCC is support available? If so, how can support be obtained?

Siem Korteweg: Besides the documentation on our website, SCC comes with documentation and manual pages. We offer an implementation service, where a consultant visits a customer and installs the server and at most 5 clients and introduces the software to the admins of the customer. This is only feasible in the Netherlands. Otherwise, support via email is possible. When the requested support is more than a few simple questions, we have to agree upon payment.

LinuxSecurity.com: How does SCC differ from other similar configuration collectors? What are some of the strengths and weaknesses of SCC?

Siem Korteweg: SCC collects configuration data without formatting it immediately to HTML. Instead it prefixes each line of configuration data with fix/var and a hierarchical classification. This makes it easy to process the snapshots. The processing consists of comparing consecutive snapshots to generate the logbook, formatting the snapshot to HTML and comparing the snapshots of two systems to determine the differences.

The philosophy of SCC is to collect data, not to judge its value or correctness. Stupid configuration errors in Apache/Samba are not detected in scc, this should be done at the server where all snapshots are collected. Some might question the value of all the data in the snapshots. It is true that a considerable part of the snapshots will never change during the lifetime of a system. Nevertheless this data is collected, just in case someone needs it sometimes.

One commercial configuration collector works by allowing remote root-access to all clients from their server. This is not very security minded. I had security in mind when coding scc and scc-srv.

A weakness of SCC is that I coded the classifications of all collected configuration data. This classification has to be used when an admin wants to view specific information. I decided to store cron configuration data under classification "software:cron:" and swap info under classification "system:swap:". Each user of SCC has to follow my intuition.

Another weak point is that the clients are autonomous. The scc-srv can be DOSed by mailing much snapshots from seemingly different systems. Therefore, I suggest to install scc-srv only in a "trusted" network. Finally, scc has to do "reverse engineering" to collect for example the Apache configuration. Apache can be installed and configured in dozens of different locations. We have to determine the correct paths and files from the running processes.

LinuxSecurity.com: How can the project benefit from the open source community?

Siem Korteweg: The project can benefit from the open source community when admins use it and contribute their extensions. These extensions can be specific applications/hardware/OS they use or new features. At the moment some people already contribute knowledge of specific software. Feedback concerning the strong and weak aspects admins experience while they are using SCC, is also valuable.

Area's for future extensions are SAN/NAS and network devices. I am looking for people and organisations that are willing to contribute in any way in these areas.

LinuxSecurity.com: I wish to thank Siem, and other contributors to the System Configuration Collector project. We at LinuxSecurity.com would like to wish you the best of luck!



Etc

Society

Groupthink : Two Party System as Polyarchy : Corruption of Regulators : Bureaucracies : Understanding Micromanagers and Control Freaks : Toxic Managers :   Harvard Mafia : Diplomatic Communication : Surviving a Bad Performance Review : Insufficient Retirement Funds as Immanent Problem of Neoliberal Regime : PseudoScience : Who Rules America : Neoliberalism  : The Iron Law of Oligarchy : Libertarian Philosophy

Quotes

War and Peace : Skeptical Finance : John Kenneth Galbraith :Talleyrand : Oscar Wilde : Otto Von Bismarck : Keynes : George Carlin : Skeptics : Propaganda  : SE quotes : Language Design and Programming Quotes : Random IT-related quotesSomerset Maugham : Marcus Aurelius : Kurt Vonnegut : Eric Hoffer : Winston Churchill : Napoleon Bonaparte : Ambrose BierceBernard Shaw : Mark Twain Quotes

Bulletin:

Vol 25, No.12 (December, 2013) Rational Fools vs. Efficient Crooks The efficient markets hypothesis : Political Skeptic Bulletin, 2013 : Unemployment Bulletin, 2010 :  Vol 23, No.10 (October, 2011) An observation about corporate security departments : Slightly Skeptical Euromaydan Chronicles, June 2014 : Greenspan legacy bulletin, 2008 : Vol 25, No.10 (October, 2013) Cryptolocker Trojan (Win32/Crilock.A) : Vol 25, No.08 (August, 2013) Cloud providers as intelligence collection hubs : Financial Humor Bulletin, 2010 : Inequality Bulletin, 2009 : Financial Humor Bulletin, 2008 : Copyleft Problems Bulletin, 2004 : Financial Humor Bulletin, 2011 : Energy Bulletin, 2010 : Malware Protection Bulletin, 2010 : Vol 26, No.1 (January, 2013) Object-Oriented Cult : Political Skeptic Bulletin, 2011 : Vol 23, No.11 (November, 2011) Softpanorama classification of sysadmin horror stories : Vol 25, No.05 (May, 2013) Corporate bullshit as a communication method  : Vol 25, No.06 (June, 2013) A Note on the Relationship of Brooks Law and Conway Law

History:

Fifty glorious years (1950-2000): the triumph of the US computer engineering : Donald Knuth : TAoCP and its Influence of Computer Science : Richard Stallman : Linus Torvalds  : Larry Wall  : John K. Ousterhout : CTSS : Multix OS Unix History : Unix shell history : VI editor : History of pipes concept : Solaris : MS DOSProgramming Languages History : PL/1 : Simula 67 : C : History of GCC developmentScripting Languages : Perl history   : OS History : Mail : DNS : SSH : CPU Instruction Sets : SPARC systems 1987-2006 : Norton Commander : Norton Utilities : Norton Ghost : Frontpage history : Malware Defense History : GNU Screen : OSS early history

Classic books:

The Peter Principle : Parkinson Law : 1984 : The Mythical Man-MonthHow to Solve It by George Polya : The Art of Computer Programming : The Elements of Programming Style : The Unix Haterís Handbook : The Jargon file : The True Believer : Programming Pearls : The Good Soldier Svejk : The Power Elite

Most popular humor pages:

Manifest of the Softpanorama IT Slacker Society : Ten Commandments of the IT Slackers Society : Computer Humor Collection : BSD Logo Story : The Cuckoo's Egg : IT Slang : C++ Humor : ARE YOU A BBS ADDICT? : The Perl Purity Test : Object oriented programmers of all nations : Financial Humor : Financial Humor Bulletin, 2008 : Financial Humor Bulletin, 2010 : The Most Comprehensive Collection of Editor-related Humor : Programming Language Humor : Goldman Sachs related humor : Greenspan humor : C Humor : Scripting Humor : Real Programmers Humor : Web Humor : GPL-related Humor : OFM Humor : Politically Incorrect Humor : IDS Humor : "Linux Sucks" Humor : Russian Musical Humor : Best Russian Programmer Humor : Microsoft plans to buy Catholic Church : Richard Stallman Related Humor : Admin Humor : Perl-related Humor : Linus Torvalds Related humor : PseudoScience Related Humor : Networking Humor : Shell Humor : Financial Humor Bulletin, 2011 : Financial Humor Bulletin, 2012 : Financial Humor Bulletin, 2013 : Java Humor : Software Engineering Humor : Sun Solaris Related Humor : Education Humor : IBM Humor : Assembler-related Humor : VIM Humor : Computer Viruses Humor : Bright tomorrow is rescheduled to a day after tomorrow : Classic Computer Humor

The Last but not Least Technology is dominated by two types of people: those who understand what they do not manage and those who manage what they do not understand ~Archibald Putt. Ph.D


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