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While a good debugger greatly increases the value of the language, the debugger is just a part of Perl Programming Environment. It does not replace a good editor, database of typical Perl errors, lint, prettyprinter and other important part of Perl programming environment. In a way this is a the "last resort" to find a particular bug in the program.

The problem with command line debuggers is that you need to remember set of commands to use it productively. It is not an easy task especially if you do not use debugger daily. One obligatory thing to do is to print a cheat-sheet and put it above your monitor. I for example noticed that from one debugging session to another I forget even some essential commands.

If you think that because I wrote this page I use all the commends discussed you are deeply mistaken. I use a very primitive subset close to the minimal set described below. And what is interesting any my attempts to use a richer subset fail -- from one episode during which I can benefit from this additional functionality to another I completely forget how to use it.

A typical person probably is not able to remember more then seven Perl debugger commands. In this sense I am a typical person although it is more correctly to say not seven commands but seven groups of similar command as brain works in hierarchical chunks.  I typically use just the following seven commands:

  1. n -- single step without stepping into subroutines. You need to enter it only the first time. After that pressing Enter will repeat the command.
     
  2. s -- single step with stepping into subroutines. This is an alternative command to n and it is useful if you need to look how a particular subroutine behaves on the text data.
     
  3. c -- continue processing until a break of some sort.  In the simplest (and most useful) case a line number can serve as one time (temporary) breakpoint, for example:
    c 200
  4. l min+incr -- displays  "window" of the program's code of incr lines. Without parameters defaults to 10 lines window from the last executed line. Repeat of command without parameters bring the next ten lines and so on.  With two parameters shown lists incr+1 lines of the script starting at min.
     
  5. p -- a regular Perl print command, so you can use the normal Perl syntax there, for example:
    p "$ARGV[0]\n$_";
  6. ! number  -- Redo a previous command (without number defaults to the previous command). Perl debugger numbers debugger commands in its prompt so scrolling back you can see what command that you entered needs to be repeated.
     
  7. H -- lists the debugger commands history. First of all it can serve as an alternative to scrolling back. This way you will see commands that you already entered in this session. You can limit output by providing a number prefixed with a minus sign. For example:
    H -5
    it will displays the last 5 commands. Only commands longer than one character are stored in the history. (s or n, are omitted from history).

See more at Debugging Perl Scripts. A good free introduction to Perl debugger can be found in perldebtut - perldoc.perl.org

Best Perl debugger tips

You can execute any external command in the debugger using !! command

This debugger command runs the external command in a subprocess, which will read from DB::IN and write to DB::OUT. Shell used is the shell defined in $ENV{SHELL} external variable

To look at a "window" of source code around the breakpoint, use the w command:

DB<2> w
5     }
6
7       sub infested {
8==>b       my $bugs = int rand(3);
9:          our $Master;
10:         contaminate($Master);
11:         warn "needs wash"
12              if $Master && $Master->isa("Human");
13
14:         print "got $bugs\n";

DB<2>
As you see by the ==> marker, your current line is line 8, and by the b there, you know it has a breakpoint on it. If you'` had set an action, there also would also have been an a there. The line numbers with colons are breakable; the rest are not.

Command c can be used with line number.

In this case the debugger will run the script to this temporary breakpoint and switch to interactive mode. For example c 200 will run script till the line 200 or to the end if the line 200 is not executed on particular data.

Switching to step-by-step execution dynamically from within the program

You can switch to step-by-step execution using Perl debugger from within your Perl program itself. to transfer control back to the debugger use the following statement, which is harmless if the debugger is not running:

$DB::single = 1;
If you set $DB::single to 2, it's equivalent to the n command, whereas a value of 1 emulates the s command.

The $DB::trace variable should be set to 1 to simulate the t command.

To enter Perl debugger without supplying a program and use execution "on the fly"

To enter the debugger without supplying a program, supply the -e option with the -d option:

perl -de 1
This line starts the debugger with a "program" consisting of the single statement
1;
(which is just a dummy statement). Starting the debugger this way enables you to try small tests interactively and examine the system variables resulting from their execution. Very useful for debugging regular expressions.

Any debugger command output can be piped via external program using pipe symbol like in shell.

Write down watches for the program in a special file that you can preload staring the debugger or load any time with the source statement. You can also define an aliases for useful but long command (especially p commands) in the same file so that the next session you do not need to retype them.

If the output of a debugger built-in command scrolls past your screen, just precede the command with a leading pipe symbol so it's run through your pager. For example:

 |h

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Debugging Tips

The goal is pretty simple: you want your code to work. The current state of affairs is also pretty simple: it ain't working. This note is all about how to get from where you are to where you want to be. In PHENIX, we have all sorts of code. There are interpreted scripts in shell, perl and ROOT macros. There are programs compiled from C, C++ and Fortran source code. There are standalone programs. There are shared libraries. And there are dynamically loaded shared libraries. It's quite a zoo and figuring out what you should do to diagnose the source of a problem when something isn't working properly can be a bit daunting.

I recently gave a presentation about debugging in PHENIX.

Before I start describing specific techniques for debugging code, here is some more general advice.

The long-time favored refuge of those who don't know how to use better techniques. I hope this note will help you learn a few of these better techniques and make the practice of embedding print statements in your code a thing of the past. Is there a place for the print statement in the armamentarium of the serious debugger? Well, yes, but those places are few and far between. Depending on the environment in which you're working, a print statement may be the most sophisticated option at your disposal for debugging distributed programs like those built on top of MPI (message passing interface). It might be your only option if you're debugging code running on stripped down embedded processors.

You're not debugging code under those conditions. Stop using print statements to debug your code.

Script tracing

What's a script? Roughly speaking, it's a piece of code that gets fed to an interpreter whenever you want to use it. It's not quite that simple in real life, but that'll do for now. We have lots of scripting languages. Shell scripts, perl scripts, and ROOT macros are all scripts. There are a few good techniques for debugging scripts. One of the easiest is tracing.

Tracing means telling the interpreter that's handling the script to print out each line of the script before it executes it. The output of the script also gets printed, so you end up with a log of source lines intertwined with script output. It's a bit like embedding a print statement before each and every line of your script. It can result in a lot of undigested information, and sometimes that's enough to track down the reason your script isn't working the way you thought it was supposed to. Tracing, like embedding pring statements, has the downside that it's not very flexible; you're just a passive observer as your script runs and spews its output to the screen. You can't control your program. You can't change the values of any variables. You can' do much of anything excpet watch. But sometimes that's enough.

Tracing shell scripts

Shell scripts are very useful. They must be useful since they come in such a variety of flavors. Among the choices you have are sh, csh, tcsh, ksh, zsh and ash scripts. They're all similar, yet quirkily different. Most of the scripts you'll encounter (or write) will be sh or tcsh scripts. You can turn on tracing for these type of scripts (and for some of the others also) by adding the command option "-xv" to the command line of the appropriate interpreter. For instance, suppose you have a tcsh script called dpm.csh that contains the following lines:
foreach n (5 2 1 0)
 @ i = 10 / $n   
 echo $i
end

If you run this straight away, you should see this:

% tcsh dpm.csh
2
5
10
Division by 0.

OK, there's a bug in the code (but then you knew that). Let's turn on tracing and see if it helps us narrow things down. Do it like this:

% tcsh -xv dpm.csh
foreach n ( 5 2 1 0 )
@ i = 10 / 5
echo 2
2
end
@ i = 10 / 2
echo 5
5
end
@ i = 10 / 1
echo 10
10
end
@ i = 10 / 0
Division by 0.

At least you can see what the script was planning on doing before it actually did it. You can see the line where the division by zero is being performed, followed by the line which prints an error message to the screen. This is such a simple example that the tracing doesn't really add much, but you should know how to do it. It can help for much more complicated scripts.

Tracing perl scripts

There are similar techniques available for tracing a perl script. Suppose you had a similarly simple perl script called dpm.pl that contained the following lines:
foreach $n (5, 2, 1, 0)
  {
    $i = 10 / $n;
    print "$i\n";
  }

Pretty much the same thing as the shell script above. Run it and it produces pretty much the same output too.

% perl dpm.pl
2
5
10
Illegal division by zero at dpm.pl line 2. 

To trace this script, run it under the perl debugger (by adding the "-d" command line option). At the debugger prompt, type the command "t" to turn on tracing. Follow that with "r" to run the script and you'll get the tracing output you're looking for. Type "q" to quit the debugger. Like this:

% perl -d dpm.pl
Default die handler restored.

Loading DB routines from perl5db.pl version 1.07
Editor support available.

Enter h or `h h' for help, or `man perldebug' for more help.

main::(dpm.pl:1):	foreach $n (5,2,1,0) {
  DB<1> t
Trace = on
  DB<1> r
main::(dpm.pl:2):	 $i = 10 / $n;
main::(dpm.pl:3):	 print "$i\n";
2
main::(dpm.pl:1):	foreach $n (5,2,1,0) {
main::(dpm.pl:2):	 $i = 10 / $n;
main::(dpm.pl:3):	 print "$i\n";
5
main::(dpm.pl:1):	foreach $n (5,2,1,0) {
main::(dpm.pl:2):	 $i = 10 / $n;
main::(dpm.pl:3):	 print "$i\n";
10
main::(dpm.pl:1):	foreach $n (5,2,1,0) {
main::(dpm.pl:2):	 $i = 10 / $n;
Illegal division by zero at dpm.pl line 2, <IN> line 2.
Debugged program terminated.  Use q to quit or R to restart,
  use O inhibit_exit to avoid stopping after program termination,
  h q, h R or h O to get additional info.  
  DB<1> q

It may look a bit wordy, but it's very much the same thing as you could see when you traced the shell script. It helps you localize the error (it's got something to do with line 2) and that can be very useful in tracking down the cause of the problem.

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