|May the source be with you, but remember the KISS principle ;-)|
|Contents||Bulletin||Scripting in shell and Perl||Network troubleshooting||History||Humor|
|Old News||System V IPC||Recommended Links||Reference||History||Humor||Etc.|
Before installing database system, you should tune Linux kernel parameters. The default values for particular kernel parameters on Linux are not sufficient when running a database system. Most databases need higher IPC limits. They can increase them dynamically. However, it may be more practical to set the limits permanently
You must have root authority to modify kernel parameters.
To update kernel parameters:
The following is the output from the ipcs -l command. Comments have been added following the // to show what the parameter names are.
# ipcs -l ------ Shared Memory Limits -------- max number of segments = 4096 // SHMMNI max seg size (kbytes) = 32768 // SHMMAX max total shared memory (kbytes) = 8388608 // SHMALL min seg size (bytes) = 1 ------ Semaphore Limits -------- max number of arrays = 1024 // SEMMNI max semaphores per array = 250 // SEMMSL max semaphores system wide = 256000 // SEMMNS max ops per semop call = 32 // SEMOPM semaphore max value = 32767 ------ Messages: Limits -------- max queues system wide = 1024 // MSGMNI max size of message (bytes) = 65536 // MSGMAX default max size of queue (bytes) = 65536 // MSGMNB
Beginning with the first section on Shared Memory Limits, SHMMAX and SHMALL are the parameters that need to be looked at. SHMMAX is the maximum size of a shared memory segment on a Linux system whereas SHMALL is the maximum allocation of shared memory pages on a system.
For SHMMAX, the minimum required on x86 systems would be 268435456 (256 MB) and for 64-bit systems, it would be 1073741824 (1 GB).
SHMALL is set to 8 GB by default (8388608 KB = 8 GB). If you have more physical memory than this, and it is to be used for DB2, then this parameter should be increased to approximately 90% of the physical memory as specified for your computer. For instance, if you have a computer system with 16 GB of memory to be used primarily for DB2, then 90% of 16 GB is 14.4 GB divided by 4 KB (the base page size) is 3774873. The ipcs output has converted SHMALL into kilobytes. The kernel requires this value as a number of pages.
The next section covers the amount of semaphores available to the operating system. The kernel parameter sem consists of 4 tokens, SEMMSL, SEMMNS, SEMOPM and SEMMNI. SEMMNS is the result of SEMMSL multiplied by SEMMNI. The database manager requires that the number of arrays (SEMMNI) be increased as necessary. Typically, SEMMNI should be twice the maximum number of connections allowed (MAXAGENTS) multiplied by the number of logical partitions on the database server computer plus the number of local application connections on the database server computer.
The third section covers messages on the system.
MSGMNI affects the number of agents that can be started, MSGMAX affects the size of the message that can be sent in a queue, and MSGMNB affects the size of the queue.
MSGMAX should be change to 64 KB (that is, 65535 bytes), and MSGMNB should be increased to 65535 on Server systems.
To modify these kernel parameters, we need to edit the /etc/sysctl.conf file. If this file does not exist, it should be created. The following lines are examples of what should be placed into the file:
kernel.sem=250 256000 32 1024 #Example shmmax for a 64-bit system kernel.shmmax=1073741824 #Example shmall for 90 percent of 16 GB memory kernel.shmall=3774873 kernel.msgmax=65535 kernel.msgmnb=65535
Run sysctl with -p parameter to load in sysctl settings from the default file /etc/sysctl.conf.
To make the changes effective after every reboot, boot.sysctl needs to be active on SUSE Linux. On Red Hat, the rc.sysinit initialization script will read the /etc/sysctl.conf file automatically.
shmmax specifies system-wide maximum allowable shared memory segment
0x40000000(1024 Mbytes) on 32-bit systems
Specify integer value. For more information, see Specifying Parameter Values.
The value used cannot exceed maximum available swap space. For
minimum and maximum allowable values, as well as default value for any given system,
refer to values in
shmmax defines the system-wide maximum allowable shared memory segment
size in bytes. Any
shmget() system call that requests a segment larger
than this limit returns an error (see HP-UX Reference entry shmget(2)).
FAIR USE NOTICE This site contains copyrighted material the use of which has not always been specifically authorized by the copyright owner. We are making such material available in our efforts to advance understanding of environmental, political, human rights, economic, democracy, scientific, and social justice issues, etc. We believe this constitutes a 'fair use' of any such copyrighted material as provided for in section 107 of the US Copyright Law. In accordance with Title 17 U.S.C. Section 107, the material on this site is distributed without profit exclusivly for research and educational purposes. If you wish to use copyrighted material from this site for purposes of your own that go beyond 'fair use', you must obtain permission from the copyright owner.
ABUSE: IPs or network segments from which we detect a stream of probes might be blocked for no less then 90 days. Multiple types of probes increase this period.
Groupthink : Two Party System as Polyarchy : Corruption of Regulators : Bureaucracies : Understanding Micromanagers and Control Freaks : Toxic Managers : Harvard Mafia : Diplomatic Communication : Surviving a Bad Performance Review : Insufficient Retirement Funds as Immanent Problem of Neoliberal Regime : PseudoScience : Who Rules America : Neoliberalism : The Iron Law of Oligarchy : Libertarian Philosophy
War and Peace : Skeptical Finance : John Kenneth Galbraith :Talleyrand : Oscar Wilde : Otto Von Bismarck : Keynes : George Carlin : Skeptics : Propaganda : SE quotes : Language Design and Programming Quotes : Random IT-related quotes : Somerset Maugham : Marcus Aurelius : Kurt Vonnegut : Eric Hoffer : Winston Churchill : Napoleon Bonaparte : Ambrose Bierce : Bernard Shaw : Mark Twain Quotes
Vol 25, No.12 (December, 2013) Rational Fools vs. Efficient Crooks The efficient markets hypothesis : Political Skeptic Bulletin, 2013 : Unemployment Bulletin, 2010 : Vol 23, No.10 (October, 2011) An observation about corporate security departments : Slightly Skeptical Euromaydan Chronicles, June 2014 : Greenspan legacy bulletin, 2008 : Vol 25, No.10 (October, 2013) Cryptolocker Trojan (Win32/Crilock.A) : Vol 25, No.08 (August, 2013) Cloud providers as intelligence collection hubs : Financial Humor Bulletin, 2010 : Inequality Bulletin, 2009 : Financial Humor Bulletin, 2008 : Copyleft Problems Bulletin, 2004 : Financial Humor Bulletin, 2011 : Energy Bulletin, 2010 : Malware Protection Bulletin, 2010 : Vol 26, No.1 (January, 2013) Object-Oriented Cult : Political Skeptic Bulletin, 2011 : Vol 23, No.11 (November, 2011) Softpanorama classification of sysadmin horror stories : Vol 25, No.05 (May, 2013) Corporate bullshit as a communication method : Vol 25, No.06 (June, 2013) A Note on the Relationship of Brooks Law and Conway Law
Fifty glorious years (1950-2000): the triumph of the US computer engineering : Donald Knuth : TAoCP and its Influence of Computer Science : Richard Stallman : Linus Torvalds : Larry Wall : John K. Ousterhout : CTSS : Multix OS Unix History : Unix shell history : VI editor : History of pipes concept : Solaris : MS DOS : Programming Languages History : PL/1 : Simula 67 : C : History of GCC development : Scripting Languages : Perl history : OS History : Mail : DNS : SSH : CPU Instruction Sets : SPARC systems 1987-2006 : Norton Commander : Norton Utilities : Norton Ghost : Frontpage history : Malware Defense History : GNU Screen : OSS early history
The Peter Principle : Parkinson Law : 1984 : The Mythical Man-Month : How to Solve It by George Polya : The Art of Computer Programming : The Elements of Programming Style : The Unix Haterís Handbook : The Jargon file : The True Believer : Programming Pearls : The Good Soldier Svejk : The Power Elite
Most popular humor pages:
Manifest of the Softpanorama IT Slacker Society : Ten Commandments of the IT Slackers Society : Computer Humor Collection : BSD Logo Story : The Cuckoo's Egg : IT Slang : C++ Humor : ARE YOU A BBS ADDICT? : The Perl Purity Test : Object oriented programmers of all nations : Financial Humor : Financial Humor Bulletin, 2008 : Financial Humor Bulletin, 2010 : The Most Comprehensive Collection of Editor-related Humor : Programming Language Humor : Goldman Sachs related humor : Greenspan humor : C Humor : Scripting Humor : Real Programmers Humor : Web Humor : GPL-related Humor : OFM Humor : Politically Incorrect Humor : IDS Humor : "Linux Sucks" Humor : Russian Musical Humor : Best Russian Programmer Humor : Microsoft plans to buy Catholic Church : Richard Stallman Related Humor : Admin Humor : Perl-related Humor : Linus Torvalds Related humor : PseudoScience Related Humor : Networking Humor : Shell Humor : Financial Humor Bulletin, 2011 : Financial Humor Bulletin, 2012 : Financial Humor Bulletin, 2013 : Java Humor : Software Engineering Humor : Sun Solaris Related Humor : Education Humor : IBM Humor : Assembler-related Humor : VIM Humor : Computer Viruses Humor : Bright tomorrow is rescheduled to a day after tomorrow : Classic Computer Humor
The Last but not Least
Copyright © 1996-2016 by Dr. Nikolai Bezroukov. www.softpanorama.org was created as a service to the UN Sustainable Development Networking Programme (SDNP) in the author free time. This document is an industrial compilation designed and created exclusively for educational use and is distributed under the Softpanorama Content License.
Original materials copyright belong to respective owners. Quotes are made for educational purposes only in compliance with the fair use doctrine.
FAIR USE NOTICE This site contains copyrighted material the use of which has not always been specifically authorized by the copyright owner. We are making such material available to advance understanding of computer science, IT technology, economic, scientific, and social issues. We believe this constitutes a 'fair use' of any such copyrighted material as provided by section 107 of the US Copyright Law according to which such material can be distributed without profit exclusively for research and educational purposes.
This is a Spartan WHYFF (We Help You For Free) site written by people for whom English is not a native language. Grammar and spelling errors should be expected. The site contain some broken links as it develops like a living tree...
|You can use PayPal to make a contribution, supporting development of this site and speed up access. In case softpanorama.org is down you can use the at softpanorama.info|
The statements, views and opinions presented on this web page are those of the author (or referenced source) and are not endorsed by, nor do they necessarily reflect, the opinions of the author present and former employers, SDNP or any other organization the author may be associated with. We do not warrant the correctness of the information provided or its fitness for any purpose.
Last modified: September 12, 2017