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Neoconservatism

Neocons are attack dogs of neoliberalism and lobbyists for MIC:  "national security parasites"

"There is no instance of a nation benefitting from prolonged warfare." ~Sun Tzu

News American Imperialism, Transnational Capitalist Class and Globalization of Capitalism Recommended Links Wolfowitz Doctrine American Exceptionalism Neocon foreign policy is a disaster for the USA
New American Militarism "F*ck the EU": State Department neocons show EU its real place Anatol Leiven on American Messianism Demonization of Putin Anti Trump Hysteria Anti-Russian hysteria
The Great Democratic Party Betrayal: Pro-War Democrats as Vichy Left War is Racket Predator state Hillary "Warmonger" Clinton Obama: a yet another Neocon National Socialism and Military Keysianism
James Burnham -- renegade Trotskyite and American Machiavelli Audacious Oligarchy and "Democracy for Winners" Noble Lie Neocons Credibility Scam Inside "democracy promotion" hypocrisy fair Nation under attack meme
Robert Kagan Max Boot Bill Kristol Madeleine Albright Samantha Power Susan Rice
Media-Military-Industrial Complex National Security State / Surveillance State Senator McCain Conservatives Without Conscience  Gangster Capitalism: The United States and the Globalization of Organized Crime Merkel as Soft Cop in Neocon Offensive on Eastern Europe and Russia
Neoliberalism as a New form of Corporatism Neocolonialism as Financial Imperialism IMF as the key institution for neoliberal debt enslavement Machiavellism Mayberry Machiavellians Power abroad rests on justice and decency at home
Leo Strauss and the Neocons Amorality and criminality of neoliberal elite Corporatist Corruption: Systemic Fraud under Clinton-Bush-Obama Regime Two Party System as polyarchy Neoliberal Propaganda: Journalism In the Service of the Powerful Few  
Color revolutions Neoliberal Compradors and lumpenelite From EuroMaidan to EuroAnschluss Russian White Revolution of 2011-2012 PNAC  
The Deep State War is a Racket - Incredible Essay by General Smedley Butler Media domination strategy Bureaucracy as a Political Coalition Bureaucratic avoidance of responsibility Bureaucratic Collectivism
Fighting Russophobia Neo-fascism Anti-Americanism Torture Politically Incorrect Humor Etc

Due to the size an introduction was converted to a separate page Neoconservatism, an introduction

Years ago, whilst this reactionary putsch was still in it's infancy,
 my mom would listen to the "news" on the local CBS affiliate,
and many times I heard her gasp and say, referring to the "reporters"
jabbering, "My God, they're a bunch of dopes!"

The dopes areascendant; stupid, scared, violent-minded, and very well-paid.

Comment from Veteran NBC-MSNBC Journalist Blasts Network in Resignation

Neoconservatives, which like Bolsheviks in the past are mostly Jewish intellectuals, are frequently described as ideologues with pro-Israel and anti-Russian bent, but the truth is that they are far more interested in gaining access to money and power. Most of them are useless smacks with degree in journalism or history and they would starve if not fed by military industrial complex. Being a lobbyist of military industrial complex is the only job they can get. Add to that that most of them are personal cowards and chicken hawks and you get the picture: they are just bottom-feeders. "National security parasites" is a very apt definition for this category of people.

The ideology of Neoconservatism was explicitly formulated in Wolfowitz Doctrine which contains the key postulates of Neoconservatism in foreign policy. They can be summarized as "America has, and intends to keep, military strengths beyond challenge". That partially explains unprecedented level of military expenses of the USA since 1991 (after the dissolution of the USSR) when, effectively, the USA has not external enemies and those money can be used to improve well being of common people in the USA. But neoliberal elite engage in building global neoliberal empire rules from Washington and that empire needed the dominant military force to protect and  expand it .  From other  point of view that was an attempt of the US MIC to preserve its position acquired during the Cold War, if necessary by inventing or creating a new threats.  Neocons just happen perfectly suit the role of lobbyists of MIC interest in Washington  and thus were financially and politically supported by MIC.

Large part of neocons consist of so-called "elite-wannabes," often well-educated and highly capable, who has been denied access to elite positions and who decided to use warmongering backdoor to get there.

Proselytizing their own brand of global regime change is just a mean to sustain the access to funds and political power.  They know perfectly well which side of the bread is buttered and by whom.   We can suspect that for many of them (Max Boot is a good example here) access to money from MIC and Israel lobby is the primary driving force. Often they are viewed as Likud lobby in the USA:  "The definition of a neocon is somebody who has great difficulty distinguishing between the strategic interests of Israel, on the one hand, and the strategic interests of the United States on the other. Israel wants bedlam in Syria, and they’ve got it." ( Israel lobby in the United States - Wikipedia ):

The formal component of the Israel lobby consists of organized lobby groups, political action committees (PACs), think tanks and media watchdog groups. The Center for Responsive Politics, which tracks all lobbies and PACs, describes the ‘background’ of those ‘Pro-Israel’ as, “A nationwide network of local political action committees, generally named after the region their donors come from, supplies much of the pro-Israel money in US politics. Additional funds also come from individuals who bundle contributions to candidates favored by the PACs. The donors' unified goal is to build stronger US-Israel relations and to support Israel in its negotiations and armed conflicts with its Arab neighbors.”[24]

According to Mitchell Bard, there are, three key formal lobbying groups:

... ... ...

A summary of pro-Israel campaign donations for the period of 1990–2008 collected by Center for Responsive Politics indicates current totals and a general increase in proportional donations to the US Republican party since 1996.[46] The Center for Responsive Politics' 1990–2006 data shows that "pro-Israel interests have contributed $56.8 million in individual, group and soft money donations to federal candidates and party committees since 1990."[47] In contrast, Arab-Americans and Muslim PACs contributed slightly less than $800,000 during the same (1990–2006) period.[48] In 2006, 60% of the Democratic Party’s fundraising and 25% of that for the Republican Party's fundraising came from Jewish-funded PACs. According to a Washington Post estimate, Democratic presidential candidates depend on Jewish sources for as much as 60% of money raised from private sources.[49]

... ... ...

AIPAC does not give donations directly to candidates, but those who donate to AIPAC are often important political contributors in their own right. In addition, AIPAC helps connect donors with candidates, especially to the network of pro-Israel political action committees. AIPAC president Howard Friedman says “AIPAC meets with every candidate running for Congress. These candidates receive in-depth briefings to help them completely understand the complexities of Israel’s predicament and that of the Middle East as a whole. We even ask each candidate to author a ‘position paper’ on their views of the US-Israel relationship – so it’s clear where they stand on the subject.”[43]

.... ... ...

Mearsheimer and Walt state that “pro-Israel figures have established a commanding presence at the American Enterprise Institute, the Center for Security Policy, the Foreign Policy Research Institute, the Heritage Foundation, the Hudson Institute, the Institute for Foreign Policy Analysis, and the Jewish Institute for National Security Affairs (JINSA). These think tanks are all decidedly pro-Israel and include few, if any, critics of US support for the Jewish state.”[50]

When strategic interests of Israeli (for example remaking of the Middle East so that Israel can exercise dominant power in this region; which includes fragmentation of several existing states) deviate from the strategic interests of the USA (which mostly are interested in uninterruptable supply of cheap oil) neocons do betray the USA national interests with ease. The US-Israel relationship significantly damages the relationship between the United States and the Arab world. They also were serving as propagandists and influencers for all recent Middle East military adventures and regime change efforts.  Recently that was the case in Syria: in no way Assad government represented a threat to the USA interests. Still the pressure of "likudniks" was such that the USA engaged in the "regime change" efforts.

But in reality they should be viewed more like lobbing group of MIC then lobbing group of Israel. As well as transnational corporations interested in opening new markets. But recently facts that Israel spend large sums on money on trying to influence the USA politicians came to light and to this extent one gets impression that the tail is wagging the dog. 

They should probably be viewed as the lobbying and propaganda arm of military industrial complex. Is both Republican and Democratic Party position themselves as a "War Party" they represent an important political force on the USA political landscape.  The fact that some of staunch neocons  such  as Max Boot recently defected to Democratic Party just confirm the fact that in forign policy there is only one party in the usa -- the neocon party. 

And there is not much conservative in neocon ideology -- it is basically a revamped Trotskyism, if not neo-fascism. Just look at Nuland's fraternization with Ukrainian far right nationalists despite her Jewish roots (and despite the fact that this movement was hell-bent on killing Jewish people during WWII and served as capos in concentration camps). This was not accidental; this was a conscious political choice -- they are birds of the feather.

Ideologically they are a more militant flavor of neoliberals ("neoliberals with the gun", so to speak). They also are more openly statist, then a typical neoliberal. But their neo-Trotskyites roots are mostly demonstrated in foreign policy (they do not have a coherent domestic policy; but generally their views in this area are more aligned with the  Democratic Party than Republican Party views). 

All-in-all, we will essentially view them as lobbyists of MIC, "neoliberals with a gun".


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[Jul 22, 2019] Comey Under DOJ Investigation For Misleading Trump While Targeting Him In FBI Probe

Notable quotes:
"... Former FBI Director James Comey has been under investigation for misleading President Trump - telling him in private that he wasn't the target of an ongoing FBI probe, while refusing to admit to this in public. ..."
"... Comey was essentially "running a covert operation" against Trump - which began with a private "defensive briefing" shortly after the inauguration. RCI 's sources say that Horowitz has pored over text messages between the FBI's former top-brass and other communications suggesting that Comey was in fact conducting a "counterintelligence assessment" of the president during their January 2017 meeting in New York. ..."
"... What's more, the FBI couldn't treat Trump as a suspect - formally, as they didn't have the legal grounds to do so according to former FBI counterintelligence lawyer Mark Wauck. " They had no probable cause against Trump himself for 'collusion' or espionage ," he said, adding "They were scrambling to come up with anything to hang a hat on, but had found nothing." ..."
"... According to House Intelligence Committee Vice Chairman Devin Nunes (R-CA), Comey and the rest of the FBI's top team (including Peter Strzok and Lisa Page) were attempting to "stop" Trump's presidency for political reasons. ..."
"... "You have the culmination of the ultimate spying, where you have the FBI director spying on the president, taking notes [and] illegally leaking those notes of classified information" to the MSM, said Nunes in a recent interview. ..."
"... Comey is just the political class operative who they brought in to save Scooter Libby's butt in the Valerie Flame leak. Then he got a seven figure job as a reward at a hedge fund (with no prior experience in the financial industry). Then, they took him off the bench to be FBI director. ..."
"... The larger problem is that the "five eyes" system is broken in favor of British surveillance and interference in our elections, and, the Patriot Act practice of "masking" is a complete violation of the fourth amendment and a fraud. From a fourth amendment analysis, it's like letting the police search everyone's house every day as long as they don't look at the name on the address. ..."
"... This investigation would explain why Comey, Brennan, and other members of Barry Obama's regime are very quiet, while Congressional Democrats are freaking out. ..."
"... Does the DOJ investigate British agents? Serious question. ..."
Jul 22, 2019 | www.zerohedge.com

Former FBI Director James Comey has been under investigation for misleading President Trump - telling him in private that he wasn't the target of an ongoing FBI probe, while refusing to admit to this in public.

According to RealClearInvestigations ' Paul Sperry, "Justice Department Inspector General Michael Horowitz will file a report in September which contains evidence that Comey was misleading the president " while conducting an active investigation against him.

Even as he repeatedly assured Trump that he was not a target, the former director was secretly trying to build a conspiracy case against the president, while at times acting as an investigative agent . - RCI

According to two US officials familiar with Horowitz's upcoming report on FBI misconduct, Comey was essentially "running a covert operation" against Trump - which began with a private "defensive briefing" shortly after the inauguration. RCI 's sources say that Horowitz has pored over text messages between the FBI's former top-brass and other communications suggesting that Comey was in fact conducting a "counterintelligence assessment" of the president during their January 2017 meeting in New York.

What's more, Comey had an FBI agent in the White House who reported the activities of Trump and his aides, according to 'other officials familiar with the matter.'

The agent, Anthony Ferrante, who specialized in cyber crime, left the White House around the same time Comey was fired and soon joined a security consulting firm, where he contracted with BuzzFeed to lead the news site's efforts to verify the Steele dossier, in connection with a defamation lawsuit. -RCI

According to the report, Horowitz and his team have examined over 1 million documents and conducted over 100 interviews - including sit-downs with Comey and other current and former FBI and DOJ employees. "The period covering Comey's activities is believed to run from early January 2017 to early May 2017, when Comey was fired and his deputy Andrew McCabe, as the acting FBI director, formally opened full counterintelligence and obstruction investigations of the president."

McCabe's deputy, Lisa Page, appeared to dissemble last year when asked in closed-door testimony before the House Judiciary Committee if Comey and other FBI brass discussed opening an obstruction case against Trump prior to his firing in May 2017. Initially, she flatly denied it , swearing: "Obstruction of justice was not a topic of conversation during the time frame you have described." But then, after conferring with her FBI-assigned lawyer, she announced: " I need to take back my prior statement ." Page later conceded that there could have been at least "discussions about potential criminal activity" involving the president . -RCI

Comey coordination

Sperry notes that Comey wasn't working in isolation on the Trump effort. In particular, Horowitz has looked at the January 6, 2017 briefing on the infamous 'Steele Dossier' - a meeting which was used by BuzzFeed, CNN and others to legitimize reporting on the dossier's salacious and unsubstantiated claims .

Comey's meeting with Trump took place one day after the FBI director met in the Oval Office with President Obama and Vice President Joe Biden to discuss how to brief Trump -- a meeting attended by National Security Adviser Susan Rice, Homeland Security Secretary Jeh Johnson, Deputy Attorney General Sally Yates and National Intelligence Director James Clapper, who would soon go to work for CNN. -RCI

While Comey claims in his book, "A Higher Loyalty" that he didn't have "a counterintelligence case file open on [Trump]," former federal prosecutor and National Review columnist Andrew McCarthy notes that just because Trump's name wasn't on a formal file or surveillance warrant doesn't mean that he wasn't under investigation.

"They were hoping to surveil him incidentally, and they were trying to make a case on him," said McCarthy. " The real reason Comey did not want to repeat publicly the assurances he made to Trump privately is that these assurances were misleading . The FBI strung Trump along, telling him he was not a suspect while structuring the investigation in accordance with the reality that Trump was the main subject ."

What's more, the FBI couldn't treat Trump as a suspect - formally, as they didn't have the legal grounds to do so according to former FBI counterintelligence lawyer Mark Wauck. " They had no probable cause against Trump himself for 'collusion' or espionage ," he said, adding "They were scrambling to come up with anything to hang a hat on, but had found nothing."

What remains unclear is why Comey would take such extraordinary steps against a sitting president . The Mueller report concluded there was no basis for the Trump-Russia collusion conspiracy theories. Comey himself was an early skeptic of the Steele dossier -- the opposition research memos paid for by Hillary Clinton's campaign that were the road map of collusion theories -- which he dismissed as "salacious and unverified." -RCI

According to House Intelligence Committee Vice Chairman Devin Nunes (R-CA), Comey and the rest of the FBI's top team (including Peter Strzok and Lisa Page) were attempting to "stop" Trump's presidency for political reasons.

"You have the culmination of the ultimate spying, where you have the FBI director spying on the president, taking notes [and] illegally leaking those notes of classified information" to the MSM, said Nunes in a recent interview.

Read the rest of Sperry's report here .


AI Agent , 4 minutes ago link

They will whitewash Comey. The deep state is alive and well, the DoJ and the FBI are as corrupt as they were the day before Trump took office.

Why do I say this? Well, the canary hasn't fallen off her perch yet. Hillary Clinton is still singing her song, and even making noises like she's going to run again, and she's not in prison. They have her solid on over a hundred felony counts of mishandling classified documents and they've not touched her. Proof of life that the Deep State is still in power.

MoreFreedom , 8 minutes ago link

So, was the Steele dossier the ex post facto excuse for illegally spying on Trump, or was it the ex post facto diversion for ALL of Obama's spying on politically powerful people, which we know included spying on the Senate Intelligence Committee, spying on reporters, and spying on Trump. I'll bet Obama hopes the investigation doesn't get into all of his spying activities, and I wouldn't be surprised government officials in charge of the spying equipment are keeping it covered up because they don't want to lose their jobs (for either allowing such to happen, or because they fear the spying apparatus will be eliminated).

Did Obama also spy on SCOTUS justices, Congressmen, other Senators and other rich and powerful people? I'll bet he did, because we haven't seen all the unmasking documentation, and Obama took it to his library so no one can see it (at least so he thinks). Further, look at the way Brennan, Clapper, Comey and Rice are disparaging Trump (they protest too much). And look at how all the allegations about Trump are blowing right back into the faces of the Democrats who've shown their MO is to accuse their political opponents, of the illegal activity in which the Democrats are engaged.

They need to go to jail, for a long time, if not be executed for treason.

SgtShaftoe , 4 minutes ago link

Did Obama spy on SCOTUS justices, et al? - Yes. Look up project HAMR or "Hammer". MI5/6 was spying on all Americans comms to circumvent legal frameworks (5 eyes). Google is now fully Chinese intelligence - TREASON. It's coming and it's gonna blow most people's minds.

dcmbuffy , 10 minutes ago link

Just the minute the FBI begins making recommendations on what should be done with its information, it becomes a Gestapo.

J. Edgar Hoover

i at least agree with him on this one thought.

peippe , 9 minutes ago link

you realize J.Edgar probably said the above with a smile on his face.

Playtime's Over , 8 minutes ago link

been going on for longer than Obongo, but he put an inner cooled turbo on it.

radar99 , 13 minutes ago link

it all started with Obama. Time to investigate him and hang him for treason

SgtShaftoe , 8 minutes ago link

It started a very long time ago. 1913 was a notable date, so was JFK's assassination. So was 9/11. So was Operation Paperclip. These monsters have been slithering around a while. Now it's time for them to go bye-bye. Dark to Light. Execute.

Indelible Scars , 13 minutes ago link

B-B-But Nadler said...

JaxPavan , 14 minutes ago link

This goes back to Obama asking MI6 to surveil Trump and his campaign, and to continue it past the inauguration.

JaxPavan , 13 minutes ago link

correction: GCHQ

JaxPavan , 6 minutes ago link

Comey is just the political class operative who they brought in to save Scooter Libby's butt in the Valerie Flame leak. Then he got a seven figure job as a reward at a hedge fund (with no prior experience in the financial industry). Then, they took him off the bench to be FBI director.

The larger problem is that the "five eyes" system is broken in favor of British surveillance and interference in our elections, and, the Patriot Act practice of "masking" is a complete violation of the fourth amendment and a fraud. From a fourth amendment analysis, it's like letting the police search everyone's house every day as long as they don't look at the name on the address.

That our broken secrecy system effectively legalized Watergate under Obama and the "five eyes" is the real problem that needs fixing.

Stainless Steel Rat , 1 hour ago link

Three Things We Know For Sure

1. Trump did not collude with Russia

2. Mueller was sent on a witch hunt

3. Somebody's going under the bus

If not Comey, then who?

StiffLittleFinger , 39 minutes ago link

“I executed the session exactly as planned,”* Comey reported back to his “sensitive matter team.”

*in the meeting with Obama the day before

Equinox7 , 45 minutes ago link

This investigation would explain why Comey, Brennan, and other members of Barry Obama's regime are very quiet, while Congressional Democrats are freaking out. The end of the Deep State is starting.

valerie24 , 21 minutes ago link

Let’s hope so. The clock is ticking and this needs to happen by early 2020 or it won’t happen at all.

carbonmutant , 1 hour ago link

Are Comey's phones being bugged?

punchasocialist , 43 minutes ago link

Does the DOJ investigate British agents? Serious question.

[Jul 22, 2019] Report on evidence of felonies violating Civil Rights, and bribery by foreign agents, implicating United States Special Counsel Robert S Mueller III as a criminally-tainted agent of foreign racketeering interests

Notable quotes:
"... File talks about Mueller indulging big crimes as FBI director, helping Mueller's own eventual law firm to defraud millions out of a Hillary donor, with bribery of two USA federal judges, & threats to kill an ex-DOJ employee, with Mueller getting a big payday after he indulged it all as FBI chief, Mueller getting funds channeled from a criminal outfit based in the UK. ..."
Jul 22, 2019 | www.theamericanconservative.com

Brabantian says: May 6, 2019 at 2:39 am

Another item here, is the file which the US Department of Justice Inspector General Michael Horowitz acknowledged receiving a few months back, a file detailing alleged criminal acts of Robert Mueller himself.

The file was referenced in President Trump's tweets, a photo meme of Mueller in jail, and the President saying, "Heroes will come of this, and it won't be Mueller"

File talks about Mueller indulging big crimes as FBI director, helping Mueller's own eventual law firm to defraud millions out of a Hillary donor, with bribery of two USA federal judges, & threats to kill an ex-DOJ employee, with Mueller getting a big payday after he indulged it all as FBI chief, Mueller getting funds channeled from a criminal outfit based in the UK.

'Report on evidence of felonies violating Civil Rights, and bribery by foreign agents, implicating United States Special Counsel Robert S Mueller III as a criminally-tainted agent of foreign & racketeering interests'

https://www.docdroid.net/eVAAjIq/doj-ig-memo-mueller-bribery-extortion.pdf

[Jul 22, 2019] Wehret den Anf ngen

Jul 22, 2019 | jessescrossroadscafe.blogspot.com

"To reduce a complex argument to its bare bones, since the Depression, the twin forces of managed democracy and Superpower have opened the way for something new under the sun: 'inverted totalitarianism,' a form every bit as totalistic as the classical version but one based on internalized co-optation, the appearance of freedom, political disengagement rather than mass mobilization, and relying more on "private media" than on public agencies to disseminate propaganda that reinforces the official version of events.

It is inverted because it does not require the use of coercion, police power and a messianic ideology as in the Nazi, Fascist and Stalinist versions (although note that the United States has the highest percentage of its citizens in prison -- 751 per 100,000 people -- of any nation on Earth). According to Wolin, inverted totalitarianism has 'emerged imperceptibly, unpremeditatedly, and in seeming unbroken continuity with the nation's political traditions.'

The main objectives of managed democracy are to increase the profits of large corporations, dismantle the institutions of social democracy (Social Security, unions, welfare, public health services, public housing and so forth), and roll back the social and political ideals of the New Deal. Its primary tool is privatization [and deregulation].

Chalmers Johnson, Inverted Totalitarianism: A New Way of Understanding How the U.S. Is Controlled

"Thus the elements are in place: a weak legislative body, a legal system that is both compliant and repressive, a party system in which one (I would in 2019 now say either) party, whether in opposition or in the majority, is bent upon reconstituting the existing system so as to permanently favor a ruling class of the wealthy, the well-connected and the corporate, while leaving the poorer citizens with a sense of helplessness and political despair, and, at the same time, keeping the middle classes dangling between fear of unemployment and expectations of fantastic rewards once the new economy recovers.

That scheme is abetted by a sycophantic and increasingly concentrated media; by the integration of universities with their corporate benefactors; by a propaganda machine institutionalized in well-funded think tanks and conservative foundations; by the increasingly closer cooperation between local police and national law enforcement agencies aimed at identifying terrorists, suspicious aliens and domestic dissidents."

Sheldon Wolin, Inverted Totalitarianism

"The truth is that we were so spiritually and morally bankrupt that we could not even see some of those lines: we stepped over them blindly. Other times we saw the lines alright, but we wanted to cross them... It wasn't God who was dead. We were."

Ray A., Practice These Principles

"Oh where is the noble face of modesty, or the strength of virtue, now that blasphemy is in power and men have put justice behind them, and there is no law but lawlessness, and none act with fear of the gods?"

Euripides, Iphigenia in Aulis

"Religion used to be the opium of the people. To those suffering humiliation, pain, illness, and serfdom, religion promised the reward of an after life.
But now we are witnessing a transformation: a true opium of the people is the belief in nothingness after death, the huge solace, the huge comfort of thinking that for our betrayals, our greed, our cowardice, our murders, that we are not going to be judged."

Czeslaw Milosz, The Discreet Charm of Nihilism

[Jul 22, 2019] Zionists in the Bush Administration

Jul 22, 2019 | newobserveronline.com

Zionists in the Bush Administration

The IASPS conference study group leader was a Zionist named Richard Perle, who attended as a delegate from the American Enterprise Institute; while another Jewish neocon named Douglas Feith attended as a representative of Feith and Zell Associates.

Both these individuals then emerged as key players in the Bush administration: Perle was Chairman of George Bush's Defense Policy Board Advisory Committee, and Feith became Under Secretary of Defense and the Pentagon's Policy Advisor.

They were joined by a long list of similarly Israel-first Zionists in the Bush administration:

The scene was now set: all they needed was an excuse to maneuver America into destroying Iraq for the benefit of Israel, according to the plan which Perle and Feith had already helped to map out.

[Jul 22, 2019] All Hail Europe's Permanent Ruling Class

Notable quotes:
"... That said, Germany's military readiness directly relates to the invasion threat from Russia Europe actually faces. I.e., ZERO. Washington should take note but of course it won't because there is no money in it for the American Merchants of Death. And the Generals inside the Pentagon just have too much fun fear-mongering about illusory existential enemies. ..."
"... As Politico recently reported, "an investigative committee of the German parliament -- the toughest instrument that lawmakers can use to probe government misdeeds -- is digging into how lucrative contracts from her ministry were awarded to outside consultants without proper oversight ..."
"... Yet another U.S. mirror image. Because that is exactly how inside baseball works in the Pentagon acquisition system. von der Leyen as a European Hack is no worse than the Washington / Pentagon Hacks on the other side of the Atlantic. Note, MIC lifer and Raytheon parasite Mark Esper currently sitting in the Big Seat in the Pentagon. You can be sure that DoD reform is way down on his bucket list. ..."
Jul 22, 2019 | www.theamericanconservative.com

Meet Ursula von der Leyen, the new president-elect of the European Commission, the executive branch of the European Union.

Like all those soon to occupy positions of power in the EU, von der Leyen did not run in the recent European elections for the position she is about to hold. She did not participate in the debates in front of various national electorates. But she was chosen -- after the elections -- by the political class in Brussels, ostensibly for her faith in and loyalty to the European superstate, and personally to the German chancellor Angela Merkel.

Since 2013, von der Leyen has been the German defense minister. During that time, a parliamentary report exposed German planes that can't fly and guns that don't shoot. Fewer than a fifth of Germany's helicopters are combat ready. Luftwaffe revealed that most of its 128 Typhoon jets were not ready to leave ground. All of Germany's six submarines were out of commission.

Another report by the Rand Corporation , a think tank, revealed that it would take Germany a month to mobilize in the case of a Russian invasion of the Baltic States. Von der Leyen is very unpopular in the German army , but very popular with the Eurocrats. She's a fervent supporter of a European army and a "United States of Europe" -- the ultimate qualification for being president of the European Commission.

But there is more to the von der Leyen story. As Politico recently reported , "an investigative committee of the German parliament -- the toughest instrument that lawmakers can use to probe government misdeeds -- is digging into how lucrative contracts from her ministry were awarded to outside consultants without proper oversight, and whether a network of informal personal connections facilitated those deals."

The scent of corruption is a common element among those who are to hold key positions in the European Union over the next few years. Josep Borrell, minister of foreign affairs for the socialist government of Spain, was fined 30,000 euros for insider trading. He is expected to hold the foreign policy post in the European Commission.

Christine Lagarde, most recently chief of the IMF, was involved in the case of an arbitration panel that awarded a massive payout to a French tycoon while she was the finance minister of France. A special court for ministerial misconduct found her guilty of "negligence" but "waived any punishment or criminal record, citing her 'international reputation' and role in dealing with 'the international financial crisis.'" A marvelously L'état, C'est Moi form of legal reasoning. Lagarde is expected to be the next president of the European Central Bank.

The common threads of corruption, incompetence, and lack of accountability are what unites a political class that has divorced itself from the concerns of the average European. In the last days before her confirmation, von der Leyen pursued a charm offensive that included a commitment to a "Green New Deal," a continuation of an open borders policy , and a further deepening and enlargement of the European superstate. This included the story of her having offered hospitality to a Syrian immigrant who "now speaks German fluently."

Emmanuel Macron: Trade Wars for Me, But Not for Thee Voters in Europe Just Smashed the Mainstream Establishment

Obviously von der Leyen would never have won the May elections running on an agenda like that. But of course, she never had to run a campaign to win the votes of the peoples of Europe. The campaign that she did run was premised on her having built "an extensive international network in politics and business," as another Politico story put it .

Von der Leyen thrived in the networking atmosphere of World Economic Forum meetings, where she "serves on the organization's board of trustees," Politico noted, adding, "She's also forged close ties to powerful figures outside the world of politics, most notably Bertelsmann, Europe's largest media company, which owns RTL, the Continent's largest commercial broadcaster, book publisher Random House and a stable of magazines."

A senior Green quoted for the article said her fluency in French has helped her establish a rapport with the French political class that is unrivaled in Berlin.

It's clear that von der Leyen's domestic record appears to have had little effect on her election -- what matters is that she is universally liked by the who's who. "What matters most in these circles is the personal connection," said an adviser to the leader of one of the EU's smaller member states.

Those who count and those who are to be ruled are not the same group of people. That seems to be the essence of modern European politics: a political class and ideological cult that masquerades as a competent technocratic elite, despite its long and disastrous history. Von der Leyen's terrible record as defense minister meant nothing. Neither did Lagarde's record as head of the IMF, where, for instance, the Greek debt crisis was transformed into a social catastrophe. The deciding factor was their dedication to something that "those who count" are committed to. Elections are merely a necessary, archaic ritual of legitimization.

Napoleon Linarthatos is a writer based in New York.


Parrhesia 10 hours ago

On Monday 22 July 1940, a major meeting was held at the Reich Economic Ministry in Berlin, under the chairmanship of Minister Walther Funk, to discuss a directive issued by Hermann Göring on 22 June, concerning the organization of a Greater European Economic Area under German leadership. The Germans were well advanced with their plans for a post-war settlement. One of the difficulties of planning lay in the fact that the Führer's aims and decisions were not yet known and the military measures against Britain were not yet concluded.

Plus ça change........

Lars 10 hours ago
What? A techno-managerial clique ruling the rest of us Great Unwashed (see "Deplorables")? It couldn't happen here, could it? It's OK if they went to the right schools, isn't it?
genocidal_maniac 10 hours ago
Too much use if the word disastrous. Disastrous is what Wilhelm II did to the German empire. This is not disastrous, but it is concerning like a rudderless ship.
Salt Lick 7 hours ago
Today's Holy Roman Empire.

Voltaire's comment back then still rings true."It was neither Holy, Roman nor an Empire."

Sid Finster 7 hours ago
Don't be asinine. Russia is not going to invade anything and has no claim on any part of western Europe. The only thing the German military is good for is for sucking up additional budgetary funds.
SteveM 6 hours ago
Another report by the Rand Corporation, a think tank, revealed that it would take Germany a month to mobilize in the case of a Russian invasion of the Baltic States.

For the sake of completeness, the Rand Corporation is actually a marketing arm of the Pentagon fully funded by the U.S. government.

That said, Germany's military readiness directly relates to the invasion threat from Russia Europe actually faces. I.e., ZERO. Washington should take note but of course it won't because there is no money in it for the American Merchants of Death. And the Generals inside the Pentagon just have too much fun fear-mongering about illusory existential enemies.

Of course that does not dismiss the charges of cronyism and corruption associated with Ursula von der Leyen. But re:

But there is more to the von der Leyen story. As Politico recently reported, "an investigative committee of the German parliament -- the toughest instrument that lawmakers can use to probe government misdeeds -- is digging into how lucrative contracts from her ministry were awarded to outside consultants without proper oversight , and whether a network of informal personal connections facilitated those deals."

Yet another U.S. mirror image. Because that is exactly how inside baseball works in the Pentagon acquisition system. von der Leyen as a European Hack is no worse than the Washington / Pentagon Hacks on the other side of the Atlantic. Note, MIC lifer and Raytheon parasite Mark Esper currently sitting in the Big Seat in the Pentagon. You can be sure that DoD reform is way down on his bucket list.

The real story is that taxpayers on both NATO poles are played for chumps by the Power Elites.

[Jul 22, 2019] Holo-deniers are bonkers. There is not much to discuss here. They're like flat-earthers, just more amusing.

Jul 22, 2019 | www.unz.com

Bardon Kaldian , says: July 16, 2019 at 7:07 pm GMT

Holo-deniers are bonkers. There is not much to discuss here. They're like flat-earthers, just more amusing.

However, there are some things I see rarely mentioned

They, holo-deniers, are mostly from North America & Western Europe. They see all this warfare at the Eastern front as something exotic, strange, alien & incomprehensible. It seems they are incapable of comprehending reality of that part of war (which was the most savage war after Mongol invasions). Instead, they juggle with some half-truths & fictions, long since debunked as Soviet & American propaganda, for their own purposes. Yet- no serious man (or historian) thinks that extermination of European Jewry was a myth, a story invented for sinister Jewish purposes. For instance, I don't see a serious effort to debate numbers of Ukrainians, Russians, Poles, . who perished in that war (nor Germans or Japanese, for that matter). Simple demography refutes holo-deniers.
You won't find normal people in Central & Eastern who deny that Jews, their neighbors, had been exterminated, one way or another. Figures of victims vary, but not that much – perhaps 20%, not more. Then, it is extremely difficult to ascertain how many people, by nationality, perished in those vast swaths of earth from Poland to the Urals. Further east, when we come to Cambodia & China- it is next to impossible.

For Jews, a few things are evident: the shoah & Auschwitz are their central anti-corrosives in the modern world. Old faith has, except in pockets, all but vanished & most ethnic Jews in Western world don't believe in that set of tales. So, they're assimilating & the Auschwitz – as the state of mind – presents an emotional rallying point; a huge asset indeed. Just- it seems even that doesn't work in keeping them together: https://www.haaretz.com/israel-news/israel-s-education-minister-says-intermarriage-is-like-a-second-holocaust-1.7486330

Last year, Agriculture Minister Uri Ariel, member of the National Union – one of the member parties to the Union of Right-Wing Parties, sent a letter to employees at his ministry discussing the "assimilation Holocaust." According to Ariel, "During the Holocaust, we've lost about six million Jews. Without at all comparing the two, we're losing a part of our people to assimilation."

Fellow National Union member Eli Ben Dahan said in 2014, while he was deputy minister for religious affairs, that intermarriage are "a silent Holocaust. We must remember that the Jewish people, unfortunately, has gone through a Holocaust. It has been diminishing over the past century In Europe we have as much as 80 percent intermarriages; in the United States it's 66 percent. It's horrible."

.... ... ...

[Jul 22, 2019] Utilizing accusations of faux guilt as both a shaming weapon towards other(s), and, more importantly for the accusers, a negative means of social control (via fear and terrorization) of one's own people, has happened before, as in the case of the United States and it's Civil War, fought 1861-1865.

Jul 22, 2019 | www.unz.com

S , says: July 16, 2019 at 3:33 pm GMT

..no one complains more often or at greater volume than American Jewish groups intent on preserving the benefits that are derived from always being able to claim their perpetual victimhood.

Utilizing accusations of faux guilt as both a shaming weapon towards other(s), and, more importantly for the accusers, a negative means of social control (via fear and terrorization) of one's own people, has happened before, as in the case of the United States and it's Civil War, fought 1861-1865.

And, too, when a cause is morally dubious, it is sometimes necessary to augment it with something anything.

The below excerpt was published in The Atlantic Monthly (now known simply as The Atlantic ) in October, 1870, in an article entitled 'Our Israelitish Brethren'. In more modern English the title would translate as 'Our Jewish Brothers'. 'Brethren', or brothers, is an apparent reference to the unfortunate belief by some Anglo-Saxons that they were of the 'Lost Tribes of Israel'.

The reference in the emboldened portion to 'huge Andersonville outrages' is to the South's Andersonville POW camp for captured Union soldiers. The accusations regarding planned systematic mass murder at Andersonville, surrounded with much talk about 'cattle cars', the manufacture of leather wallets from the human skin of 'murdered' Union prisoners, 'poisonous injections' disguised as health measures, the wanton shooting down of prisoners by the commanding officer, the setting upon prisoners of large and ferocious dogs for sport, all constituting 'crimes against humanity', for which the declared intention had been to execute, via hanging, the entirety of the upper echelons of the defeated South's political and military leadership.

Those plans ultimately fell through, and the accusations regarding Andersonville are now generally, albeit quietly, acknowledged not to have been true.

All too late, though, for the solitary and hapless Henry Wirz, the commanding officer at Andersonville, who would be hanged in 1865 as a scape goat for Union pique regarding it's huge war time losses in what was ultimately a largely morally dubious economic war, a war not in any way, shape, or form, in the interest of the vast majority of the public 'North' or 'South', ie the North's far more profitable wage slavery (so called 'cheap labor'/'mass immigration'), vs the South's far less profitable chattel slavery.

The hanging was 'botched', and as Wirz slowly strangled to death, the last words he would hear on this earth uttered by the mouths of hundreds of watching Union spectators, were the chants of 'Andersonville!', 'Andersonville!!', 'Andersonville!!!'

'Of the giant wrongs to which they [the Jewish people] have been subjected for the last ten centuries, -- the huge Andersonville outrages, -- few readers need to be reminded.'

The Atlantic Monthly (October, 1870) – Our Israelitish Brethren

Who can estimate the reparation which Christendom owes this interesting and unoffending people? How abundant, how untiring, should be our charity in judging the faults of character which our own superstition has created or developed!

Of the giant wrongs to which they [the Jewish people] have been subjected for the last ten centuries, -- the huge Andersonville outrages, -- few readers need to be reminded. In the slaughter of the Jews of Seville, in 1391, thirty-five hundred families were murdered. In 1492, under Ferdinand and Isabella, three hundred thousand heroic Israelites preferred exile to apostasy.

Many of them found a resting-place only in the grave or in the depths of the sea; for neither Portugal nor Italy nor Mohammedan Morocco would tolerate the presence of a people who would not comply with their superstitions, and who, by their frugality, continence, temperance, and industry, absorbed the wealth of every country in which they lived.

https://www.theatlantic.com/magazine/archive/1870/10/our-israelitish-brethren/306257/

[Jul 22, 2019] Teaching Holocaust by Philip Giraldi

Jul 22, 2019 | www.unz.com

A friend of mine recently commented that if the current trend to reduce the study of history in schools to easily digestible politically correct soundbites that are being successfully pushed by social justice warriors continues, we will soon be limited to discussing how horrible slavery was, the Stonewall Inn riots and the so-called holocaust. Indeed, it seems that those who complain the loudest are the only ones listened to and no one complains more often or at greater volume than American Jewish groups intent on preserving the benefits that are derived from always being able to claim their perpetual victimhood.

Recent media accounts from Florida detail how low pandering to Israeli and Jewish interests can go. A high school principal identified as Dr. Willian Latson was removed from his position after he revealed to a parent that he considered the holocaust to be a belief and not a demonstrated fact. According to statement made by the school district, the action was taken "out of an abundance of concern" for students and staff after Latson had "made a grave error in judgment." It added that "In addition to being offensive, the principal's statement is not supported by either the School District Administration or the School Board."

The story took place in the School District of Palm Beach County. Latson, now the ex-principal of Spanish River High School in West Palm Beach, presided over his school in a heavily Jewish district that includes Boca Raton. Latson is currently being considered for reassignment by the school district though there are have also been recurring calls from county and state legislators to fire him, which will undoubtedly occur.

The tale is somewhat convoluted and there are some disagreements about what actually took place, but it goes basically like this: roughly one year ago a high school parent, unidentified but presumably Jewish, emailed Latson asking him to confirm that holocaust education was a top priority in Spanish River H.S. He responded by email that the school has a "variety of activities" for holocaust education but "Not everyone believes the Holocaust happened. And you have your thoughts, but we are a public school and not all of our parents have the same beliefs." He added that an educator has "the role to be politically neutral but support all groups in the school I can't say the Holocaust is a factual, historical event because I am not in a position to do so as a school district employee."

After the emails were revealed to school officials, presumably by the parent, a year-long investigation commenced in which Latson apologized for having caused offense, saying his emails "did not accurately reflect my professional and personal commitment to educating all students about the atrocities of the Holocaust." The school board initially ruled that he had not done anything meriting disciplinary action or a reprimand, but the story did not end there. Simultaneously, an online petition which eventually included 6,000 signatures was initiated demanding Latson's replacement and he was subsequently removed from his position. The school board officials justified their change of course by citing his apparent unwillingness to comply with instructions, stating that they previously had ordered him to "expand the Holocaust curriculum at Spanish River and ordered him to spend 'several days at the United States Holocaust Museum to increase his personal knowledge.'"

Latson responded that his emails and comments were not "accurately relayed" to the media: "I have been reassigned to the district office due to a statement that was not accurately relayed to the newspaper by one of our parents. It is unfortunate that someone can make a false statement and do so anonymously and it holds credibility but that is the world we live in."

His statement implicitly blaming a school parent generated new problems for Latson with two Palm Beach County state lawmakers and the Anti-Defamation League (ADL) calling for his firing because he had not groveled sufficiently. ADL stated that "ADL had hoped his apology was sincere and Latson could learn from his mistakes. Given that he cannot take responsibility for his actions, Latson should resign, and if not we believe the district should end his employment."

The two state officials, Senator Kevin Rader and Representative Tina Polsky issued a statement saying "By his latest email, Dr. Latson has shown no remorse for his actions and we call on the district to immediately terminate him."

The publication of Latson's comments also unleashed heavy criticism from a broad range of other Florida public officials. Governor Ron DeSantis, who calls himself the most pro-Israel governor in American, joined in with "Look, to act like the Holocaust is a matter of debate, I mean, is just absurd."

Senator Rick Scott called Latson's comments anti-Semitism and tweeted that the "fact that someone charged with educating children would be unable to speak unequivocally on the realities & horrors of the holocaust is incredibly concerning." Jewish State Representative Randy Fine, who recently introduced legislation officially banning "anti-Semitism" in Florida public schools, said "the law does not allow a Holocaust-denier to serve as a public school principal." In a publish statement he expanded on that point, writing that "anti-Semitism by public employees in our K-20 public education system must be treated the same as racism."

The controversy inadvertently revealed the extent to which state law now requires the holocaust to be taught in all Florida public schools. Ironically, Spanish River High has one of the country's most rigorous holocaust education programs with the subject being taught both in ninth- and 10th-grade English classes as well as a component of both U.S. and world history. There is also an elective course as well regular holocaust assemblies for the entire school featuring keynote speakers. After the Latson controversy started, the school district required all 10th graders to read "Night" by Elie Wiesel. There are now plans to add multiple annual assemblies for students in every grade in the school district this year.

So, if you go to school in Florida your English and history courses will be about the holocaust and you will have to attend holocaust assemblies just in case some alleged atrocity has not been described extensively enough in class. Well, when does it end? When does the almost incessant pandering to Zionists and Jewish groups become too much for the deliberately kept-in-ignorance American public to tolerate?

The so-called holocaust was an historical event that took place in Europe seventy-five years ago. It has an established but very debatable narrative that pretty much has been contrived over the past fifty years for political reasons, see Professor Norman Finkelstein's brilliant deconstruction of it in his book "The Holocaust Industry: Reflections on the Exploitation of Jewish Suffering." Those inconsistencies in the holocaust story and its general lack of credibility may have been what Latson was referring to.

The imposed holocaust narrative is full of holes and contradictions in terms of who was killed and how, but it is impossible for genuine academics to critique it if they want to stay employed. Books like Wiesel's "Night" are largely works of fiction. The narrative exists to perpetuate the belief in Jewish suffering, which brings with it a number of practical advantages. First, it is regularly deployed to excuse the horrific treatment of the Palestinian people by Israel – Jewish suffering means that the creation of a homeland is a debt that all the world owes to the Jews without regard to what has been done to the area's other inhabitants. Second, guilt over the alleged holocaust means that reparations from countries involved must be continued indefinitely. Currently the Poles are resisting new Jewish claims while the Germans have been paying for years. It is now being asserted that the descendants of so-called holocaust survivors have been genetically psychologically damaged , in the womb as it were, so reparations will presumably continue forever.

Third, holocaust guilt is used in the United States to counter any criticism of what Israel and Jewish groups are up to, as they use their wealth and access to power to corrupt America's institutions and drive the country to needless wars. One might well ask, when confronted by the taxpayer funded holocaust museums that appear to spring up like mushrooms, why so much interest in a possible crime that has nothing to do with the United States? Where are the museums and courses in Florida schools discussing the mass killing that happened on our own shores, the genocide of the native Americans?

Lest we forget, the holocaust industry operates everywhere in America, particularly in the education system. Eight states already have laws mandating holocaust education (California, New York, New Jersey, Rhode Island, Florida, Illinois, Indiana and Michigan) and there is considerable pressure to make it universal in the United States. An alarmed World Jewish Congress (WJC) is urging required holocaust education for everyone everywhere "citing statistics from a 2018 poll revealing half of millennials can't name a single Nazi concentration camp."

A currently circulating WJC petition in Congress expresses concern over the rise in anti-Semitism, with a warning that "the horrors of the Holocaust are fading from our collective memory " A bill to brainwash students so they will not forget, 'The Never Again Education Act ', is currently making the rounds in the House of Representatives. It would make holocaust study mandatory in public schools and set up a Department of Education program that would train teachers to properly instruct students about the story of Jewish suffering.

Yes, the "Never Again Education Act" will soon be sucking up taxpayer money like an enormous vacuum cleaner and creating lots of new jobs for holocaust instructors, who will, of course, all be Jewish. Public schools will be teaching the next generation about what a great place Israel is and how the holocaust justifies vigilant groups like AIPAC and ADL, though it will not mention how they have corrupted the U.S. government and turned America's foreign policy into an Israeli wag-the-dog. But who's complaining? It's good for the Jews, isn't it?

So Dr. William Latson will be unemployed and possibly unemployable because he spoke the truth, a lesson to all of us that one must never cross the red lines established by the wielders of Jewish power in America. One might reasonably currently expect that serial pedophile Jeffrey Epstein will use the holocaust get-out-of-jail-free card in his defense, claiming that his recollection of the event has so traumatized him that he did bad things that he would not have otherwise considered. Poor Jeffrey. He has suffered so much.

Philip M. Giraldi, Ph.D., is Executive Director of the Council for the National Interest, a 501(c)3 tax deductible educational foundation (Federal ID Number #52-1739023) that seeks a more interests-based U.S. foreign policy in the Middle East. Website is councilforthenationalinterest.org, address is P.O. Box 2157, Purcellville VA 20134 and its email is inform@cnionline.org


Anonymous [427] Disclaimer , says: July 16, 2019 at 4:23 am GMT

A middle school teacher in our area, while teaching about the suffering of the Jews in America, told the class that in the south, where she was from, people use derogatory terms like "jewing" somebody down to describe driving a hard bargain. Next thing we knew, she was leaving the district at the end the year to return to Alabama to care for her aging parents, even though her husband had an excellent job with a local tech firm. A few parents suspected she had been asked to leave just from that one innocent comment and would never be able to get a job anywhere in Western WA.

E.A. Ross said in his book The Old World in The New that the Hebrews are consumed by over sensitivity, unscrupulousness and pleasure seeking . Couldn't have found three more accurate terms to describe this tribe, though one might also add narcissism and shamelessness . Ross said this way back in 1914. Things have only gotten worse since, much, much worse now that they are the ruling class.

renfro , says: July 16, 2019 at 4:28 am GMT

no one complains more often or at greater volume than American Jewish groups intent on preserving the benefits that are derived from always being able to claim their perpetual victimhood

lol no one but a Jew can find victimhood in absolutely everything.

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Let's dispense with the fiction that everything Trump does is good for Israel. He cares for Israel only so far as his policies toward Israel further his political aims and benefit him, and right now that involves using Israel as a shield for his own racism."

Nicolás Palacios Navarro , says: Website July 16, 2019 at 4:31 am GMT

The so-called holocaust was an historical event that took place in Europe seventy-five years ago. It has an established but very debatable narrative that pretty much has been contrived over the past fifty years for political reasons, see Professor Norman Finkelstein's brilliant deconstruction of it in his book " The Holocaust Industry: Reflections on the Exploitation of Jewish Suffering ."

I came across Finkelstein's book purely by chance in the freebie pile of a local used bookstore about a decade ago, when in my mid 20s. It made me a skeptic of Israel, Zionism, and the Holocaust virtually overnight, not to mention drawing my attention to the fact that Jewish power is no tin hat conspiracy theory. In a just world, his book would be required reading for anybody 12 and over.

While I remain a believer that there was a mass murder of Jews perpetrated by Germans, my own belief is that the manner in which this event is commonly portrayed today to be a vast exaggeration. The "six million" figure does not really hold up under scrutiny; my personal guess is that the actual number is no more than one million, and likely closer to the tens of thousands rather than millions. Most of those were probably murdered for being communists or other such political undesirables, rather than for their ethnicity as such; another good amount simply died in the closing months of the war because of supply and food shortages, although I do not discount that a fair amount were targeted for their religion or race.

But even if that were the case, so what? They would not be the first to be targeted in that manner -- nor were they even the last. There is more actual documentation and proof of the Armenian Genocide, for example, as a deliberate race/religion-focused act than there is for the Holocaust. Yet comparatively few peoples or nations seem to care about that event, most tellingly Israel. Meanwhile, the US on a federal level denies or refuses to acknowledge the Armenian Genocide. Imagine if any American political figure ever publicly vacillated on the subject of the Holocaust?

exiled off mainstreet , says: July 16, 2019 at 4:43 am GMT
From my Ph. D. research and seeing survivors with tattoos I am convinced that the Nazi regime did engage in exterminations, but I know that Jewish people were not the only targets. The actual number exterminated is open to interpretation, but a great many were obviously exterminated. Proof that something happened can be seen in comparisons of the ethnic makeup of territories before and after Nazi occupation. Over 3 Million Soviet POW's were also liquidated in Nazi camps and hundreds of thousands of other non-Jewish people were also liquidated.

I agree with Dr. Giraldi that these historical incidents, factual or exaggerated, have been exploited to create "get out of jail free cards" for Israeli actions that too closely resemble proven Nazi crimes. Gaza is a sort of ghetto-concentration camp reminiscent of documented Nazi crimes in Poland and elsewhere. Whatever the extent the facts fully support the received view, I agree with the implication that feelings of guilt for Nazi excesses were central to the creation of Israel and think that the Finkelstein book mentioned is a valuable corrective.

I also find it outrageous that any sort of questioning or revisionism is considered taboo despite the traditional existence of constitutional guarantees of free speech, which have been seriously curtailed in recent years. I also deplore identity politics and forced political correctness, recalling George Carlin's view that political correctness was nothing more than polite fascism As for Dr. Latson, he obviously made a serious mistake in the present environment and in the context of events at his school, and I am sure he will be sacked. If traditional rule of law still obtained he would probably be able to continue on as a teacher, but, recalling my studies of the rise of fascism, a new version of it appears to have gradually developed in the "west" during the last 30 years or so.

Nicolás Palacios Navarro , says: Website July 16, 2019 at 5:07 am GMT
@Anonymous You got it wrong. Women -- affluent white women, specifically -- crowd the top of the totem pole of grievances along with the Jews. The casual reader of the major periodicals in English, Spanish, French, and German are lead to believe on a daily basis that no being suffers more on this miserable bitch of an Earth than women. Arguably, Latin American and European media are even more zealously fourth-wave feminist than many of the major Anglo-American outlets. And the contagion is quickly spreading to East Asia.

For example:

http://www.asahi.com/sp/ajw/articles/AJ201907110001.html

And here in the US, affluent white women have remarkably (and without any dissent) positioned themselves not only as the ne plus ultra of historical victimhood, but have effectively declared themselves honorary "POC", presenting themselves as the spokesfigures for the world's huddled masses of the dusky and "oppressed".

Robert Dolan , says: July 16, 2019 at 5:16 am GMT
@Nicolás Palacios Navarro Red Cross had boots on the ground, said 270K.

55 MILLION non-jews died in that war, and you never hear about that.

There was never any order given to kill jews. The jews that died mostly died from typhus and starvation.

The "holocaust" isn't mentioned in the jewish encyclopedia of the time. Also, none of the world leaders of that time period mention anything about a "holocaust" in any of their autobiographies.

Finkelstein says that "The Holocaust" was actually invented around 1967 to provide support for Israel in fighting its' Arab neighbors.

The "holocaust" is essentially a marketing tool to shield the jews and Israel, and to shame the dumb goyim into allowing themselves to be destroyed.

The Germ Theory of Disease , says: July 16, 2019 at 5:23 am GMT
The mass persecution of European Jews by the Nazi regime during the Second World War is an established historical fact. Its origins, its actual scope, extent, methods, parameters and motivating factors are all questions properly explored by scholars and historians, not by activists. Many of these issues have taken a plausibly reliable shape (e.g. historians are reliably certain that killer whales were not used to murder Jews), but some have not. History is a long and patient enterprise.

Proper, accurate historical scholarship on matters of this magnitude is never fully settled, and certainly not in the space of a single human lifetime; scholars to this day are still exploring new information regarding such distant events as the Thirty Years War and the Old Kingdom of pharaonic Egypt. To close the book permanently on the exploration of an event like the Jewish Persecution, and declare that "the history is settled" on a scale so recent that there are still living participants, is an act of scholarly abuse so egregious as to constitute a crime of omission against Truth itself.

The fact that it has become literally a crime in many countries to honestly explore these issues in a scholarly context is evidence of "mens rea", consciousness of guilt, on the part of those activists who seek to shut down good-faith discussion and exploit the event for personal and group gain. What do they fear will be discovered? What do they fear to lose by such discoveries?

Furthermore, labeling this Jewish Persecution Event with the mystical, quasi-religious grand title of "the Holocaust" (or, the "Shoah") is in fact a racist act of cultural appropriation, and a theft of historical place. It sacralizes and valorizes a single particular historical catastrophe, which took place among many, many such catastrophes, within the context of the largest war in human history, a war which involved participants on FOUR continents.

The label "Holocaust" is racist propaganda, designed to put the Jewish Persecution at the center of world history, to elevate a single grim historical tragedy well above many other such tragedies, equally deserving of historical attention, and many of them far more deserving. It strongly implies that the suffering of the Jewish people is somehow mystically more important than the suffering of other people's; it strongly evokes the notion that Jewish lives are somehow more valuable than the lives of other peoples.

Finally, this notion that Jewish lives are more valuable than the lives of non-Jews, is in fact a codified Jewish religious belief, well-attested in voluminous citations of Jewish scriptures and Jewish hermeneutical texts. It is not a uniform canonical belief, but it is so widespread among learned doctors of Jewish dogma that it can with confidence be considered a valid and well-known "Jewish religious belief".

Therefore, any law passed by Congress mandating special enforced education practices regarding the Holocaust as an event of somehow uniquely elevated importance would be a law expressing government preference in religious faith, and as such is null and void under the First Amendment.

Professional Stranger , says: July 16, 2019 at 5:28 am GMT
"One third of the holocaust" by Jewish Historian David Cole. And excellent piece of research.
https://archive.org/details/OneThirdOfTheHolocaustHDVideoHQSound

This version seems to be fairly original (dated 2006). Beware! There is a new propaganda remake video circulating, nothing like the original.

Leslie , says: July 16, 2019 at 6:18 am GMT
For those who are not Americans but who have a good grasp of history, this is an amusing point in history, watching the Israelis drawing the Americans into another Jewish disaster brought about by their ongoing arrogance.
Biff , says: July 16, 2019 at 6:37 am GMT
When I read the title the first person that popped into my head was Norman Finklestein, who rightly calls the holocaust an industry, not an official category of history, since the reason it is taught in schools has more of a monetary(think power) value than a historical one. "Industry"

At best it is a controversy, with non-verifible facts and events. It's probably closer to a religion than a game of football with a real score. But that's life – Bullshit still rules the field. How about some real Bullshit for your kid.

Hans Vogel , says: July 16, 2019 at 7:07 am GMT
@Anonymous Yes indeed, the victimhood totempole exists and I think you are right to point this out. However, there is more overlap than just Jews and homos: Jews and women (vociferous Jewesses are very numerous), homos and women, women and any of the other categories, illegals and any other category, and so on.

In the end, the totempole serves the interests of the state, since it keeps the population divided (divide and rule, remember) into mutually antagonistic groups. The state itself was the first to initiate this unfortunate categorization, requiring everyone when filling out official documents, to tick the appropriate category: White, African-American (or whatever the current politically correct term is), Hispanic, Hispanic non-white, Native American, Pacific islander, Aleut, Asian etc. I have always found this insulting, derogatory, humiliating and reminiscent of nazi-Germany.

Philip Giraldi's article and all other articles like it, indicate the US has gone full-blown nazi. By the way, this often occurs in history: in the end, the victor always adopts the ways and ideas of the vanquished. That is why it is so important to pick one's battles. That is also why the Chinese are so superior: they always try to avoid open conflict and in doing so have preserved their collective identity.

Bardon Kaldian , says: July 16, 2019 at 7:17 am GMT

It is now being asserted that the descendants of so-called holocaust survivors have been genetically psychologically damaged, in the womb as it were, so reparations will presumably continue forever.

Interesting. This is basically Lysenkoism, i.e. Lamarckism.

The Alarmist , says: July 16, 2019 at 8:04 am GMT

A high school principal identified as Dr. Willian Latson was removed from his position after he revealed to a parent that he considered the holocaust to be a belief and not a demonstrated fact. According to statement made by the school district, the action was taken "out of an abundance of concern" for students and staff after Latson had "made a grave error in judgment." It added that "In addition to being offensive, the principal's statement is not supported by either the School District Administration or the School Board."

Ka-ching!

Exhibit 1 for the plaintiff in his suit for defamation and wrongful constructive termination.

Richard B , says: July 16, 2019 at 8:14 am GMT
"The ADL stated that "The ADL had hoped his apology was sincere and Latson could learn from his mistakes. Given that he cannot take responsibility for his actions, Latson should resign, and if not we believe the district should end his employment."

When have jews ever apologized for anything?

When have jews ever taken responsibility for their actions?

"The two state officials, Senator Kevin Rader and Representative Tina Polsky issued a statement saying "By his latest email, Dr. Latson has shown no remorse for his actions and we call on the district to immediately terminate him.""

When have jews ever shown remose?

"The publication of Latson's comments also unleashed heavy criticism from a broad range of other Florida public officials. Governor Ron DeSantis, who calls himself the most pro-Israel governor in American, joined in with "Look, to act like the Holocaust is a matter of debate, I mean, is just absurd.""

The fact that they can not see that FORCING the study of an histoircal evidence is self-discrediting is yet more proof of how insane and dangerou they are to everyone they come into contact with.

Any country that bows before the alter of Jewish Supremacy Inc. is doomed.

So why do it?

The only answer is that such people have lost the will to live.

But not everyone has.

Richard B , says: July 16, 2019 at 8:41 am GMT
@Anonymous Great comment. Sad story about the teacher.

And to your list we could add the word Dostoyevsky used to describe them, "mericiless."

Around the time of Ross' book there was a study on criminal pathology conducted in the USA in 1911 and it discusses the jewish inclination toward just that, criminal pathology. I regret to say I don't recall the name of the study. I'm sure it was influential in the 1924 Immigration Act.

In any event, the rise of Jewish Supremacy Inc. is in direct proportion to the rise of psychopathy in the West.

For now, their insanity is in full display in demands to be
1. placed above criticism
2. loved unconditionally
3. blindly obeyed

The fact that they have the power to effecuate these insane demands makes one shudder for the future of our children.

I think JSI is about to find out that not everyone is keen on being their slaves or sacrifices.

Anonymous [369] Disclaimer , says: July 16, 2019 at 8:52 am GMT
The Jews started all this stuff with the "Frankfurt School" (started 1923) crap. Every dirty rotten lousy thing going on today is tied to that stinking, "Jew Think Tank" – including the holocaust hoax.
Greg Bacon , says: Website July 16, 2019 at 10:08 am GMT
Palm Beach County is directly adjacent to Broward County, which has a large Borg infestation and never seems to run out of incidents that can be traced back to the Tribe.

Maybe Americans should do a repeat of those Middle Ages types that went around, flagellating themselves on their backs with whips that contained rusty nails and broken pottery, trying to get the Black Death to vanish, but the modern day ones would be moaning about how bad the Jews have it and it's our fault that some died during WWII.

My guess is that even that wouldn't be enough, unless a check of at least 6 gorillion was included each year to Jews.

Jacques Sheete , says: July 16, 2019 at 10:12 am GMT
@Nicolás Palacios Navarro

Most of those were probably murdered for being communists or other such political undesirables, rather than for their ethnicity as such; another good amount simply died in the closing months of the war because of supply and food shortages, although I do not discount that a fair amount were targeted for their religion or race.

Two out of three is not bad for a relatively young fellow, especially if you were raised in the the Brainwashed States of America, the Bullshit Capitol of the World. I hope you have sufficient time to follow your inquiries into the truth. Keep reading PG and RU, and you'll keep making excellent progress.

In the case of "the Jewish persecution" in Germany I found that impartial presentation of the facts gradually gave way to so partisan a depictment that the truth was lost. This transformation was effected in three subtle stages. First the persecution of "political opponents and Jews" was reported; then this was imperceptibly amended to "Jews and political opponents"; and at the end the press in general spoke only of "the persecution of Jews". By this means a false image was projected on to the public mind and the plight of the overwhelming majority of the victims, by this fixing of the spotlight on one group, was lost to sight. The result showed in 1945, when, on the one hand, the persecution of Jews was made the subject of a formal indictment at Nuremberg, and on the other hand half of Europe and all the people in it were abandoned to the selfsame persecution, in which the Jews had shared in their small proportion to populations everywhere.

-Douglas Reed, The Controversy of Zion, page 214-5

I used to have a link to the book, but now all I get is a 404 message.

HolocaustPropagandaSurvivor , says: July 16, 2019 at 10:17 am GMT
"When does the almost incessant pandering to Zionists and Jewish groups become too much for the deliberately kept-in-ignorance American public to tolerate?"

It became too much decades ago.

I haven't seen a more succinct, articulate description of American life under Jewish occupation. Giraldi hits the nail on the head every time.

Greg Bacon , says: July 16, 2019 at 10:22 am GMT
Here's what the Holocaust Industry is so desperate to cover up, the sickening treatment of the indigenous Palestinians by the Israelis–that claim to be Jews–that have invaded Palestine and turned it into a much more deadlier version of Apartheid South Africa:

Poof! One day in occupation causes young Jews on Zionist tour to question Zionism -- 'NYT' reports

We are as critical of the New York Times as anyone, but we need to salute the superb report in the newspaper by David Halbfinger on a liberal Zionist trip for American Jews to see the occupation. Titled, "Touring the Israeli Occupation: Young U.S. Jews Get an Unflinching View," the July 10 article offered horrifying glimpses of Palestinian conditions in Susiya and Hebron that left the young Jews staggered.

https://mondoweiss.net/2019/07/occupation-zionist-question/

Since they toured part of Occupied Hebron, wonder if they visited those streets that have wire and steel barricades over the sidewalks, necessitated by Israelis, living above those streets, that dump chunks of concrete down on the Palestinians passing by?
But that doesn't stop the buckets of human waste the kindly Israelis also dump on the Palestinians.

But hey, to think about that is anti-Semitic. That time should be spent worshiping the most Holy Holocaust, Goyim!

Stephen Paul Foster , says: Website July 16, 2019 at 10:35 am GMT
The refusal to bow at the altar of Jewish "victimhood" will soon to be completely criminalized here in the U.S. See:

http://fosterspeak.blogspot.com/2018/10/my-victimhood-is-bigger-than-yours-or.html

Counterinsurgency , says: July 16, 2019 at 10:45 am GMT
@Richard B The Jewish establishment and the various foreigners aren't really the problem. WW I and WW II stunned the Europeans an European descendants, who have had a sort of PTSD for a three generations now. _That's_ the problem.
R. Unz's article [1] shows that, had solidly Republican California simply arrested a few people (and continued to arrest their replacements) it could have saved itself. The people were not arrested because nobody cared. Politics had already become a game, played by professionals, of being elected rather than a constant and precarious effort to keep civilization (or at least Republican California) alive. The civil population at the time had no interest in politics and was badly frightened by the prospect of yet another central war, this time fought with nuclear weapons. [2]

The fourth generation seems to be recovering enough to defend itself, if only because the choice is that or life on gradually diminishing welfare.

Counterinsurgency

1] R. Unz
"American Pravda: The Power of Organized Crime".
First posted 2019/07/15.
http://www.unz.com/runz/american-pravda-the-power-of-organized-crime/

2] Although i seem to remember, from _Only yesterday_, that in the 1920s the frequent moving from one neighborhood to another made neighborhoods hard for anybody "organize" politically, and that the California populace could be lured to vote by presenting political contests as a horse race (X lead's by a nose! Now Y is moving up in the final stretch! And .. . . It's Seabiscuit!". Watching a human horesrace is not the same as protecting your civilization, as the Californians (and now the Americans) have found out.

onebornfree , says: Website July 16, 2019 at 10:52 am GMT
P. Giraldi says: "Well, when does it end? When does the almost incessant pandering to Zionists and Jewish groups become too much for the deliberately kept-in-ignorance American public to tolerate?"

It's not going to end as long as the current, enforced at-the-point-of-a-gun government run "educational" system exists.

Zumbuddi , says: July 16, 2019 at 11:17 am GMT
@exiled off mainstreet The PhD has to be in something rigorous, like gender studies.
If an aeronautics engineer said "from seeing survivor tattoos I am convinced the Nazi regime did engage in exterminations, " he/she would be disqualified from folding paper airplanes.

. . and the repeated use of "exterminations" -- why that word? Did Germans seek out 3 m. Soviet soldiers as if they were the Terminex man fumigating a rat-infested slum? Or did Stalin send ill-equiped, untrained & poorly fed troops who surrendered in such large numbers that there was no way to cope with them?

Didn't read past the 3rd "exterminate."

Digital Samizdat , says: July 16, 2019 at 11:46 am GMT
@The Germ Theory of Disease

Furthermore, labeling this Jewish Persecution Event with the mystical, quasi-religious grand title of "the Holocaust" (or, the "Shoah") is in fact a racist act of cultural appropriation, and a theft of historical place.

I'll say! Did you know that the very word 'holocaust' was first coined in 1944 to describe the effects of the incendiary bombs that the allies dropped on the Germans during the war? That's right: 'holocaust' originally referred to a war crime committed against the Germans, not by them. Even well into the 60s, when the word was used, it was usually used with reference the ever-present threat of nuclear war–the so-called nuclear holocaust. It wasn't really until the 70s–a full generation after the war–that the word acquired its present meaning, completely displacing the older ones.

dimples , says: July 16, 2019 at 12:03 pm GMT
@Bardon Kaldian Yes the inheritance of acquired characteristics is considered to be a massive scientific heresy. If the experiment is repeatable it would blow modern genetics wide open. If the Krauts have any brains they'd be asking for a lot more more evidence before paying out on that one.
Miggle , says: July 16, 2019 at 12:11 pm GMT
The state of affairs that provided cover for the "Holocaust" was a wonderful gift the Nazis gave. It allowed the truth at last to be told about the Chmielnitsy rebellion. It was time to admit, for Jews to admit, that the number of Jews killed was less than a tenth of the number previously said to have been killed. And further, when a town with a 99 percent Jewish population was overrun by the Cossacks and the peasants, the Jews were left unharmed because they were simply merchants, had not been involved in the oppression of the peasants. Jewish towns overrun and left unharmed. This truth could be told now because there was a more delicious story to tell. Chmielnitsy was rendered obsolete by its successor, the "Holocaust".
Cleburne , says: July 16, 2019 at 12:43 pm GMT
@Achilles Wannabe

But I get a sense that the Tribe may be going over the top. They appear to be desperate to ram this Holocaust narrative down our collective throats.

I believe you're on to something here. there is a Holocaust museum in a large Southern city near me. Recently there's been a blitz, so to speak, of billboards and teevee ads encouraging all and sundry to attend to learn about the baleful consequences of 'hate."

Why now? Because their POC pets are turning on (((them)))? because they have internal polling showing people are noticing epstein/weinstein/et cetera? resistance to the Iran war noises? It's all very odd.

Saggy , says: Website July 16, 2019 at 12:47 pm GMT
This video .

https://www.bitchute.com/embed/Ul72dV4SbAoh/

begins –

The holocaust is a preposterous hoax that is unsupported by any physical evidence. It is made up of literally millions of lies, but it all rests on one 'big lie'.

The hoax has three main components –
1. The Nazis planned to exterminate the Jews.
2. The Nazis built gas chambers to exterminate the Jews and disguised them as shower rooms.
3. The Nazis killed six million Jews.

Each component of the hoax is categorically false and completely without evidence.
1. There was no Nazi plan to exterminate the Jews or anyone else, and no evidence of one has ever been found.
2. The gas chambers disguised as shower rooms are pure phantasmagoria, and there is not a shred of physical evidence for them.
3. The number of Jews killed in the camps for being Jews is zero, and it is well documented that the Nazis aggressively investigate any crime in the camps.

That is the hoax, and the reality

The big lie is the photos and film footage that are shown of Jewish prisoners who had been gassed by the Nazis. The truth is that all the photos and film were taken after the war by British and US soldiers, and showed prisoners of all nationalities and religions who had died of tyhpus at the very last weeks of the war, primarily at Belsen where 35,000 died, 10,000 after the camp had been liberated by the British. Further, the Nazis had done everything in their power to combat the epidemic.

The video documents all the above. To understand the holohoax you must study it.

Hans , says: July 16, 2019 at 12:59 pm GMT
@Jacques Sheete It's available here, Jacques – https://www.controversyofzion.info/Controversybook/reeedcontrov.pdf

One of the great books.

This is a good one and a good template for any of the other Tribe-driven issues tearing down the West:

Nancy Pelosi's Latina Maid , says: July 16, 2019 at 1:05 pm GMT
@exiled off mainstreet

From my Ph. D. research and seeing survivors with tattoos I am convinced that the Nazi regime did engage in exterminations

So encountering an old woman with a number tattoo proves Nazis exterminated Jews? Not that there were prisoners of war, but that Jews were systematically slaughtered?

Wow, there's a logical leap of faith

As far as Ph.D. research, I'm not sure it has the cachet you think it does.

Honesty , says: July 16, 2019 at 1:05 pm GMT
@giraldi

Sir, foxnews is reporting that the fake passport recovered in Epstein's locker places him as a resident of Saudi Arabia – and that is from the 80's. What is going on here? This is so weird (and scary). How much of penetration we have from foreign groups in USA, for how long, and why are our politicians not being safeguarded from their influence? Are our intelligence agencies trying to stop that influence? I think this new revelation deserves another article from you. Thank you.

Jake , says: July 16, 2019 at 1:06 pm GMT
Judaizing heresy not identified and refuted and stopped, rejected thoroughly, leads directly to a world like this one.

Anglo-Zionist Empire.

Anglo-Saxon Puritanism was a Judaizing heresy. WASP culture is the product of a Judaizing heresy. The British Empire took the secularist form of that Judaizing heresy and planted ir across the globe.

Anglo-Zionist Empire – your Big Brother

JohnnyD , says: July 16, 2019 at 1:14 pm GMT
With all due respect, I think Norman Finkelstein's.views are being distorted in this article. Finkelstein never questions whether or not the Holocaust occurred. Indeed, he promotes the work of Raul Hillberg, who Finkelstein views as a serious scholar. Also, he always states that the suffering of his parents in the Holocaust is what motivates him to defend the rights of Palestinians. Finkelstein does indeed go after Jewish groups and the State of Israel for using the Holocaust as an idelogical weapon, and he does attack Ellie Weisel as a fraud and hyoprite, but he has never questioned the standard narrative that a systematic extermination of European Jewry occurred during World War II.
Hippopotamusdrome , says: July 16, 2019 at 1:14 pm GMT
Yet another controversy, and this will spur yet more fruitless debate. It's endless.

I'm really starting to wish the Holocaust never happened.

Robjil , says: July 16, 2019 at 1:18 pm GMT
"The Never Again Education Act" is the exact same thing as a "The Santa Claus Education Act". One only has only to believe, no inquiry allowed.

" The Again and Again Wars for Jewish Zionist Advisor Act" has been put in action endlessly in the past hundred years. The earth is crying out in pain from from this world wide destruction.

" Seven Nations to destroy" is the latest war plan for the most persecuted people on planet earth.

" The Never Again promotion of Wars by Jewish/Zionist Advisors Act" is what the world needs.

WWI was for the Balfour. Zionist Jewish Advisors were at the top of both the British and American governments promoting WWI.

WWII was for Israel. Zionist Jewish Advisors were at the top of both the British and American governments promoting WWII.

Jewish Zionist Oligarchs world wide promoted the Bolshevik take over Russia.

If anything like the big 6 happened, the blame should go at the Jewish/Zionist Advisors that created the conditions for it by promoting two massive world wars.

Will "The Never Again promotion of War by Jewish/Zionist Advisors Act" ever be passed? Now that is a bill that should be passed. Climate Change is peanuts compared to war promotion by Jewish/Zionist Advisors.

John Regan , says: July 16, 2019 at 1:19 pm GMT
@exiled off mainstreet

Over 3 Million Soviet POW's were also liquidated in Nazi camps and hundreds of thousands of other non-Jewish people were also liquidated.

Only if by "liquidated" you mean died of starvation and disease because food and medical care were inadequate. German logistics in the winter of 1941 were famously a nightmare: if the Wehrmacht couldn't even supply their own troops with adequate winter gear, it's no surprise EPWs fared worse. Though the number of victims you cite is too high. It comes ultimately from the book Keine Kameraden by one Christian Streit, who is often quoted uncritically by mainstream historians who won't (or can't, if they don't read German) check how he actually derived his figures. In fact, he inflates them quite a bit.

Even so, many hundreds of thousands did die. And this, of course, is still a real tragedy. But it was not an intentional genocide, any more than the starvation of even more millions of Germans and Japanese by the Allies after the war. And the Allies didn't have the excuse that they were fighting history's biggest land war while their victims starved in peacetime. See the convincing studies by Alfred De Zayas, most of which have been translated to English, and Stalin's War of Annihilation by Joachim Hoffmann, which our host Ron Unz mentions in his American Pravda series.

DESERT FOX , says: July 16, 2019 at 1:24 pm GMT
The nazis killed millions of not only Jews but Christians and political opponents and in regards to the Jews , the elite Jews helped the nazis kill the Jews to further their goal of a zionist homeland and a case in point is George Soros , who at the age of 14 lived with the nazi commander of Budapest who was in charge of rounding up Jews to be shipped to the death camps, and Soros went with the nazis and pointed out the Jews for the nazis, this is a fact.
Nancy Pelosi's Latina Maid , says: July 16, 2019 at 1:26 pm GMT
@Hans Vogel

I have always found this [demographic categorization] insulting, derogatory, humiliating and reminiscent of nazi-Germany.

YMMV, but I personally think we should drill down even deeper, e.g. how many Jews? That'd drive 'em nuts, since it's literally against their religion to count a Jew. And it would finally put to bed this 2% nonsense.

Not to mention the current census controversy over how many illegals constitute congressional redistricting.

the US has gone full-blown nazi

For more than a few of us, that's our prayer.

Wally , says: July 16, 2019 at 1:27 pm GMT
@Fiendly Neighbourhood Terrorist Nope.

In spite of bans on free speech, which proves that the story is a fraud, rational, scientific Revisionist research has demolished the claims. I mean, that fact IS the reason that free speech on the subject is banned. The absurd narrative does not hold up.

Try me & see.

Also see my comment #10.

Thanks.

Yapius the 2nd , says: July 16, 2019 at 1:32 pm GMT
Can you say dumb? I have beliefs similar to most of the people in this forum, but I would know better than to allow them to appear under my real name, let alone in professional correspondence! You could also be jailed in much of Europe based on such information. Probably also banned from the schengen zone.

There are other pieces of forbidden thought and discussion, such as race and IQ. I bet Mr Latson would support those orthodoxies.

Hippopotamusdrome , says: July 16, 2019 at 1:32 pm GMT
@exiled off mainstreet

From my Ph. D. research and seeing survivors with tattoos I am convinced that the Nazi regime did engage in exterminations

Seeing survivors is evidence of extermination. Maybe we have different definitions of the words "survive" and "exterminate".

Saggy , says: Website July 16, 2019 at 1:39 pm GMT
@JohnnyD Finklestein's story is one of the most remarkable .. from this video .
Norm Finkelstein, at U of Waterloo

https://www.youtube.com/embed/6FumYzhktoY?feature=oembed

My father was in Auschwitz
My mother was in Majdanek
Every single member of my family, on my father's side and on my mother's side, was exterminated.

Why is the story remarkable? Finklestein was born in 1953 !

Hippopotamusdrome , says: July 16, 2019 at 1:39 pm GMT
@The Germ Theory of Disease

historians are reliably certain that killer whales were not used to murder Jews

I would advise people not to publicly say this. Just in case it could get them in trouble. You never know.

Wally , says: July 16, 2019 at 1:41 pm GMT
@Genrick Yagoda Indeed.
It's claimed that millions upon millions of human remain exists in allegedly known locations , yet those remain are not there.

Remember, the claim is "6,000,000 Jews & 5,000,000 others". That alleged 11,000,000 is equal to the city of London.

The "Holocau$t Industry" in court:

'Please your honor, there really are remains of millions upon millions buried in huge mass graves, we know where the mass graves are, but, but, well, umm, we can't show the court the human remains. You must trust us, we're Zionists.'

recommended:
The Rudolf Report / Expert Report on Chemical and Technical Aspects of the 'Gas Chambers' of Auschwitz
http://vho.org/GB/Books/trr/index.html

Jacques Sheete , says: July 16, 2019 at 1:42 pm GMT
@Zumbuddi

If an aeronautics engineer said "from seeing survivor tattoos I am convinced the Nazi regime did engage in exterminations, " he/she would be disqualified from folding paper airplanes.

That piece of "logic" really got my attention as well. I'll be shaking my head over that for quite a while.

PhD my tusch. Heaven help us!

JoaoAlfaiate , says: July 16, 2019 at 1:44 pm GMT
" if the current trend to reduce the study of history in schools to easily digestible politically correct soundbites that are being successfully pushed by social justice warriors continues, we will soon be limited to discussing how horrible slavery was, the Stonewall Inn riots and the so-called holocaust. "

You forgot Rosa Parks.

Jacques Sheete , says: July 16, 2019 at 1:46 pm GMT
@John Regan I guess the "PhD" never knew about the Brit starvation blockades that continued for some time after the fighting stopped, but with the logic displayed above, I doubt even knowing the facts would lead to valid conclusions.

And here we are, with nearly a century of hindsight available!

Truth3 , says: July 16, 2019 at 1:50 pm GMT
@exiled off mainstreet What an idiot.

Tattoos are not placed on people for any other reason than to identify them, if they are incarcerated. You don't tattoo them if you intend to kill them.

The only ones that "exterminated" Soviet POW's were the Jewish NKVD when they returned home.

The so-called HC can't withstand scientific or logical scrutiny, so these things are criminalized.

Jacques Sheete , says: July 16, 2019 at 1:51 pm GMT
@Hans Thanks, Hans.

I wonder how long it'll take for that link to get fried!

Filthy sob's!

Jacques Sheete , says: July 16, 2019 at 1:53 pm GMT
@HolocaustPropagandaSurvivor

Giraldi hits the nail on the head every time.

True, and I'm grateful for his persistent hammering. Great stuff.

Jacques Sheete , says: July 16, 2019 at 1:58 pm GMT
@onebornfree

It's not going to end as long as the current, enforced at-the-point-of-a-gun government run "educational" system exists.

It's worse than that. It won't end until people understand that government is not the messiah, but that will never end because, well, "muh roads !"

Few stop to think beyond dem roadz; my response to "who'll bild dem roadz?" is to ask who'll bomb the children?

Sparkon , says: July 16, 2019 at 2:00 pm GMT
@Fiendly Neighbourhood Terrorist

claims on all sides.

I t is the responsibility of the party making the claim to provide the proof.

Nobody can prove a negative.

Show us the bones.

Robert Dolan , says: July 16, 2019 at 2:02 pm GMT
The "Never Again" program means that whitey will never again have any power whatsoever, and that jews will rule over humanity forever.

That is the jewish final solution to white people.

The nose is destroying all of Christendom to render the world "holocaust-proof" and user friendly for the jewish tribe.

Yes, it's insane.

They are batshit crazy for sure.

To make matters even worse, they fancy that GOD wants them to do this.

It's a bad horror film that we live in.

Richard B , says: July 16, 2019 at 2:04 pm GMT
@Counterinsurgency "The Jewish establishment and the various foreigners aren't really the problem. "

Once again, we have the attempt to place Jewish Supremacy Inc. above criticism.

"WW I and WW II stunned the Europeans an European descendants, who have had a sort of PTSD for a three generations now. _That's_ the problem."

It's no coincidence that the denial in the first sentence is followed by an impossible to prove statement in the second sentence.

JayJonahJameson , says: July 16, 2019 at 2:04 pm GMT
@Nicolás Palacios Navarro My belief is that 2.5 million Jews were killed by the Nazis, whatever the cause. This could still be described as a holocaust. Also, I do agree that there are some issues with the capital "H" Holocaust. Still, there is entirely too much time and energy spent on the subject. There are far more pressing issues these days .
Ilya G Poimandres , says: July 16, 2019 at 10:38 pm GMT
@Bardon Kaldian Here is the problem:

Those that do not intentionally peddle lies (they may be wrong, but that is a different issue) discuss things along this line, only dealing with the story:

What?
Where, when?
Who?
Why?
How?

The intentional deceiver attack along the line:

Who? (within the story)
Who? (with respect to their debating opposite)
Why? (with respect to their debating opposite)
.
(usually it doesn't get beyond this because the truth seekers debate 'what', don't engage the ad hominem speculation, and one hissy fit return serve later, they are out, but..)
.
Why/how/when/where/what?

Your whole point is on 'who', there is no counterpoint to Eisenhower's, Churchill's, De-Gaulle's silence on the issue – even though they should have had the info. No discounting the coke shipment statistics for the crematoria, no discussion of ground water levels and the impossibility of burials (or even discarding of bones), no explanation why Germans neither recorded their acts in documentary fashion, or didn't just throw the helpless 6 million off a cliff (the Mongols, Chinese, Turks would have certainly found a cheaper way to kill 6 million), etc, etc.

We, the revisionists, discuss 'what' first, and 'who' somewhere down the line.

Anyone that pokes the speaker first, fears the words of the speaker. Simple. An intelligent person does not fear false information – it is false.

Bardon Kaldian , says: July 16, 2019 at 11:17 pm GMT
@John Regan Sorry,but I've already wasted too much time on this irrelevant issue. 1-2 reposts.

I do get Jews' obsession with shoah, but I hardly get "denialists'"" stance: this did happen, but is, due to Jewish media influence in Western societies, overblown out of proportion. No one with sane mind in Poland, Hungary, Greece, Ukraine or Russia will deny that many or most Jews were systematically murdered. This is not even the topic. What they would, reasonably, argue with that Jewish nationalists' constant drumming on the theme & emotional blackmail in trying to extort as much money as possible and advance their tribalist interests at the expense of the natives' is simply unacceptable.

Robjil , says: July 17, 2019 at 12:59 am GMT
@Bardon Kaldian All of Central and Eastern Europe was a wreck after WWII. There was mass movements of people of all ethnic groups. The largest mass movement after the war was the German one. It was the largest one in human history. Looking at who was in each nation before the war does not prove any genocide. The Jewish H was a mass movement too.

https://www.huffpost.com/entry/expulsion-germans-forced-migration_b_1625437?guccounter=1

14 million Germans were forced to leave their ancestral homes.

Orwell greatly underestimated both the determination and the ambition of the Allied leaders' plans. What neither he nor anybody else knew was that in addition to the displacement of the 7-8 million Germans of the East, Churchill, U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt and Soviet leader Joseph Stalin had already agreed to a similar "orderly and humane" deportation of the more than 3 million German-speakers -- the "Sudeten Germans" -- from their homelands in Czechoslovakia. They would soon add the half-million ethnic Germans of Hungary to the list.

Although the governments of Yugoslavia and Romania were never given permission by the Big Three to deport their German minorities, both would take advantage of the situation to drive them out also.

By mid-1945, not merely the largest forced migration but probably the largest single movement of population in human history was under way, an operation that continued for the next five years. Between 12 and 14 million civilians, the overwhelming majority of them women, children and the elderly, were driven out of their homes or, if they had already fled the advancing Red Army in the last days of the war, forcibly prevented from returning to them.

German refugees were put in camps.

From the beginning, this mass displacement was accomplished largely by state-sponsored violence and terror. In Poland and Czechoslovakia, hundreds of thousands of detainees were herded into camps -- often, like Auschwitz I or Theresienstadt, former Nazi concentration camps kept in operation for years after the war and put to a new purpose.

The regime for prisoners in many of these facilities was brutal, as Red Cross officials recorded, with beatings, rapes of female inmates, gruelling forced labour and starvation diets of 500-800 calories the order of the day. In violation of rarely-applied rules exempting the young from detention, children routinely were incarcerated, either alongside their parents or in designated children's camps. As the British Embassy in Belgrade reported in 1946, conditions for Germans "seem well down to Dachau standards."

Death rates were very high for these German refugees in the camps.

Though the death rates in the camps were often frighteningly high -- 2,227 inmates of the Mysłowice facility in southern Poland alone perished in the last ten months of 1945 -- most of the mortality associated with the expulsions occurred outside them.

No trains or cars were used to get these refugees to rump Germany.

Forced marches in which inhabitants of entire villages were cleared at fifteen minutes' notice and driven at rifle-point to the nearest border, accounted for many losses. So did train transports that sometimes took weeks to reach their destination, with up to 80 expellees crammed into each cattle car without adequate (or, occasionally, any) food, water or heating.

No help from Allies even in rump Germany.

The deaths continued on arrival in Germany itself. Declared ineligible by the Allied authorities to receive any form of international relief and lacking accommodation in a country devastated by bombing, expellees in many cases spent their first months or years living rough in fields, goods wagons or railway platforms.

No one knows how many died in these long forced marches.

Malnutrition, hypothermia and disease took their toll, especially among the very old and very young. Although more research is needed to establish the total number of deaths, conservative estimates suggest that some 500,000 people lost their lives as a result of the operation.

Ironically the Nuremberg trials was going on while this happened.

Not only was the treatment of the expellees in defiance of the principles for which the Second World War had professedly been fought, it created numerous and persistent legal complications. At the Nuremberg trials, for example, the Allies were trying the surviving Nazi leaders on charges of carrying out "deportation and other inhumane acts" against civilian populations at the same moment as, less than a hundred miles away, they were engaging in large-scale forced removals of their own.

Anon [427] Disclaimer , says: July 17, 2019 at 1:03 am GMT
I remember reading that after "Perestroika" the Russian wartime records were released, which showed that more Christians than Jews died at the wartime labour complex that was Austwich.

(Sorry! I comment so rarely that I forget what name I've commented under in the past. There are so many excellent articals and so many very well informed readers on this site, that I'm honestly a little bit intimidated. I don't have that problem with the Spectator, Telegraph etc. Thank You.

Igor Bundy , says: July 17, 2019 at 7:58 am GMT
teaching non existent history as factual is what made me disbelieve everything I am taught or most things I read. How can I believe anything these days when anything I look deeper into is found to be a fabrication. Instead of the actual victims being helped a few in the minority uses the falsehood to enrich themselves all the while to oppress others and gain an unwarranted leverage against others. This is inequality in the extreme. Punishing the victims and creating new victims all so a few can live a life of luxury and do what they think is their right to be above others.
Commentator Mike , says: July 17, 2019 at 10:16 am GMT
@Wally Here start with this:

"The Ruins of the Gas Chambers: A Forensic Investigation of Crematoriums at Auschwitz I and Auschwitz-Birkenau" by Daniel Keren, Harry W. Mazal and Jamie McCarthy in Holocaust and Genocide Studies, Oxford University Press, Volume 18, Number 1, Spring 2004, pages 68-103.

"A Study of the Cyanide Compounds Content In The Walls Of The Gas Chambers in the Former Auschwitz and Birkenau Concentration Camps" by Jan Markiewicz, Wojciech Gubala, Jerzy Labedz, Z Zagadnien Sqdowych z. XXX, 1994, 17-27.

http://www.nizkor.org/hweb/orgs/polish/institute-for-forensic-research/

"Kalkulierte Morde. Die deutsche Wirtschafts-und Vernichtungspolitik in Weissrussland 1941 bis 1944", Gerlach, Christian,Hamburger Edition, HIS Verlag, 1998.

"Besatzungspolitik und Massenmord. Die Einsatzgruppe D in der sudlichen Sowjetunion 1941-1943". Angrick, Andrej, Zeitschrift fur Geschichtswissenschaft, 2004, Jahr 52 Heft 6, pages 576-577. (Occupation Policy and Mass Murder: Einsatzgruppe D in the Southern Soviet Union 1941-1943. Journal of History, Vol. 52 No. 6.)

"Völkerverschiebung und der Mord an den europäischen Juden", Aly, Götz, Fischer Taschenbuch Verlag, Frankfurt am Main, 1998

"Treblinka: The Operation Reinhard Death Camps", Arad, Yitzhak, Belzec, Sobibor, Indiana University Press, Bloomington, 1999

"AUSCHWITZ: Technique and operation of the gas chambers", Jean-Claude Pressac, The Beate Klarsfeld Foundation, 1989

"The Struthof-Natzweiler Camp" by Miloslav Bilik
https://phdn.org/archives/holocaust-history.org/struthof/strut2e.shtml

"The Dachau Gas Chambers" by Harry W. Mazal OBE
https://phdn.org/archives/holocaust-history.org/dachau-gas-chambers/index.html

My Response to Carlo Mattogno, By John C. Zimmerman
https://phdn.org/archives/holocaust-history.org/auschwitz/response-to-mattogno/

Photographs Documenting the Holocaust in Hungary by László Karsai Ph.D https://phdn.org/archives/holocaust-history.org/hungarian-photos/index.html

Ilyana_Rozumova , says: July 17, 2019 at 11:15 am GMT
TBC
Nobody did mention tuberculosis so I have to do it.
Grim reaper actually during and after war was working mostly with tuberculosis.
There were no X-ray machines in concentration camps, and cibazol did not cure the tuberculosis.
Kafka himself did die of tuberculosis so most probably his two sisters died of it also,
Strangely enough females died of tuberculosis far quicker than males, and also were more susceptible to catch it.
Moi , says: July 17, 2019 at 11:22 am GMT
@Anthony Aaron True, but PG is wasting his time because the fact is America loves being Jews' bitch.
Jacques Sheete , says: July 17, 2019 at 11:22 am GMT
@Fran Taubman Shit also happens when you decide you don't want to be subject to International Communism and when your enemies are the largest empires the world had ever seen.

Also, have a look at Robjil's comment #274.:

In 1933 , when Germany refused to surrender to the world conference of Jews in Amsterdam

Stuff also happens when you attempt to control the world too. (That's a hint.) Now, go read the Protocols.

Richard B , says: July 17, 2019 at 11:27 am GMT
@Counterinsurgency A long-winded, boring and pretentious answer that only goes to further prove my point.
Jacques Sheete , says: July 17, 2019 at 12:01 pm GMT
@Skeptikal

The genocide of Jews did occur.

Absolute bullshit. Self-serving bullshit in most cases as well. You ought to consider being a little more skeptical.

Truth3 , says: July 17, 2019 at 12:12 pm GMT
@Fran Taubman Don't these stinking shit Jooz get nasty when they are 'found out'.
Truth3 , says: July 17, 2019 at 12:26 pm GMT
@Robjil Disgusting that there are so few American Citizens aware of the Jews' malicious nature and overwhelming control of our Country.
Patrikios Stetsonis , says: July 17, 2019 at 12:34 pm GMT
@renfro In the mid-time in the northen "israeli" city of Afula parks signs have a clear message:

"DOGS AND NON- ISRAELIS KEEP OUT"
https://www.rt.com/news/464148-israel-lifts-park-ban-arabs/

Commentator Mike , says: July 17, 2019 at 12:47 pm GMT
@Ilya G Poimandres Why, why, why? Why did the Russians allow any Germans to live after what they had done to them? Why do Americans send drones to kill terrorists in Yemen who may or may not have killed US citizens but have not bothered to bring to justice those who attacked USS Liberty? Why didn't the West back the Soviets against Muslims in Afghanistan when now they have to fight those same Muslims there? That kind of reasoning gets you nowhere.
Expletive Deleted , says: July 17, 2019 at 1:02 pm GMT
@SolontoCroesus The soap fable was merely a retread of WWI British Intelligence atrocity propaganda, disseminated through the Daily Mail , The Times and the like. Beat you to it!

"The story described how corpses arrived by rail at the factory, which was placed "deep in forest country" and surrounded by an electrified fence, and how they were rendered for their fats which were then further processed into stearin (a form of tallow). It went on to claim that this was then used to make soap, or refined into an oil "of yellowish brown colour". – 17 April 1917″

Although this was purportedly the beastly Hun rendering his own deceased kameraden into materiel
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/German_Corpse_Factory

Anytime a tale like this is put about, guaranteed it's fake and gay.
If desperate, you can make soap out of a number of native European wild plants and shrubs right out of the box, for instance the .. Soapwort. Or even bracken roots, which aren't exactly in short supply. They could have farmed the stuff if they felt like it. Kelp is another, less effective bodywash source.

Commentator Mike , says: July 17, 2019 at 1:13 pm GMT
@Bardon Kaldian Holocaust deniers on UR are the funniest people ever. They spend half their time trying to prove that the Jews deserved to be holocausted and the other half denying that Hitler and his Nazis tried to holocaust them. They have no balls to say they deserved it and they got it. So what good was their idol Hitler they praise to high heaven if he couldn't do the main job he claimed he would do? They want a second coming of Hitler to rid us of the Jews when even the first one couldn't do it. How can anyone take them seriously? Good for a laugh and that's about it.
Genrick Yagoda , says: July 17, 2019 at 2:29 pm GMT
@turtle Many people do not know that at the Irving V Lipstadt trial David Irving produced the records of the Degesh Corporation regarding shipments of Zyklon B. The amount of Zyklon B shipped to Bullschwitz was exactly the same as the non "death camp" of Oranienburg.

In other words, exactly as much as was required for routine fumigation. No where near enough to snuff 4 garillion Jews with bug spray.

Fran Taubman , [AKA "Linda"] says: July 17, 2019 at 2:46 pm GMT

The principal issue that deniers have disputed is the reason the Bauleitung began to build so many new ovens. Historians have long recognized that the extensive building campaign was because the authorities were committing mass murder and wanted an efficient means of disposing of the bodies as well as structures which could be used to gas prisoners. At the time the building began there were two structures in Birkenau which were used for gassing. They were located in the wooded area behind the camp. There was also a gas chamber in the crematorium located in the main camp which housed the six ovens. [15] Forensic tests done by the Institute For Forensic Research in Cracow, Poland in 1994 found traces of the poisonous hydrocyanic acid in all five crematoria, [16] consistent with a great deal of eyewitness testimony and other documents from Auschwitz which show that these structures were used as gas chambers. [17] The two structures in the wooded area were completely destroyed by the Germans and no trace remains. However, as will be seen later on, there is photographic evidence of one of these structures.

Deniers claim that there were no gassings at Auschwitz. They attribute the principal reason for building so many ovens to other factors. In 1977 Arthur Butz, the best known of American deniers, hinted that typhus was a principal reason for building so many new ovens. However, this hint became explicit, and by 1992 he was attributing the typhus epidemic which swept the camp in the summer of 1942 as the reason for the building campaign. [18] Carlo Mattogno attributes the building campaign to the typhus epidemic and a decision by the camp authorities to greatly expand the population of the camp. [19]

One of the reasons deniers need to make this argument is that they must find a justification for building so many ovens. This argument also involves the amount of bodies these new ovens could dispose of in a 24 hour period. A report from the Bauleitung in June 1943, after all of the new ovens became operational for at least some period, placed the cremation capacity of all 52 ovens at 4756 per day. [20] Deniers have not totally agreed among themselves on this issue, but Butz and Mattogno place the cremation capacity at about 1000 per day, or 30,000 per month. [21] Mattogno claimed the maximum cremation capacity of the six original ovens was 120 per day, [22] even though he was familiar with evidence from another concentration camp that showed a Topf double muffle oven could burn 52 per day or 26 per muffle. [23]

anon [277] Disclaimer , says: July 17, 2019 at 2:48 pm GMT
@Nicolás Palacios Navarro "There is more actual documentation and proof of the Armenian Genocide, for example, as a deliberate race/religion-focused act than there is for the Holocaust. "

Philip Jenkins, in his book "The Lost History of Christianity: The Thousand-Year Golden Age of the Church in the Middle East, Africa, and Asia–and How It Died," says:

Some months afterward, Polish Jewish lawyer Raphael Lemkin used the cases of the Assyrians, and the Christian Armenians before them, to argue for a new legal category to be called crimes of barbarity, primarily "acts of extermination directed against the ethnic, religious or social collectivities whatever the motive (political, religious, etc.)." Lemkin developed this theme over the following years, and in 1943 he coined a new word for this atrocious behavior – namely, genocide. The modern concept of genocide as a uniquely horrible act demanding international sanctions has its roots in the thoroughly successful movements to eradicate Middle Eastern Christians. Lemkin recognized acutely that such acts might provide an awful precedent for later regimes: as Hitler asked in 1939, "Who, after all, speaks to-day of the annihilation of the Armenians?"

Historicus , says: July 17, 2019 at 5:02 pm GMT
@Digital Samizdat "Holocaust" is derived from the Greek word meaning an offering that is entirely consumed by fire. It entered the English language in the 1582 Douay Bible, the first English translation of the New Testament by and for Roman Catholics. The scholars who worked on this groundbreaking work were noted for transliterating into English terms found in the original Latin and Greek texts. Other words first used in our language in this Bible include gratis, victim, and, ironically, that most Protestant of words, evangelize.
Rich , says: July 17, 2019 at 8:12 pm GMT
@Fran Taubman It's very difficult to face facts that contradict sincerely held beliefs. But you can't argue the physics of the matter. The nazis didn't have the infrastructure to cremate, or gas, that many people. It would be an impossible project. You must also understand that many Germans, Poles, Russians and others lost their whole families, too, don't you? Such is the terrible cost of war. No one is saying many Jews didn't die in WW2, it's just that the holocaust narrative doesn't stand up to vigorous investigation. That's why some countries have passed laws forbidding research into the issue. There would be no reason to forbid research if the truth landed everyone at the accepted narrative.
Franklin Ryckaert , says: July 17, 2019 at 8:37 pm GMT
@Germanicus Indeed, the burden of the proof is on the accuser. When investigated, the story of the gas chambers, cremations or burnings doesn't stand up. However, millions of Jews were abducted by train and locked up in concentration camps, and did not return . If they were not murdered, then what happened to them? Revisionists have no answer to this legitimate question, and in this case the burden of providing an answer is on them. 100,000 Jews from Holland were abducted, hardly any returned. 400,000 Jews from Hungary were abducted, hardly any returned. If they were not murdered, what became of them?
Fran Taubman , [AKA "Linda"] says: July 17, 2019 at 8:50 pm GMT
@Rich

However, even more incredible was the actions taken by the Nazis between August 19 and September 28 last. Vilkis said that in the middle of August the SS mobilized a party of 100 Russian war prisoners, who were taken to the ravines. On August 19 these men were ordered to disinter all the bodies in the ravine. The Germans meanwhile took a party to a nearby Jewish cemetery whence marble headstones were brought to Babii Yar [sic] to form the foundation of a huge funeral pyre. Atop the stones were piled a layer of wood and then a layer of bodies, and so on until the pyre was as high as a two-story house. Vilkis said that approximately 1,500 bodies were burned in each operation of the furnace and each funeral pyre took two nights and one day to burn completely. The cremation went on for 40 days, and then the prisoners, who by this time included 341 men, were ordered to build another furnace. Since this was the last furnace and there were no more bodies, the prisoners decided it was for them. They made a break but only a dozen out of more than 200 survived the bullets of the Nazi machine guns.[40]

People saw there families disappear before their eyes. Who says that Germany could not perform mass extermination you. If you go on line you can find photos of the outdoor pits with bodies all around. There is a done of evidence. It is not like loosing someone on a fighting front. These people exited a train as a family unit, some walked towards a building with a smoke stack and never came out. Piles of clothes not people. You have to look at this like a human story. Imagine your father disappears at a restaurant. You look and he is no wear to be found. 5 million Jews are missing that is an incontrovertible fact. There are birth certificates and no people.

Nicolás Palacios Navarro , says: Website July 17, 2019 at 9:01 pm GMT
@Fran Taubman So where is the conclusive, definitive, unquestionable truth about this missing "5 million"? Actually, was it not "6 million"? And why is denial of the Holocaust a criminal offense in various Western jurisdictions, but not of the Armenian Genocide, which was perpetrated against a Christian nation and was far better documented?
Rich , says: July 17, 2019 at 10:25 pm GMT
@Fran Taubman I understand that belief in the holocaust is on par with religious belief, and difficult to question, but do you know how many Russians died in WW2? 27,000,000. That's a lot, no? 9.000.000 Germans died and 6,000,000 Poles. All the people of Central Europe suffered horribly in an unnecessary war. Imagine the poor German child, his father killed at Dresden, the Polish kid who lost his Dad at Katyn, the Russian lad, left fatherless after Stalingrad. All European people suffered from the war. Your people are no different, or more special, than these others. Sorry.
turtle , says: July 17, 2019 at 10:34 pm GMT
@Germanicus The Israelis prattle on about "terrorists."
They do know about terrorists, alright, since the State of Israel was founded by terrorists and mass murderers, and they have repeatedly elected such to lead their government over the years.
Pot, meet kettle.
turtle , says: July 18, 2019 at 12:37 am GMT

The allies took away a lot of the files and made use of the results.

Particularly the freezing experiments, as I understand it.
USAF couldn't perform those experiments themselves (not officially, anyway) but were happy to get the data intended for the Luftwaffe.
So what if a few Russian POWs froze to death.
Hell, the evil Commies were our mortal enemies by then, anyhow ('cause We Said So, and Don't You Question It). Strange, how a Valuable and Trusted Ally can turn into Satan Incarnate almost overnight. Devilish, that.

anonymous [307] Disclaimer , says: July 18, 2019 at 12:53 am GMT
@Germanicus How about The Israeli Holocaust Against the Palestinians

https://www.amazon.com/Israeli-Holocaust-Against-Palestinians/dp/0970378424

The criminal zionist jews want this word be used ONLY for the chosen people. Use of this word for others, they think, diminishes their unique case.
Well, many people use this word when they want to expose the zionists' hypocracy.

https://www.timesofisrael.com/before-the-holocaust-ottoman-jews-supported-the-armenian-genocides-architect/

Fran Taubman , [AKA "Linda Rice"] says: July 18, 2019 at 1:01 am GMT
@Theodore I tried to find that article in the Jerusalem Post. I saw the book, but could not find the article.
I have listened to a lot of testimony sounds pretty reasonable to me. The way the transports worked the separations at the train station. The building with the somoke stack. The SS telling the people going to the gas building to take off their clothes and that jobs would await for them after showers, and that the people never came out.
Same story over and over almost repetitive. In many different languages.
Claude Lanzman in his movie ShoA did secret recordings where Germans talked about the trains and transports, and knowing what was going on. Also the gassing vans at Chelmmo.

There is a vast amount of information from Jews and Germans. The Nuremberg trials.

You cannot possible deny this part of history and be normal. Most survivors did not witness the actual gassing and crematorium they were sent to the work barracks.

The Sonderkommando the workers have testified. Filip Muller. These people are not lying. They are not. They talk about the back up of the crematoriums

As early as June 13, 1943, all was not well with the new installation. Eventually the ovens seemed to fall apart. Crematorium Four failed completely after a short time and Crematoria Five had to be shut down repeatedly. (TWC, V:624) (Between 1945 and 1962 Polish officials found five manuscripts written by Sonderkommando members before their deaths. The published manuscripts and documents relate to the specific process of extermination at Birkenau, and provide detailed descriptions of the crematoria and gas chambers.)

mark green , says: July 18, 2019 at 3:55 am GMT
@Hippopotamusdrome Yes, the Nazis killed commies and visa versa. I was referring however to the justice and punishment that was meted out mercilessly after WWII (upon Germany) as well as the stigma, reparations, and shame that is still raining down exclusively on Nazis and their descendents today.

Ex-commies on the other hand suffer no similar opprobrium and face no financial responsibility for their murderous past.

Fran Macadam , says: July 18, 2019 at 7:39 am GMT
Holocaust denial is intellectually unserious. You might as well try to argue Hitler and the Nazis as a positive good as they unleashed death and destruction on neighboring countries and peoples out of a pagan self worship personified in the Fuhrer's own murderous megalomania. He didn't love Jews, he hated them like some reincarnation of Haman who sought their destruction. And not just the big criminals who incidentally were Jewish, but millions of innocents who weren't the Rothchilds in any way whatsoever.

Now it is true that today some people who weren't among the six million Jewish victims of the Nazis, or among the other gentile six million liquidated by them, either, or even alive at the time, use this abysmal episode in human inhumanity to claim immunity for their own current crimes and to claim profitable victimhood by proxy. Or to claim those who challenge their political agenda are Jew haters and Nazis, a phoney but still somewhat useful libel.

And it's true, as Nicholson Baker's Human Smoke reveals, that there were no clean hands among any nations in the events that triggered the path to World War II, including the rise to power of the duplicitous Nazis.

Fran Taubman , [AKA "Linda"] says: July 18, 2019 at 7:40 pm GMT
@Mulegino1

All Yids[a] of the city of Kiev and its vicinity must appear on Monday, September 29, by 8 o'clock in the morning at the corner of Mel'nikova and Dokterivskaya streets (near the Viis'kove cemetery). Bring documents, money and valuables, and also warm clothing, linen, etc. Any Yids[a] who do not follow this order and are found elsewhere will be shot. Any civilians who enter the dwellings left by Yids[a] and appropriate the things in them will be shot.
--  Order posted in Kiev in Russian, Ukrainian, and German on or around 26 September 1941.[15]

I watched what happened when the Jews -- men, women and children -- arrived. The Ukrainians[b] led them past a number of different places where one after the other they had to give up their luggage, then their coats, shoes and over-garments and also underwear. They also had to leave their valuables in a designated place. There was a special pile for each article of clothing. It all happened very quickly and anyone who hesitated was kicked or pushed by the Ukrainians [sic][b] to keep them moving.
--  Michael Berenbaum: "Statement of Truck-Driver Hofer describing the murder of Jews at Babi Yar"[25]

stone cold , says: July 18, 2019 at 8:50 pm GMT
@Fiendly Neighbourhood Terrorist Good 'ol post-modernism creeping into our discussion. There is such a thing as truth as is there the opposite called a lie. Denigrating many fine authors on their Shoah works is certainly not the answer to the eternal question.
Commentator Mike , says: July 18, 2019 at 9:28 pm GMT
@Jacques Sheete OK, Jaques,

Here's a brand new science paper, hot off the presses so to speak, for you and Wally to ponder. I haven't read it yet in detail but it must have passed peer review by referees and all that. The paper even presents time series data of the kills. RU may want to look at this paper too as he's got this high regard for high quality academic works . The references at the bottom of the paper may also be useful to those interested in the research, as well as those mentioned in the right hand side bar.

Quantifying the Holocaust: Hyperintense kill rates during the Nazi genocide, Lewi Stone, Sci Adv. 2019 Jan; 5(1)

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6314819/

FB , says: Website July 19, 2019 at 12:05 am GMT
@Commentator Mike

the words of Savitri Davi, a convicted post-war Nazi sympathiser, who in her book "Defiance" mentions that she met a convicted Nazi woman, a former lay Christian sister, in jail who told her that she murdered a whole bunch of children born to compulsory foreign labourers that she was charged to look after in a children's home established on the factory premises of the motor car Volkswagen Werke company.

Thanks for that story and some of the many other very good materials you have presented

To murder a child never mind a bunch of children, is simply pure evil these kinds of deranged and sadistic episodes played out many thousands of times during the reign of terror of the Nazi scum

Commentator Mike , says: July 19, 2019 at 12:22 am GMT
@Robjil You find the dates during 1942 when US and UK were bombing railway lines in Eastern Europe and report them. Yes there was some bombing of Germany but not much further. Most of the heavy bombing campaign came later and mainly targeted the oil facilities in Ploiesti, Romania. As you can see the graph claims most of the Holocaust killings were done during 1942.

[Jul 22, 2019] Cold War Success Cost America Its Place in the Global Order The National Interest

www.nakedcapitalism.com
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John Andris 2 hours ago ,

Fukuyama a "great scholar"? Bahahahahaha

commentwars 7 hours ago ,

After the cold war ended in the 1990s the US quickly became the worlds leading police state with mass incarceration, more of its own people in jail and prison then any nation in the history of mankind. Who are we now to preach about freedom to the world ?

Binaj 2 days ago ,

When dollar and yanks are gone,peace and prosperity will come

redeemed626 2 days ago ,

The primary weaknesses of liberal democracy and the capitalist order come from the decisions made by voters and captains of industry. When political and economic freedom create impoverishment, income disparity, racial strife, and nationalist xenophobia, the fruits of a free society die on the vine. I see the Yahoo News elderly guys and the Russian trolls are mystified by this obvious state of world affairs.

Mel Profit 2 days ago ,

One of the silliest pieces TNI has ever published.

toucheamigos 2 days ago • edited ,
Through our words and deeds, America demonstrates a positive alternative to political and religious despotism

A negative alternative.

Znaika toucheamigos 15 hours ago ,

The problem is that for many decades american "words" contradict american "deeds", and the whole world can easily see american double standards. That's why american "alternative" is negative, not positive. As an example (one of 100s) we can remember that famous 1939 phrase "Somoza may be a son of a b.., but he's our son of a b..."

toucheamigos 2 days ago ,

This article shows why America will lose eventually. It sill believes that ideals of human rights and democracy are good.

They are not. As a matter of fact they are source of most evil in this world. America creates its own enemies, so they will never end.

Gary Sellars toucheamigos 2 days ago • edited ,

Institutionalized group-think is the Great Enemy of any Empire. It leads to complacency and a refusal to see the world as it really it, and to view oneself as uniquely gifted and therefore exceptional and eternal.

Eventually this will become the prevailing wisdom in post-hegemony US just as it became so in post-Empire Britain or post-Soviet Russia.

Cool2HatE 2 days ago ,

Lets see, mistakes:
Iraq war, Kosovo war, NATO enlargement, let Russia economy crushed at 90's. Let Libya completely, Syria partially destroyed. Become arrogent see non-western nations low. Etc. etc.

We can tell post cold-war is about "end of freedom commercial" and get real "wild capitalism." China was mis-calculation. They decided to use it as cheap workforce and a not-formal colony which ended surprisingly otherwise.

All above talk is a naive try to turn back "freedom commercial" days. Best thing USA can teach now, how to kill people in every imaginable way.

Yuki 3 days ago ,

The post Cold War worst mistake of US was the EU enlargement, Russia could have become less paranoid and nationalist and perhaps a more solid democratic culture would have been established

Gary Sellars Yuki 2 days ago ,

"Democracy" is simply the rule of a small elite minority of organised people over a much greater majority of disorganised people. Russian "democracy" delivers what its people want to the same degree as US "democracy". In fact, judging by Putins much higher domestic approval numbers that the Trumpster, I'd say it delivers more...

Yuki Gary Sellars a day ago ,

Democracy" is simply the rule of a small elite minority of organised people over a much greater majority of disorganised people. This is "oligarchy", not "democracy", the regime that is running in Russia,China,NK and similar heavens of dictators.

toucheamigos Yuki 2 days ago ,

We will never have a democratic culture. We despise that system too much.

Yuki toucheamigos a day ago ,

Oh well, no problem if you not like democracy. you can live everyday with police that can arrest you at midnight, like in old Soviet times.

Gary Sellars 3 days ago ,

"The result was an economic boom, a wave of democratization, and victory in an existential struggle against Communism without yet another great-power global war. "

Victory? I assume you guys are aware that the Chinese are Communists?

Surely you didn't think that global completion over ideology and nationhood was resolved in the Cold War? That was just a single geopolitical skirmish, one game in a whole season. It ain't over till it over.... and its ain't done by a long shot.

Donald Smith Gary Sellars 3 days ago ,

"...are Communists?" Labels don't mean anything. They're huge, getting richer, have an historically motivated chip on their shoulder and want to assume the place in the world, particularly Asia, they feel is their due. They are sensitive to their public's opinion That we have a buffoon in charge is certainly an impediment; we're still involved in 'unforced error' wars the last appointed, incurious executive began as

Gary Sellars Donald Smith 2 days ago • edited ,

China is hard to classify in the traditional sense. Its government is what we would call "Communist", but its ruling ethos is essentially Confucianist , its social ideology is Socialist, but it uses market economics, mercantilism and Capitalism to generate wealth and pay for it all.

The Chinese are not fools. They have taken the best aspects of many ideologies and wielded them into a system that seems to work well for them. What Americans might feel about it is utterly superfluous.

Walter Tseng 3 days ago ,

Whether realizing or not, the author, quoting the National Security Strategy report of 2018, ironically described the US to a T when they wrote "For today, the dictator (the US) may be your friend, but tomorrow he will need you as an enemy (China)". & "... (the US) seek lifetime tenure (hegemony), expanding territories (bases) total authority (MAGA) & obedient subjects"!
.
The philanthropic & much admired champion has grown into an ugly dictator, bending the world to its will through soft & strong power. The global revulsion towards the misuse of hegemonic muscle is what caused the US to lose its place in the Global Order! Simple as that!

Begemot 3 days ago ,

To this panglossian peaen to the American imperial system and its promotion of democracy, human freedom and all other nice things against the dark forces represented by those other guys like Russia and China, let us consider a reality of American foreign policy that belies this tripe: US support of Saudi Arabia from 1945 to the present moment. I suggest that if any of what this writer proposes we believe is true about the motives underlying US foreign policy, then the theocratic and medieval regime Saudi Arabia would no longer exist. Yet it continues to exist and is a valued partner of America.

[Jul 22, 2019] Perhaps the most immediately effective strategy for effecting a realignment of the global economy, ending the US pursuit of global military hegemony and the other planet threatening practices of the US and Western plutocracy would be for other countries to follow the historical precedent set by the United States in its Lend Lease dealings with Great Britain as detailed in Hudson's Super Imperialism >

Notable quotes:
"... Hudson may be hinting at this with his de-dollarization strategy suggest of "Deprivatization and buyouts of US assets abroad." ..."
Jul 22, 2019 | www.nakedcapitalism.com

Steven , July 22, 2019 at 10:35 am

Perhaps the most immediately effective strategy for effecting a realignment of the global economy, ending the US pursuit of global military hegemony and the other planet threatening practices of the US and Western plutocracy would be for other countries to follow the historical precedent set by the United States in its Lend Lease dealings with Great Britain as detailed in Hudson's Super Imperialism :

Britain was near the end of its financial tether. Its gold and dollar reserves had fallen to $1 billion by September 1940, when it nationalized the overseas investments of its large corporations and put them up for sale abroad. (p. 119)

(I am assuming Britain didn't do this voluntarily.) Hudson may be hinting at this with his de-dollarization strategy suggest of "Deprivatization and buyouts of US assets abroad."

This would expose the whole rotten edifice of Western finance capitalism, perhaps provoking a dangerous planet suicidal response. But one or two shots over the bow would be far more effective in curbing the wealth addiction and predatory propensities of the West's plutocracy than Trump's tariffs.

It would also provide the Western money worshipping public with a powerful lesson they need a better definition of wealth than the price of stocks.

[Jul 22, 2019] War Profiteers And The Demise Of The US Military-Industrial Complex

Jul 22, 2019 | www.zerohedge.com

Authored by Dmitry Orlov via Club Orlov blog,

Within the vast bureaucratic sprawl of the Pentagon there is a group in charge of monitoring the general state of the military-industrial complex and its continued ability to fulfill the requirements of the national defense strategy. Office for acquisition and sustainment and office for industrial policy spends some $100,000 a year producing an Annual Report to Congress. It is available to the general public. It is even available to the general public in Russia, and Russian experts had a really good time poring over it.

In fact, it filled them with optimism. You see, Russia wants peace but the US seems to want war and keeps making threatening gestures against a longish list of countries that refuse to do its bidding or simply don't share its "universal values." But now it turns out that threats (and the increasingly toothless economic sanctions) are pretty much all that the US is still capable of dishing out -- this in spite of absolutely astronomical levels of defense spending.

Let's see what the US military-industrial complex looks like through a Russian lens.

It is important to note that the report's authors were not aiming to force legislators to finance some specific project. This makes it more valuable than numerous other sources, whose authors' main objective was to belly up to the federal feeding trough, and which therefore tend to be light on facts and heavy on hype. No doubt, politics still played a part in how various details are portrayed, but there seems to be a limit to the number of problems its authors can airbrush out of the picture and still do a reasonable job in analyzing the situation and in formulating their recommendations.

What knocked Russian analysis over with a feather is the fact that these INDPOL experts (who, like the rest of the US DOD, love acronyms) evaluate the US military-industrial complex from a market-based perspective! You see, the Russian military-industrial complex is fully owned by the Russian government and works exclusively in its interests; anything else would be considered treason. But the US military-industrial complex is evaluated based on its profitability! According to INDPOL, it must not only produce products for the military but also acquire market share in the global weapons trade and, perhaps most importantly, maximize profitability for private investors. By this standard, it is doing well: for 2017 the gross margin (EBITDA) for US defense contractors ranged from 15 to 17%, and some subcontractors - Transdigm, for example - managed to deliver no less than 42-45%. "Ah!" cry the Russian experts, "We've found the problem! The Americans have legalized war profiteering !" (This, by the way, is but one of many instances of something called systemic corruption, which is rife in the US.)

It would be one thing if each defense contractor simply took its cut off the top, but instead there is an entire food chain of defense contractors, all of which are legally required, no less, to maximize profits for their shareholders. More than 28,000 companies are involved, but the actual first-tier defense contractors with which the Pentagon places 2/3 of all defense contracts are just the Big Six: Lockheed Martin, Northrop Grumman, Raytheon, General Dynmics, BAE Systems and Boeing. All the other companies are organized into a pyramid of subcontractors with five levels of hierarchy, and at each level they do their best to milk the tier above them.

The insistence on market-based methods and the requirement of maximizing profitability turns out to be incompatible with defense spending on a very basic level: defense spending is intermittent and cyclical, with long fallow intervals between major orders. This has forced even the Big Six to make cuts to their defense-directed departments in favor of expanding civilian production. Also, in spite of the huge size of the US defense budget, it is of finite size (there being just one planet to blow up), as is the global weapons market. Since, in a market economy, every company faces the choice of grow or get bought out, this has precipitated scores of mergers and acquisitions, resulting in a highly consolidated marketplace with a few major players in each space.

As a result, in most spaces, of which the report's authors discuss 17, including the Navy, land forces, air force, electronics, nuclear weapons, space technology and so on, at least a third of the time the Pentagon has a choice of exactly one contractor for any given contract, causing quality and timeliness to suffer and driving up prices.

In a number of cases, in spite of its industrial and financial might, the Pentagon has encountered insoluble problems. Specifically, it turns out that the US has only one shipyard left that is capable of building nuclear aircraft carriers (at all, that is; the USS Gerald Ford is not exactly a success). That is Northrop Grumman Newport News Shipbuilding in Newport, Virginia. In theory, it could work on three ships in parallel, but two of the slips are permanently occupied by existing aircraft carriers that require maintenance. This is not a unique case: the number of shipyards capable of building nuclear submarines, destroyers and other types of vessels is also exactly one. Thus, in case of a protracted conflict with a serious adversary in which a significant portion of the US Navy has been sunk, ships will be impossible to replace within any reasonable amount of time.

The situation is somewhat better with regard to aircraft manufacturing. The plants that exist can produce 40 planes a month and could produce 130 a month if pressed. On the other hand, the situation with tanks and artillery is absolutely dismal. According to this report, the US has completely lost the competency for building the new generation of tanks. It is no longer even a question of missing plant and equipment; in the US, a second generation of engineers who have never designed a tank is currently going into retirement. Their replacements have no one to learn from and only know about modern tanks from movies and video games. As far as artillery, there is just one remaining production line in the US that can produce barrels larger than 40mm; it is fully booked up and would be unable to ramp up production in case of war. The contractor is unwilling to expand production without the Pentagon guaranteeing at least 45% utilization, since that would be unprofitable.

The situation is similar for the entire list of areas; it is better for dual-use technologies that can be sourced from civilian companies and significantly worse for highly specialized ones. Unit cost for every type of military equipment goes up year after year while the volumes being acquired continuously trend lower -- sometimes all the way to zero. Over the past 15 years the US hasn't acquired a single new tank. They keep modernizing the old ones, but at a rate that's no higher than 100 a year.

Because of all these tendencies and trends, the defense industry continues to lose not only qualified personnel but also the very ability to perform the work. INDPOL experts estimate that the deficit in machine tools has reached 27%. Over the past quarter-century the US has stopped manufacturing a wide variety of manufacturing equipment. Only half of these tools can be imported from allies or friendly nations; for the rest, there is just one source: China. They analyzed the supply chains for 600 of the most important types of weapons and found that a third of them have breaks in them while another third have completely broken down. In the Pentagon's five-tier subcontractor pyramid, component manufacturers are almost always relegated to the bottommost tier, and the notices they issue when they terminate production or shut down completely tend to drown in the Pentagon's bureaucratic swamp.

The end result of all this is that theoretically the Pentagon is still capable of doing small production runs of weapons to compensate for ongoing losses in localized, low-intensity conflicts during a general time of peace, but even today this is at the extreme end of its capabilities. In case of a serious conflict with any well-armed nation, all it will be able to rely on is the existing stockpile of ordnance and spare parts, which will be quickly depleted.

A similar situation prevails in the area of rare earth elements and other materials for producing electronics. At the moment, the accumulated stockpile of these supplies needed for producing missiles and space technology -- most importantly, satellites -- is sufficient for five years at the current rate of use.

The report specifically calls out the dire situation in the area of strategic nuclear weapons. Almost all the technology for communications, targeting, trajectory calculations and arming of the ICBM warheads was developed in the 1960s and 70s. To this day, data is loaded from 5-inch floppy diskettes, which were last mass-produced 15 years ago. There are no replacements for them and the people who designed them are busy pushing up daisies. The choice is between buying tiny production runs of all the consumables at an extravagant expense and developing from scratch the entire land-based strategic triad component at the cost of three annual Pentagon budgets.

There are lots of specific problems in each area described in the report, but the main one is loss of competence among technical and engineering staff caused by a low level of orders for replacements or for new product development. The situation is such that promising new theoretical developments coming out of research centers such as DARPA cannot be realized given the present set of technical competencies. For a number of key specializations there are fewer than three dozen trained, experienced specialists.

This situation is expected to continue to deteriorate, with the number of personnel employed in the defense sector declining 11-16% over the next decade, mainly due to a shortage of young candidates qualified to replace those who are retiring. A specific example: development work on the F-35 is nearing completion and there won't be a need to develop a new jet fighter until 2035-2040; in the meantime, the personnel who were involved in its development will be idled and their level of competence will deteriorate.

Although at the moment the US still leads the world in defense spending ($610 billion of $1.7 trillion in 2017, which is roughly 36% of all the military spending on the planet) the US economy is no longer able to support the entire technology pyramid even in a time of relative peace and prosperity. On paper the US still looks like a leader in military technology, but the foundations of its military supremacy have eroded. Results of this are plainly visible:

All of this points to the fact that the US is no longer much a military power at all. This is good news for at least the following four reasons.

First, the US is by far the most belligerent country on Earth, having invaded scores of nations and continuing to occupy many of them. The fact that it can't fight any more means that opportunities for peace are bound to increase.

Second, once the news sinks in that the Pentagon is nothing more than a flush toilet for public funds its funding will be cut off and the population of the US might see the money that is currently fattening up war profiteers being spent on some roads and bridges, although it's looking far more likely that it will all go into paying interest expense on federal debt (while supplies last).

Third, US politicians will lose the ability to keep the populace in a state of permanent anxiety about "national security." In fact, the US has "natural security" -- two oceans -- and doesn't need much national defense at all (provided it keeps to itself and doesn't try to make trouble for others). The Canadians aren't going to invade, and while the southern border does need some guarding, that can be taken care of at the state/county level by some good ol' boys using weapons and ammo they already happen to have on hand. Once this $1.7 trillion "national defense" monkey is off their backs, ordinary American citizens will be able to work less, play more and feel less aggressive, anxious, depressed and paranoid.

Last but not least, it will be wonderful to see the war profiteers reduced to scraping under sofa cushions for loose change. All that the US military has been able to produce for a long time now is misery, the technical term for which is "humanitarian disaster." Look at the aftermath of US military involvement in Serbia/Kosovo, Afghanistan, Iraq, Libya, Syria and Yemen, and what do you see? You see misery -- both for the locals and for US citizens who lost their family members, had their limbs blown off, or are now suffering from PTSD or brain injury. It would be only fair if that misery were to circle back to those who had profited from it.

Tags War Conflict

[Jul 22, 2019] Soviet POW deaths during WWII

Jul 22, 2019 | www.unz.com

John Regan , says: July 16, 2019 at 3:41 pm GMT

@Hippopotamusdrome The Germans themselves estimated that roughly 600,000 Soviet POWs had died as of late February 1942. Here's a link to a document that was translated for the Nuremberg Trials, but apparently wasn't entered into the evidence:

https://web.archive.org/web/20120309153932/http://library2.lawschool.cornell.edu/donovan/pdf/Nuremberg_3/Vol_IX_16_15_02.pdf

In this document, General von Gravenitz (chief of the Wehrmacht supply services) described the causes of the high mortality like so to Reich Minister Dr. Goebbels:

Furthermore, the OKW counts 1,900,000 Soviet Prisoners of War in the zones of interior and in other occupied areas. As of 1 February 1942, the OKW, according to their tabulation, had available 685,000 Soviet Prisoners of war, and of those 323,000 were present in the Reich. He gave the following reasons for the high mortality: In the great "Kessel" (kettle) battles, the Soviets were contained up to 22 days without any supplies whatsoever. The German armies stormed forward, covering incredibly large distances. The German supply services could bring up to the front only the most necessary ammunitions and living necessities of the fighting troops. Thus, it would have been necessary to feed the Soviet Prisoners of War from supplies of the countryside . However, these supplies had been totally destroyed by the Soviets during their flight-like retreats. The early and abnormal winter did the rest.

In other words, the Soviet scorched earth tactics destroyed the food supplies the Germans had planned to feed the Soviet prisoners with. So then they starved. No genocidal intent was needed. In fact, later in the same document it says:

He [still General Gravenitz] quoted the order of the Fuehrer of September 1941 to the effect that Soviet Prisoners of War should be kept in condition to enable them to work .

Hitler, who according to the politically correct among our historians wanted to have a genocide of all Russians, just because he was a horrible racist, actually ordered his army that they should be fed adequately. Unless this top ranking German general was lying to Goebbels in their top secret conference.

So in the end, as I already wrote, it's still true that great numbers of Soviet POWs did die in the winter of 1941/42, and that IS and remains a great tragedy. But again, hundreds of thousands of Axis soldiers on the Eastern Front also died in this same period, and even modern politically correct historians don't claim that Hitler made his own soldiers a target of genocide. They died because adequate food, fuel, housing and medical care simply wasn't available when the German logistics system had almost collapsed under the impact of the Russian winter.

Germanicus , says: July 16, 2019 at 10:09 pm GMT
@Truth3 I would encourage to research the Polish Typhus epidemic of 1916-1919.
It gives more context, because typhus had occurred in eastern Europe way before WWII, the Soviet "revolution" was the starting point of this epidemic.

In this context, the Patton diary also sheds some light on the hygiene of the eastern European jews from the Shtetls. And yeah, its embarrassing for the Jews, but they have not changed much in that regard. Ie jewish females are forbidden to clean themselves during menstruation period in some of the jewish circles.

A little research on Ellis Island and its function as decontamination island before entering NY is also highly informative. They used Zyklon B as well to disinfect clothes and people. There is even film footage of Ellis Island on the internet, showing immigrants getting fumigated with Zyklon.

Furthermore, the US also operated gas tunnels to disinfect trains.

The sad truth is, Zyklon B was used to save lives.
If Germany wanted to kill all the inmates of the camps, they would have just locked the camps up and had them die of Typhus.
Btw, Auschwitz had only ~40% jewish inmates, the Auschwitz death records revealed it after the collapse of the Soviet Union. It also revealed births in the camps.

Zyklon was used to fight the Typhus epidemic, which could otherwise spread uncontrolled.

Typhus carrying lice do not care what belief a human has before biting and infecting the human. These lice travel far with animals and humans.
Typhus is a danger to ground water and everything, ie you cannot bury typhus infected corpses near settlements, it would contaminate the water supply, hence cremation.

[Jul 22, 2019] Myth and the Russian Pogroms by Andrew Joyce

Jul 22, 2019 | www.unz.com

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The anti-Jewish riots, or "pogroms" of late 19th-century Russia represent one of the most decisive periods in modern Jewish, if not world, history. Most obviously, the riots had demographic implications for western countries – around 80% of today's western Diaspora Jews are descendants of those Jews who left Russia and its environs during the period 1880–1910. But perhaps the most lasting legacy of the period was the enhancement of Jewish "national self-awareness," and the accelerated development of "modern, international Jewish politics." [A1] John Klier, Russians, Jews, and the Pogroms of 1881-2 , (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2011) p.xiii.

The pogroms themselves have consistently been portrayed by (mainly Jewish) historians as "irrational manifestations of hatred against Jews," [A2] Jack Glazier, Dispersing the Ghetto: The Relocation of Jewish Immigrants Across America (New York: Cornell University Press, 1998) p.9. where peasant mobs were the unwitting dupes of malevolent Russian officials. Other explanations are so lacking in evidence, and so devoid of logic that they stretch credulity to breaking point. For example, University of British Columbia Professor, Donald G. Dutton has asserted that the mobs were not motivated by "the sudden rapid increase of the Jewish urban population, the extraordinary economic success of Russian Jews, or the involvement of Jews in Russian revolutionary politics" but rather by the "blood libel." [A3] Donald Dutton, The Psychology of Genocide, Massacres and Extreme Violence (New York: Prager, 2007 ) p.40

Little or no historiography has been dedicated to peeling back the layers of "refugee" stories to uncover what really happened in the Russian Empire in the years before and during the riots. This lack of historical enquiry can be attributed at least in part to a great reluctance on the part of Jewish historians to investigate the pogroms in any manner beyond the merely superficial. In addition, historical enquiry by non-Jewish historians into the subject has been openly discouraged. For example, when Ukrainian historians discovered evidence proving that contemporary media reports of Jewish casualties in that nation were exaggerated, the Jewish genealogy website 'JewishGen,' responded by stating: "We believe that [these facts] are more than irrelevant because it redirects public attention from the major topic: the genocidal essence of pogroms."

It should suffice to state here that this response contravenes the very essence of historical enquiry – to uncover history as it actually happened, irrespective of the uncomfortable truths which may lie therein. The statement could be translated as "Let's not let the facts get in the way of a good story." Also, as this paper will show, the tendency to portray the riots as "genocidal" is completely lacking in foundation. University of California Los Angeles Professor of Sociology, Michael Mann, has provided substantial evidence indicating that "most perpetrators did not conceive of removing Jews altogether." [A4] Michael Mann, The Dark Side of Democracy: Explaining Ethnic Cleansing (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2005) p.142.

JewishGen's allusion to genocide should also be seen as part of a broader problem in modern Jewish historiography. Rather than seeing the pogroms as products of specific local circumstances, in which Jews would play at least an implicit role, there has been a tendency to use them for comparative purposes. John Klier states that when used in a comparative sense, "examples are drawn almost exclusively from the 20th century, and these events are then read back into the earlier period of 1881–2," making any objective historical enquiry difficult, and implying the presence of some non-existent 'pan-European' malaise in anti-Jewish actions.

Nonetheless, this series of essays will seek to peel back the myths, to tease a few threads of truth from the veil which covers these events. Encouragingly, some work has already begun in this respect. I.M. Aronson's assertion that the pogroms were "planned or encouraged to one degree or another, by elements within the government itself," [A5] I.M. Aronson, 'Geographical and Socioeconomic factors in the 1881 Anti-Jewish Pogroms in Russia,' Russian Review , Vol.39, No.1 (Jan. 1980) p.18. has been dealt a death blow in recent years through the concerted work of a small number of non-Jewish historians, mostly notably, University College London's Professor of Hebrew and Jewish Studies, John Doyle Klier. In his 2005 work, Russians, Jews, and the Pogroms of 1881–2 , Klier asserts that "contemporary research has dispelled the myth that Russian officials were responsible for instigating, permitting, or approving the pogroms." [A6] Klier, Russians, Jews, and the Pogroms of 1881-2 , p.xiv.

This series of essays will attempt to move further, adhering to the belief that the facts of the events remain paramount to historical enquiry rather than being a 'distracting' irrelevance. The series will begin with an explanation of the origins of Russia's "Jewish Question." Subsequent articles will concern the pogroms themselves and how myth and exaggeration have plagued our conception of them. Finally, I will examine why these myths were developed, and the broader implications of the prevalence of myth in Jewish 'history.'

Part One: Russia's Jewish Question

In 1772 the Russian Empire orchestrated the first partition of Poland, "erasing from the geopolitical map of Europe a large kingdom, which in the seventeenth century had extended over broad areas between Prussia and southern Ukraine." [A7] Israel Bartal, The Jews of Eastern Europe: 1772-1881 , (Tel Aviv, Ministry of Defence, 2005) p.23. Significantly, in doing so, the Russian Empire also oversaw "the dissolution of the largest Jewish collective in the world." [A8] Ibid, p.24.
(Israel Bartal, The Jews of Eastern Europe: 1772-1881 , (Tel Aviv, Ministry of Defence, 2005) p.23.)
Polish Jewry was divided into three parts – those in Posen came under the sovereignty of Prussia, those in Galicia came under the sovereignty of Austria, and those in Poland proper came under the sovereignty of the Russian Empire. [A9] Israel Friedlander, The Jews of Russia and Poland , (New York: G.P. Putnam, 1915), p.84. In Poland proper, the Polish public turned in on itself, searching frantically for the reasons for the ruin of the nation, and in doing so, states Israel Friedlander, "the Jewish problem could not but force itself on its attention." [A10] Ibid.
(Israel Friedlander, The Jews of Russia and Poland , (New York: G.P. Putnam, 1915), p.84.)

Investigations carried out by special committees discovered that in the decades prior to partition, Polish Jewry had enjoyed a demographic explosion, with Jews now representing almost 20% of the entire population. In addition, it was discovered that Jews controlled a full 75% of Polish exports, and that many were now spilling out of over-populated urban centres into the countryside, making a living by monopolising the sale of liquor to peasants. [A11] Ibid, p.85.
(Israel Friedlander, The Jews of Russia and Poland , (New York: G.P. Putnam, 1915), p.84.)
By 1774, complaints were reaching Russian officials from non-Jewish merchants who argued that Jewish ethnic networking was propping up the monopoly of exports, and that this monopoly would shortly have dire implications for the consumer. [A12] Simon Dubnow, History of the Jews in Russia and Poland , (Bergenfield: Avontayu, 2000), p.173 These revelations were the key motivating factors in the decision to expel Warsaw's Jews in 1775, and until the early 19 th century there was a kind of stand-off between Poles and Jews. [A13] Ibid.
(Simon Dubnow, History of the Jews in Russia and Poland , (Bergenfield: Avontayu, 2000), p.173)
Napoleon's establishment of the Duchy of Warsaw in 1807 did little to alter the situation, as Napoleon acceded to local sentiment which held that Jews should not feel the benefit of the new constitution until they had "eradicated their peculiar characteristics." [A14] Ibid, p.87.
(Simon Dubnow, History of the Jews in Russia and Poland , (Bergenfield: Avontayu, 2000), p.173)
In 1813, the government of the Duchy moved to break the Jewish monopoly on liquor, banning all Jews from selling alcohol in the villages, bringing an end to the activity of "tens of thousands" of Jewish liquor merchants in the provinces. Not surprisingly, when the Duchy was dissolved in 1815 following Napoleon's failed attempt to invade Russia, Polish Jewry shed no tears.

In late 1815, the Congress of Vienna was held. The aim of the congress was to give its assent to the formation of a new autonomous Polish kingdom under the sovereignty of Russia. Although the bulk of Polish Jewry remained within the newly established kingdom, tens of thousands also poured forth into other areas of the Russian Empire, ushering in an uncomfortable age of fraught Russian-Jewish relations. The immediate reaction of the Russian government to the acquisition of such large, and unwanted, Jewish populations was to prevent the penetration of these populations from intrusion into the old Russian territories, and the solution reached was one of containment. A new kind of settlement was created in provinces along the western frontier, and it became known as the "Pale of Settlement." Although a large amount of negative connotations have been attributed to the Pale, it was not an impermeable fortress. Certain Jews were permitted to reside outside these provinces, they could visit trade fairs, and Jews were even permitted to study at Russian universities provided they did not exceed quotas. By 1860, more than half of world Jewry resided in the Pale.

Following the Congress of Vienna, wherever Jews resided in the Russian Empire, they overwhelmingly "served in a variety of middleman roles." In some cities, "the Jewish mercantile element was numerically superior to the Christian," and there was a gradual move towards the reacquisition of the liquor trade. [A15] Simon Dubnow, History of the Jews in Russia and Poland , (Bergenfield: Avontayu, 2000), p.173 According to Klier, by 1830 Belorussian Jews were found to be "totally dominating trade" in that country. [A16] John Klier, Pogroms: Anti-Jewish Violence in Modern Russian History , (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004) p.4. It was largely Klier's work in the late 1980s which began to truly shed light on the origins of Russian-Jewish relations prior to 1914. Klier, born into a Catholic family in Kansas, "rejected what might be called the Fiddler on the Roof pieties and simplifications. In book after book, he emphasised that what the tsars and their ministers wanted, above all else, was for the Jewish settlements to be orderly and productive." [A17] http://www.guardian.co.uk/news/2007/oct/26/guardian...uaries Klier further stressed that the much-maligned Pale of Settlement was simply the only response that the Russian administration could come up with, faced as they were with the "baffling question" of how to deal with the "fanaticism of ultra-Orthodox Jewry" which was thoroughly "unassimilable to official purposes." [A18] http://www.guardian.co.uk/news/2007/oct/26/guardian...uaries

In 1841, investigations were carried out into Russia's Jewish communities, and the subsequent reports pointed to three significant problems. The first was persistent Jewish difference in dress, language, and religious and communal organization. The idea underpinning this aloofness from non-Jewish society, the 'Chosen' status of the Jews and an accompanying ethnic chauvinism, was said to be particularly harmful to Jewish-Gentile relations, particularly when it was reinforced through "a system of male education that was thought to inculcate anti-Christian interpretations of the Talmud." [A19] Klier, Russians, Jews, and the Pogroms of 1881-2 , p.3. The second, related, problem was that Jewish economic practices were also rooted in this aloofness. The Talmud "encouraged and justified unreserved economic exploitation based on cheating and exploiting the non-Jews," [A20] Ibid.
(Klier, Russians, Jews, and the Pogroms of 1881-2 , p.3.)
in a validation of Max Weber's theory of 'internal' and 'external' ethics, whereby "members of a cohesive social unit observe different moral standards among themselves compared with those observed in relation to strangers." [A21] Jacob Katz, Exclusiveness and Tolerance: Jewish-Gentile Relations in Medieval and Modern Times (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1962) p.56. The third aspect of the Russian 'Jewish Question,' was the issue of Jewish loyalty. The Jews of the Russian Empire had evidently retained the kahal of pre-partition Polish Jewry. The kahal was a formal system of Jewish communal leadership and government, entirely separate from the Russian state. Although tacitly tolerated by the state for its tax collection capabilities, Jewish loyalty to the kahal was absolute, going beyond the merely fiscal. Almost all Jews continued to resort to Jewish courts.

John Klier states that following these revelations, "state and society shared a consensus that Jews could be – and must be – reformed and transformed into good subjects of the realm." [A22] Ibid.
(Jacob Katz, Exclusiveness and Tolerance: Jewish-Gentile Relations in Medieval and Modern Times (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1962) p.56.)
Under Emperor Alexander I (1801–25) there had been attempts to encourage Jews to pursue more productive economic activities. Generous concessions were made to Jews in the hope that they would abandon their middleman roles, as well as the distilleries and taverns of the provinces, and take up work in agricultural colonies. Klier states that the "embeddedness of the Jews in the economic and social life of the imperial borderlands ensured that despite legislative initiatives, Jewish economic life remained largely unchanged." [A23] Klier, Russians, Jews, and the Pogroms of 1881-2 , p.4

In 1844, under Nicholas I, the Russian government began a program of reforms and legislation designed to break down Jewish exclusivity and incorporate the nation's Jews more fully into Russian society. Not surprisingly, the government first took aim at the kahal , banning it as "an illegal underground structure." [A24] Ibid.
(Klier, Russians, Jews, and the Pogroms of 1881-2 , p.4)
The significance of the banning of the kahal went beyond tackling the issue of Jewish loyalty. The mutual assistance offered by the kahal was felt to have had economic implications – "it was the mutual support provided by the kahal that ensured that Jews were more than a match for any competitor, even the arch-exploiter of the Russian village, the kulak." [A25] Ibid.
(Klier, Russians, Jews, and the Pogroms of 1881-2 , p.4)
The civil rights of any "Jews who were perceived to be engaged in productive undertakings" were extended, though there were few takers. Nicholas I even conceived of, and supported, the establishment of state-financed Jewish schools, in the hope that such establishments would lead to the development of a more progressive and integrative Russian Jewry. Unfortunately for Nicholas, what his system produced was a cadre of Jewish intellectuals profoundly hostile to the state.

Emperor Alexander II continued the efforts of Mother Russia to gather in her Jews. He abolished serfdom in 1861. He relaxed efforts to change the economic profile of Russian Jewry, extending the rights of educated Jews and large-scale merchants. His was a program aimed at reconciliation, an abandonment of the stick in favour of the carrot. Education was made fully open to Jews, and Jews could sit on the juries of Russian courts. Conditions on settlement and mobility in the Pale were relaxed further. Klier states that "Jews even became the subject of sympathetic concern for the leaders of public opinion. Proposals for the complete emancipation of the Jews were widely mooted in the press." [A26] Klier, Russians, Jews, and the Pogroms of 1881-2 , p.5

These measures, however, were also accompanied by a growing uneasiness with the way the Jews of Russia took advantage of them. There was little in the way of gratitude, and the measures did not bring about the great changes that had been hoped for. The nationalist revolt of the Poles in 1863, and the fact that a large number of wealthy Jews were found to have funded some of the rebels cast new doubts on Jewish loyalty. Having emancipated the peasantry and adopted a paternalistic concern for the former serfs, the government also viewed with alarm the rapidity with which the "Jews were exploiting the unsophisticated and ignorant rural inhabitants, reducing them to a Jewish serfdom." [A27] Klier, Russians, Jews, and the Pogroms of 1881-2 , p.5 It also quickly became apparent that despite new military legislation, Jews were noticeable in their overwhelming avoidance of military service. In retaliation, the government clamped down on rural tavern ownership, and introduced more stringent recruitment procedures specifically for Jews. It has been claimed that Jews were also banned from land ownership at this time, but Klier provides evidence that Jews were still able to buy any peasant properties sold at auction for tax arrears, as well as any property within the Pale not owned by Russian gentry. [A28] Ibid.
(Klier, Russians, Jews, and the Pogroms of 1881-2 , p.5)

By the end of Alexander II's reign, disillusionment with the government's policy at handling the Jewish Question was widespread. The vast majority of Jews had stubbornly persisted in the unproductive trades, continued in their antipathy to Russian culture, and refused to make any meaningful contribution to Russian society. An air of resignation swept the country. Some newspapers even advocated abolishing the Pale, if only to alleviate that region from bearing the burden of the Jews alone. Other papers opposed this "fearing for the welfare of the peasantry at a time when the cultural level of the peasantry made them an easy target for exploitation." [A29] Ibid, p.6
(Klier, Russians, Jews, and the Pogroms of 1881-2 , p.5)
Meanwhile Jews were beginning to swamp higher education establishments. In Odessa, there were reports that in school after school, Jews were "driving Christians from the school benches," and "filling up the schools." [A30] Ibid.
(Klier, Russians, Jews, and the Pogroms of 1881-2 , p.5)

On the eve of the assassination of Alexander II, Russia's Jewish Question remained unanswered. Decades of legislation had done little to change the nature of Russian Jewry, which remained ethnically, politically, and culturally homogenous. The new Jewish intelligentsia had turned on the hand that fed it, failing to encourage the adaptation of their fellow Jews, moving instead to defend them and advocate for their interests. In terms of educational and social opportunities, Jews had been given an inch and taken a mile. They had swamped the schools, and added to a group of emergent Jewish capitalists. In 1879 Russian authorities were being lobbied by a Rabbinic Commission for full emancipation, an ominous prospect for those concerned about the well-being of Russian peasantry.

The breaking point, when it came, did not emerge from the ether, but from this historical background. In part two we will examine the more immediate origins of the anti-Jewish riots and how the riots proceeded. We will do away with petty distractions, dispelling myths with facts; and as we venture into the Pale, we now do so with a more complete view of the Jew we find there.

Part Two: The Jewish Narrative

Having grounded ourselves in the history of Russia's Jewish Question, it is now time for us to turn our attention to the anti-Jewish riots of the 1880s. The following essay will first provide the reader with the standard narrative of these events advanced by Jewish contemporaries and the majority of Jewish historians -- a narrative which has overwhelmingly prevailed in the public consciousness. The latter half of the essay will be devoted to dissecting one aspect of the Jewish narrative, and explaining how events really transpired. Other aspects of the Jewish narrative will be examined in later entries in this series. While a work like this can come in for heavy criticism from certain sections of the population who may denounce it as 'revisionist,' I can only say that 'revisionism' should be at the heart of every historical work. If we blindly accept the stories that are passed down to us, we are liable to fall victim to what amounts to little more than a glorified game of Chinese whispers. And, if we taboo the right of the historian to reinterpret history in light of new research and new discoveries, then we have become far removed from anything resembling true scholarship.

In 1881 the 'Russo-Jewish Committee,' (RJC) an arm of Britain's Jewish elite, mass-produced a pamphlet entitled "The Persecution of the Jews in Russia," and began disseminating it through the press, the churches, and numerous other channels. By 1899, it was embellished and published as a short book, and today digitized copies are freely available online. [B1] http://archive.org/stream/persecutionofjew00russ By the early 20th century, the pamphlet had even spawned a four-page journal called Darkest Russia – A Weekly Record of the Struggle for Freedom , ensuring that the average British citizen did not go long without being reminded of the 'horrors' facing Russian Jews. [B2] Max Beloff, The Intellectual in Politics: And other essays , (London: Taylor and Francis, 1970) p.135 The fact that these publications were mass produced should provide an indication as to their purpose: It is clear that these publications represented one of the most ambitious propaganda campaign in Jewish history, and combined with similar efforts in the United States, they were aimed at gaining the attention of, and 'educating,' the Western nations and ensuring the primacy of the 'Jewish side of the story.' Implicit in this was not only a desire to provoke anti-Russian attitudes, but also copious amounts of sympathy for the victimized Jews -- sympathy necessary to ensure that mass Jewish chain migration to the West went on untroubled and unhindered by nativists. After all, wasn't the bigoted nativist just a step removed from the rampaging Cossack?

The first element of the narrative advanced by the RJC is essentially a manipulation of the history of Russian-Jewish relations. It holds that the Jews of Eastern Europe have been oppressed for centuries, their whole lives "hampered, from cradle to grave, by restrictive laws." [B3] The Persecution of the Jews in Russia , (London: Russo-Jewish Committee, 1899), p.3. It was claimed that the Russians had an unwritten law: "That no Russian Jew shall earn a living." [B4] Ibid, p.4
( The Persecution of the Jews in Russia , (London: Russo-Jewish Committee, 1899), p.3.)
Russian Jews, according to the Russo-Jewish Committee, have wanted nothing more than to participate in Russian society, but have been rebuffed time and again as "heretics and aliens." The Pale is an impenetrable fortress, where every Jew "must live and die." Implicit in this interpretation of the history of Russian-Jewish relations in the belief that "the fount and origin of all the ills that assail Russian Jewry" has nothing to do with the Jews themselves, but everything to do with the Church, the State, and the Pale. In essence, the plight of the Jews was the result of nothing more than irrational hatred. Jews adopt a meek and passive role in this narrative, having committed no wrong-doing other than being Jews. They are also presented as the only victims of Russian violence. There is no acknowledgement of failed Russian efforts to break down the Jewish walls of exclusivity and claim the Jews as brothers. In fact, there is no reference at all to the walls of exclusivity. The pogroms themselves, according to the Jewish narrative, broke out following the assassination of Alexander II, when shock, anger and a desire for revenge brought this irrational, rootless hatred to the surface.

The second element of the Jewish narrative is that the government and petty officialdom had some role to play in organizing and directing the pogroms. Much disdain is heaped on the government, and petty officialdom, which was said to have been afflicted with "a chronic anti-Semitic outlook." It was claimed that when the riots began, the government was "not altogether sorry to let the excitement of the people vent itself on the Jews." [B5] The Persecution of the Jews in Russia , (London: Russo-Jewish Committee, 1899), p.5 In reference to the restrictive May Laws, the authors were forced to concede they had never really been enforced, but maintained that "whether moderately or rigorously applied, the May Laws still remained on the Russian Statute Book." [B6] Ibid, p.8
( The Persecution of the Jews in Russia , (London: Russo-Jewish Committee, 1899), p.5)

The third element of the Jewish narrative is that the pogroms were genocidal, and that they had been organized and perpetrated by groups seeking the extermination of the Jews. The 1899 edition of "The Persecution of the Jews in Russia" included a copy of a lengthy letter written to the London Times by Nathan Joseph, Secretary of the RJC, dated November 5th, 1890. In the letter, Joseph claimed that in the present circumstances "hundreds of thousands could be exterminated," [B7] Ibid, p.36
( The Persecution of the Jews in Russia , (London: Russo-Jewish Committee, 1899), p.5)
and that Russian legislation in relation to Jews represented "an instrument of torture and persecution." In sum, the Jews of Russia were claimed to be living under "a sentence of death," and it was further claimed that "the executions are proceeding." The letter ends with an appeal to "Civilized Europe" to intervene, chastise Russia, and aid the victimized Jews. [B8] Ibid, p.38.
( The Persecution of the Jews in Russia , (London: Russo-Jewish Committee, 1899), p.5)

The fourth key element of the Jewish narrative is that the pogroms were extremely violent in nature. Contemporary media reports especially were the source of most of the atrocity stories, reportedly gleaned from newly-arrived 'refugees' who had given statements to the Russo-Jewish Committee about the pogroms they had fled. In these reports, which were carried very regularly by both the New York Times and the London Times , Russians were charged with having committed the most fiendish atrocities on the most enormous scale. Every Jew in the Russian Empire was under threat. Men had been ruthlessly murdered, tender infants had been dashed on the stones or roasted alive in their own homes. During a British parliamentary consultation on the pogroms in 1905, a Rabbi Michelson claimed that "the atrocities had been so fiendish that they could find no parallel even in the most barbarous annals of the most barbarous peoples." [B9] Anthony Heywood, The Russian Revolution of 1905: Centenary Perspectives (New York: Routledge, 2005) p.266. The New York Times reported that during the 1903 Kishinev pogrom "babes were literally torn to pieces by the frenzied and bloodthirsty mob." [B10] "Jewish Massacre Denounced," New York Times , April 28, 1903, p.6

A common theme in most contemporary atrocity stories was the brutal rape of Jewish women, with most reports including mention of breasts being hacked off. There are literally thousands of carbon-copy reports in which it is claimed that mothers were raped alongside their daughters. There is simply not enough space to cite extensively from these articles, but they number in their thousands and are available to anyone with access to the digitized archives of any major newspaper, or the microfilm facilities at major libraries. In addition, these articles claim that whole streets inhabited by Jews had been razed, and the Jewish quarters of towns had been systematically fired.

The 'atrocity' aspect of the narrative has continued to be advanced by Jewish historians. For example Anita Shapira, in her Stanford-published, Land and Power: The Zionist Resort to Force, 1881-1948 , claims that "each series of new riots was worse than the one preceding, as if every bloodbath provided a permit for an even worse massacre." [B11] Anita Shapira, Land and Power: The Zionist Resort to Force, 1881-1948 (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1999), p.35 Shapira further hints that the murder of Jewish babies was common during the pogroms, stating that a common worry of Russian Jews was "Will they take pity on the small babies, who do not even know yet that they are Jews?" [B12] Ibid, p.34.
(Anita Shapira, Land and Power: The Zionist Resort to Force, 1881-1948 (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1999), p.35)
She concludes one particular section on pogrom violence by stating, without referencing any evidence, that there were "numerous acts of rape," and that "many were massacred -- men, women, and children. The cruelty that marked these killings added a special dimension to the feeling of terror and shock that spread in their wake." [B13] Ibid.
(Anita Shapira, Land and Power: The Zionist Resort to Force, 1881-1948 (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1999), p.35)
Joseph Brandes, in his 2009 Immigrants to Freedom alleges, without citing evidence, that mobs "threw women and children out of the windows" of their homes, and that "heads were battered with hammers, nails were driven into bodies, eyes were gouged out and petroleum was poured over the sick found hiding in cellars and they were burned to death." [B14] Joseph Brandes, Immigrants to Freedom , (New York: Xlibris, 2009) p.171

Another crucial element to the Jewish narrative is that Russia is barbaric, ignorant, and uncivilized compared to the Jewish citizens of the country. Russia is said to be lingering in the "medieval stage of development," [B15] The Persecution of the Jews in Russia , (London: Russo-Jewish Committee, 1899), p.4 and in comparison to the "ignorant and superstitious peasantry," [B16] The Persecution of the Jews in Russia , (London: Russo-Jewish Committee, 1899), p.30 Russia's Jews are presented as an outpost of Western civilization -- they are urban, and "intellectual." The RJC publication argued that university quotas allowing 5% of the student body to be made up of Jews were insufficient for "an intellectual race." Astonishingly, it is claimed that "the root of the whole matter is racial arrogance," [B17] Ibid.
( The Persecution of the Jews in Russia , (London: Russo-Jewish Committee, 1899), p.30)
though this arrogance of course is said to emanate from the Russians.

The RJC charged the government with criminal sympathy, the local authorities generally with criminal inaction, and some of the troops with active participation. The situation, they argued, was simply so hopeless and the possibility of extermination was so great, that the only way out was for the civilized nations of the West to throw open their doors and let in these poor 'Hebrews'.

And to a great extent this is exactly what the churches, the politicians, and the media agreed to. This capitulation to manipulated conscience ushered in the greatest migration in Jewish history, with profound consequences for us all. But there was just one small problem -- the vast majority of this narrative was a calculated, designed, and expertly promoted fraud, furthered by the willing participation of Russian-Jewish emigrants who wished to ease their own access to the West and obtain "relief money from Western Europe and America." [B18] Albert Lindemann, Esau's Tears: Modern Anti-Semitism and the Rise of the Jews (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1997) p.291.

The 'Atrocities'

Let us first turn our attention to the atrocity stories. Prior to any major reports of violence, the British public was already being primed to hate the Russian government and accept the Jewish narrative. John Doyle Klier points out that the Daily Telegraph was at that time Jewish-owned, and was particularly "severe" in its reports on Russian treatment of Jews prior to 1881. [B19] John Doyle Klier, Russians, Jews and the Pogroms of 1881-82 , p.399 In the pages of this publication, it was stated that "these Russian atrocities are only the beginning. [T]he Russian officials themselves countenance these barbarities." [B20] Ibid.
(John Doyle Klier, Russians, Jews and the Pogroms of 1881-82 , p.399)
Around this time in Continental Europe, Prussian Rabbi Yizhak Rülf established himself as an "intermediary" between Eastern Jewry and the West, and, according to Klier, one of his specialities was the spreading of "sensationalized accounts of mass rape." [B21] Ibid.
(John Doyle Klier, Russians, Jews and the Pogroms of 1881-82 , p.399)

Other major sources of pogrom atrocity stories were the New York Times , the London Times , and the Jewish World . It would be the Jewish World which furnished the majority of these tales, having sent a reporter "to visit areas that had suffered pogroms." [B22] Ibid, p.400
(John Doyle Klier, Russians, Jews and the Pogroms of 1881-82 , p.399)
Most of the other papers simply reprinted what the Jewish World reporter sent them. The atrocity stories carried by these newspapers provoked global outrage. There were large-scale public protests against Russia in Paris, Brussels, London, Vienna, and even in Melbourne, Australia. However, "it was in the United States that public indignation reached its height." Historian Edward Judge states that the American public was spurred on by reports of "brutal beatings, multiple rapes, dismemberment of corpses, senseless slaughter, painful suffering and unbearable grief." [B23] Edward Judge, Easter in Kishinev: Anatomy of a Pogrom (New York: New York University Press, 1993) p.89.

However, as John Klier states, the reports of the Jewish World 's "Special Correspondent," "raise intriguing problems for the historian." [B24] John Doyle Klier, Russians, Jews and the Pogroms of 1881-82 , p.400 While his itinerary of travel is described as "plausible," most of his accounts are "flatly contradicted by the archival record." [B25] Ibid, p.401
(John Doyle Klier, Russians, Jews and the Pogroms of 1881-82 , p.400)
His claim that twenty rioters were killed during a pogrom in Kishinev in 1881 has been proven to be a fabrication by records which show that in that city, at that time, "there were no significant pogroms and no fatalities." [B26] Ibid
(John Doyle Klier, Russians, Jews and the Pogroms of 1881-82 , p.400)
Other claims that he witnessed shootings of peasants on his travels have been entirely discredited due to the vast number of minor inaccuracies in those accounts.

Furthermore, Klier states that the atrocity stories compiled by the Jewish World correspondent, which went on to be so influential in manipulating Western perceptions of the events, must be treated with "extreme caution." [B27] Ibid.
(John Doyle Klier, Russians, Jews and the Pogroms of 1881-82 , p.400)
The reporter "portrayed the pogroms dramatically, as great in scale and inhuman in their brutality. He reported numerous accounts where Jews were burned alive in their homes while the authorities looked on." [B28] Ibid.
(John Doyle Klier, Russians, Jews and the Pogroms of 1881-82 , p.400)
There are hundreds of instances where he references the murder of children, the mutilation of women, and the biting off of fingers.

Klier states that "the author's most influential accounts, given their effect on world opinion, were his accounts of the rape and torture of girls as young as ten or twelve." [B29] Ibid.
(John Doyle Klier, Russians, Jews and the Pogroms of 1881-82 , p.400)
In 1881 he reported 25 rapes in Kiev, of which five were said to have resulted in fatalities, in Odessa he claimed 11, and in Elizavetgrad he claimed 30. [B30] Ibid.
(John Doyle Klier, Russians, Jews and the Pogroms of 1881-82 , p.400)
Rape featured prominently in the reports, not because rapes were common, but because rape "even more than murder and looting" was known to "generate particular outrage abroad." Klier states that "Jewish intermediaries who were channelling pogrom reports abroad were well aware of the impact of reports of rape, and it featured prominently in their accounts." [B31] Ibid, p.12
(John Doyle Klier, Russians, Jews and the Pogroms of 1881-82 , p.400)
The two most dramatic and gruesome accounts came from Berezovka and Borispol. In fact, as the year neared its end, the reports became more and more gruesome and brutal in the details they conveyed.

There is, of course, a reason for this. As the non-Jewish public began to tire of the reports and switched their minds to the coming Christmas festivities, Klier states that records show the RJC made a conscious and calculated decision to "keep Russian Jewry before the eyes of the public." [B32] Ibid, p.404
(John Doyle Klier, Russians, Jews and the Pogroms of 1881-82 , p.400)
A key component of this strategy was to take the accounts of the Special Correspondent and publish them in a more widely circulated and respected newspaper. They settled on the London Times , which was already predisposed to "critical editorial faulting of the Russian government." Klier further states that these evidently false reports "garnished with the prestige of The Times and devoid of any attribution, subsequently published as a separate pamphlet, and translated into a variety of European languages became the definitive Western version of the pogroms." [B33] Ibid.
(John Doyle Klier, Russians, Jews and the Pogroms of 1881-82 , p.400)

As increasingly lurid atrocity tales again captured the attention of the Gentile public, the British Government found itself under pressure to intervene. The British Government, however, adopted a more cautious approach and undertook its own independent investigations into events in the Russian Empire. Its findings, published as a "Blue Book," "presented an account of events at great variance with that offered by The Times ." [B34] Ibid, p.405. ( Correspondence Respecting the Treatment of Jews in Russia, Nos. 1 and 2, 1882, 1883)
(John Doyle Klier, Russians, Jews and the Pogroms of 1881-82 , p.400)
The most notable aspect of the independent inquiry is the outright denial of mass rape. In January 1882, Consul-General Stanley objected to all of the details contained within reports published by The Times , mentioning in particular the unfounded "accounts of the violation of women." [B35] John Doyle Klier, Russians, Jews and the Pogroms of 1881-82 , p.405 He further stated that his own investigations revealed that there had been no incidences of rape during the Berezovka pogrom, that violence was rare, and that much of the disturbance was restricted to property damage. In relation to property damage in Odessa, Stanley estimated it to be around 20,000 rubles, and rejected outright the Jewish claim that damage amounted to over one million rubles.

Vice-Consul Law, another independent investigator, reported that he had visited Kiev and Odessa, and could only conclude that "I should be disinclined to believe in any stories of women having been outraged in those towns." [B36] Ibid.
(John Doyle Klier, Russians, Jews and the Pogroms of 1881-82 , p.405)
Another investigator, Colonel Francis Maude, visited Warsaw and said that he could "not attach any importance" to atrocity reports emanating from that city. [B37] Ibid.
(John Doyle Klier, Russians, Jews and the Pogroms of 1881-82 , p.405)
At Elizavetgrad, instead of whole streets being razed to the ground, it was discovered that a small hut had lost its roof. It was further discovered that very few Jews, if any, had been intentionally killed, though some died of injuries received in the riots. These were mainly the result of conflicts between groups of Jews who defended their taverns and rioters seeking alcohol. The small number of Jews who had been intentionally killed had fallen victim to unstable individuals who had been drunk on Jewish liquor -- accusations of murderous intent among the masses were simply unfounded and unsubstantiated by the evidence.

When these reports were made public, states Klier, they represented "a serious setback for the protest and aid activities of the RJC." [B38] Ibid, p.405.
(John Doyle Klier, Russians, Jews and the Pogroms of 1881-82 , p.405)
The Times was forced to backtrack, but responded spitefully (and bizarrely) by stating that the indignation of the country was still justified even if the atrocities were "the creations of popular fancy." [B39] Ibid.
(John Doyle Klier, Russians, Jews and the Pogroms of 1881-82 , p.405)
(Reminiscent of the JewishGen response to Ukrainian discoveries mentioned in Part 1 of this series?!)

The revelations came at a bad time for the RJC, which was at that time attempting to move the British Government to "act in some way on behalf of persecuted Russian Jewry." [B40] Ibid.
(John Doyle Klier, Russians, Jews and the Pogroms of 1881-82 , p.405)
It resorted to republishing (in the Times ) its pamphlet on persecution in Russia twice in one month, presumably in the belief that blunt repetition would suffice to overcome tangible evidence. Klier states that the pieces were examples of "masterful" propaganda, as they attempted to undermine the credibility of the Government consuls, while sycophantically appealing to "the wise and noble people of England," who "will know what weight should be attached to such denials and refutations." [B41] Ibid, p.406.
(John Doyle Klier, Russians, Jews and the Pogroms of 1881-82 , p.405)
The RJC offered its own "corroborative evidence of the most undeniable kind," though of course the exact source of this evidence was not specified beyond "persons occupying high official positions in the Jewish community" and "Jewish refugees."

In essence, the people of western nations were being asked to trust an anonymous Rabbi on the other side of the world rather than identifiable representatives of their own government. The pieces, states Klier, "painted the familiar picture of murder and rape," and despite the debunking statements of the consuls, "a number of mother/daughter rapes, which had already done so much to outrage British public opinion, were again repeated." [B42] Ibid.
(John Doyle Klier, Russians, Jews and the Pogroms of 1881-82 , p.405)
Although the move for British government intervention failed, in the battle for public opinion "the RJC clearly won the day," and the Times and the RJC remained good bedfellows.

The Consuls were outraged. Stanley reiterated the fact that his intensive investigations, which he carried out at great personal cost with a serious leg injury, illustrated that " The Times' accounts of what took place at each of those places contains the greatest exaggerations, and that the account of what took place at some of those places is absolutely untrue." [B43] John Doyle Klier, Russians, Jews and the Pogroms of 1881-82 , p.407. He related the fact that a Rabbi in Odessa had "not heard of any outrages on women there," and that the object of almost every pogrom he had investigated was simple "plunder." [B44] John Doyle Klier, Russians, Jews and the Pogroms of 1881-82 , p.408. Enraged by the lies circulating in Britain and America, Stanley "went right to the top," interviewing state rabbis and asking for evidence and touring pogrom sites. In Odessa, where a wealth of atrocity stories had originated, he was able to confirm "one death, but no looting of synagogues or victims set alight." There was no evidence that a single rape had taken place. One state Rabbi admitted that he had not heard of any outrages of women in Berezovka and further assured Stanley that he "could with a clear conscience positively deny that any deaths or any violations had occurred there during the disturbances of last year." [B45] Ibid.
(John Doyle Klier, Russians, Jews and the Pogroms of 1881-82 , p.408.)
He again sent this report to his superior in London, with a note saying "This is in accordance with all the information I have received and forwarded to your Lordship, and which I think more credible than anonymous letters in The Times ." [B46] Ibid.
(John Doyle Klier, Russians, Jews and the Pogroms of 1881-82 , p.408.)

Despite Stanley's best efforts the Jewish narrative advanced by the RJC, imbued with atrocity tales, has remained unalterably attached in Western perceptions of the pogroms. The Blue Book was smothered by the more visible, and oft-repeated, tales of the RJC and organisations like it around the globe. Only with the decade-long research of John Klier has some revision of this narrative, grounded in scholarship and archival evidence, been possible. In light of this evidence, one can only conclude that stories of rape, murder and mutilation were "more legendary than factual." [B47] Ibid, p. 13.
(John Doyle Klier, Russians, Jews and the Pogroms of 1881-82 , p.408.)
However, the task remains to further dismantle and analyse other aspects of the Jewish narrative, and to seek the true motives behind its creation.

Part Three: Anti-Jewish Riots in the Russian Empire Before 1880

We continue our series of essays examining the Russian Pogroms with this essay on the part played by Jews in provoking the disturbances. As stated in Part Two, one of the key problems with existing historiography on the pogroms (and 'anti-Semitism' generally) is that these narratives invariably argue that the plight of the Jews was the result of nothing more than irrational hatred. Jews adopt a meek and passive role in this narrative, having committed no wrong-doing other than being Jews. There is no sense of Jewish agency, and one is left with the impression that Jews historically have lacked the capacity to act in the world. In almost every single academic and popular history of the pogroms, the author blindly accepts, or willfully perpetuates, the basic premise that Jews had been hated in the Russian Empire for centuries, that this hatred was irrational and rootless, and that the outbreak of anti-Jewish riots late in the 19 th century was a 'knee-jerk' emotional response to the assassination of the Tsar and some blood libel accusations.

This is of course far from the truth, but the prevalence of this 'victim paradigm' plays two significant roles. Firstly, Jewish historiography is saturated with allusions to the "unique" status of Jews, who have suffered a "unique" hatred at the hands of successive generations of Europeans. In essence, it is the notion that Jews stand alone in the world as the quintessential "blameless victim." To allow for any sense of Jewish agency -- any argument that Jews may have in some way contributed to anti-Jewish sentiment -- is to harm the perpetuation of this paradigm. In this sense, the 'victim paradigm' also contributes heavily to the claim for Jewish uniqueness and, as Norman Finkelstein has pointed out, one can clearly see in many examples of Jewish historiography the tendency to focus not so much on the "suffering of Jews" but rather on the simple fact that "Jews suffered." [C1] Norman Finkelstein, 'The Holocaust Industry,' Index on Censorship , 29:2, 120-130, p.124 As a result, the paradigm offers no place to non-Jewish suffering. Simply put, the 'victim paradigm' is a form of secular "chosenness." This aspect of the narrative is seen, quite rightly, as a useful tool in the here and now. There is perhaps no race on earth which uses its history to justify its actions in the present quite like the Jewish people. From seeking reparations to establishing nation states, Jewish history is one of the foundation stones propping up Jewish international politics in the present. As such, Jewish history is carefully constructed and fiercely defended. The interplay between Jewish history and contemporary Jewish politics is plain to see -- I need only make reference to the terms "revisionist" and "denier" to conjure up images of puppet trials and prison cells.

Secondly, the omission of the Jewish contribution to the development of anti-Semitism (be it in a village setting or a national setting), leaves the spotlight burning all the more ferociously on the 'aggressor.' Within this context, the blameless victim is free to make the most ghastly accusations, basking in the assurance that his own role, and by extension his own character, is unimpeachable. The word of this untainted, unique, blameless victim is taken as fact -- to doubt his account is to be in league with the 'aggressor.' In Part Two we explored the manner in which the RJC took full advantage of this construct to purvey appalling, and unfounded, atrocity stories. More generally, exaggerated tales of brutality by non-Jews are commonplace in Jewish literature and historiography, and go hand in hand with images of dove-like Jews. For example, Finkelstein has pointed to Jerzy Kosinski's The Painted Bird , a work now widely acknowledged as "the first major Holocaust hoax," as an example of this "pornography of violence." [C2] Ibid.
(Norman Finkelstein, 'The Holocaust Industry,' Index on Censorship , 29:2, 120-130, p.124)
The twin concepts of Jewish blamelessness and extreme Gentile brutality are inextricably bound up together, and supporters of one strand of the 'victim paradigm' are invariably supporters of the other. Take for example that high priest of Jewish chosenness, Elie Wiesel, who praised Kosinki's pastiche of sadomasochistic fantasies as "written with deep sincerity and sensitivity." [C3] Ibid, p.125.
(Norman Finkelstein, 'The Holocaust Industry,' Index on Censorship , 29:2, 120-130, p.124)

Having clarified this theoretical framework, we now turn our attention to deconstructing the second strand of the pogrom 'victim paradigm.' To deal most effectively with the question of Jewish culpability in the souring of relations between Jews and non-Jews, we will need to probe deeper, and with more focus, than we endeavored to do in Part One. This essay will focus on specific examples of anti-Jewish disturbance in the Russian Empire prior to 1880, with a particular focus on Jewish economic practices preceding these events.

For the reasons discussed above, the majority of Jewish historians have long displayed an aversion to the idea that Jewish economic practices have played a significant role historically in provoking anti-Semitism. For example, Leon Poliakov in The History of anti-Semitism: From Voltaire to Wagner , argues that the idea of economic anti-Semitism is "devoid of real explanatory value." [C4] Leon Poliakov The History of anti-Semitism: From Voltaire to Wagner (Pennsylvania: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2003) p.viii Similarly, Jonathan Freedman has stated that, in explaining anti-Jewish attitudes, economic anti-Semitism should play only a very "small explanatory role." [C5] Jonathan Freedman, The Temple of Culture: Assimilation and Anti-Semitism in Literary Anglo-America (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002) p.60. Both of these historians posit that theology, and by extension Christianity (and therefore Western culture) is the fount and origin of anti-Semitism. Robert Weinberg, in his 1998 article on Visualizing Pogroms in Russian History , explains anti-Semitic outbreaks of violence in Eastern Europe by stating that they were the product of "the frustrations of Russian and Ukrainian peasants, workers and town dwellers who, for the most part, spontaneously took out their frustrations on a time-honored scapegoat, the Jews." [C6] Robert Weinberg, 'Visualizing Pogroms in Russian History,' Jewish History , Vol.12 (1998), 71-92, p.72 Weinberg refrains from stating where precisely these 'frustrations' emerge from, but note again the extremely passive Jewish role in his analysis.

Conversely, those historians who have accepted that economic issues have played a role in provoking anti-Semitism fail to engage in actual case studies of economically provoked anti-Jewish actions, preferring instead to probe "images" or stereotypes which allegedly infuse the consciousness of non-Jews. For example Professor of Israel Studies at Oxford University, Derek J. Penslar, has stated that economic anti-Semitism is nothing more than "a double helix of intersecting paradigms, the first associating the Jew with paupers and savages and the second conceiving of Jews as conspirators, leaders of a financial cabal seeking global domination." [C7] Derek J. Penslar, Shylock's Children: Economics and Jewish Identity in Modern Europe, (Los Angeles: University of California Press, 2001) p.13. By choosing to discuss "images" and concepts rather than say, an actual incident such as the Limerick Anti-Jewish Riots, Penslar engages in a practice equally duplicitous to that engaged in by Poliakov and Freedman. Penslar's thesis only superficially acknowledges the economic role, while really lending more weight to the argument that European society has suffered some kind of neurosis in relation to its Jews. Penslar deftly offers us an argument in which Jews and economics play a role in the development of an anti-Semitic "image," without placing the Jew in anything but a passive role. Penslar's "images" are also devoid of gradation -- Europeans, if they hold to economically motivated anti-Semitism, either view Jews as pauper savages or global financiers. This despite the case that most European peasants simply didn't need to have these extreme conceptions of Jews, and probably didn't. Exploitative economic practices by local Jewish capitalists, the existence of local Jewish monopolies on such items as alcohol, and the Jewish practice of in-group/out-group ethics would be more than sufficient to provoke anti-Jewish resentment.

But references to this motivation for anti-Jewish action is entirely absent from Jewish historiography on the causes of anti-Semitism, most likely because it comes extremely close to demolishing the 'victim paradigm.' This essay, which focuses on actual case studies (in particular the city of Odessa), will argue that the anti-Jewish riots of the 1880s, like many riots before them, were motivated by economic anti-Semitism, and that this economic anti-Semitism had its origins not in the European psyche, but in the day to day economic interactions of Jews had with the non-Jews of Odessa. It attempts to rediscover the Jewish role, and to place it front and centre.

The first disturbance involving Jews to occur in the Russian Empire, and which left sufficient documentation, was the 1821 Odessa pogrom. Weinberg has painted a picture of Odessa as being some kind of multicultural heaven at this time. He states that the city "benefited from the presence of German, Italian, French, Greek, and English residents whose cultural and intellectual tastes influenced local life." [C8] Robert Weinberg, 'Visualizing Pogroms in Russian History,' Jewish History , Vol.12 (1998), 71-92, p.73 By the 1820s street signs were written in Russian and Italian, the city's first newspaper appeared in French. Odessa, according to Weinberg, had a thriving art scene, particularly in relation to theatre, music, and opera.

However, Klier paints a radically different picture of the city, stressing in particular the ethnic tension created by increasing Jewish settlement in the city. Klier states that by 1821, Odessa was "a hotbed of ethnic, religious, and economic rivalries" and was, quite significantly, "a distinctly non-Russian city." [C9] John Klier, Pogroms: Anti-Jewish Violence in Modern Russian History , (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004) p.15 Weinberg explains that "the number of Jews arriving from other parts of the Russian Empire and Galicia in the Austrian Empire skyrocketed." In Odessa, Jews were entirely free from "legal burdens and residency restrictions." [C10] Robert Weinberg, 'Visualizing Pogroms in Russian History,' Jewish History , Vol.12 (1998), 71-92, p.73

Violence erupted in 1821 when, during the Greek War of Independence, a group of Muslims and Jews murdered and then mutilated Gregory V, the Greek Orthodox Patriarch in Istanbul. In the aftermath, many Greeks fled with Gregory's remains from Istanbul to Odessa, where his funeral procession was held. Surviving documents suggest that violence broke out when a large contingent of Odessa's Jewish population showed open disrespect for the procession. [C11] John Klier, Pogroms: Anti-Jewish Violence in Modern Russian History , (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004), p.16.

In describing this and subsequent outbreaks of violence in Odessa, I must urge readers to divest themselves of the preconception that the Jewish contingent of the city was a tiny minority. Jewish historians are often quick to allude to minority status without providing definitive numbers. John Doyle Klier, however, informs us that by the middle of the nineteenth century Jews constituted "almost one-third of the total population" in Odessa. [C12] Ibid.
(John Klier, Pogroms: Anti-Jewish Violence in Modern Russian History , (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004), p.16.)
Given the huge population of Greeks and other nationalities, it was the Russians who composed the "tiny minority." Economic supremacy in the city until the middle of the nineteenth century was the preserve of the Greek population, which had fended off the attempts of numerous other ethnic groups to "secure or maintain a favored economic position." [C13] Ibid, p.15
(John Klier, Pogroms: Anti-Jewish Violence in Modern Russian History , (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004), p.16.)

When a huge influx of Jews occurred in the 1850s, the struggle for economic supremacy between Jew and Greek, added to historical religiopolitical grievances, contributed to increased inter-ethnic tension in the city. Greek historian Evridiki Sifneos informs us that earlier co-existence had "not been based on mutual toleration. On the contrary, economic recession in the second half of the nineteenth century accelerated ethnic distinctions, and resentment was provoked by the ascension of social or ethnic groups [primarily Jewish], which led to the redistribution of resources." [C14] Evridiki Sifneos, 'The Dark Side of the Moon: Rivalry and Riots for Shelter and Occupation Between the Greek and Jewish Populations in multi-ethnic Nineteenth Century Odessa,' The Historical Review , Vol.3 (2006), p.191 Until the mid-1850s, the Greeks had control of grain exports, but with the disruption of trade routes as a result of the Crimean War, some local Greek business owners were forced into bankruptcy. The city's Jews, who had earlier occupied mainly middleman roles, pooled resources and eagerly bought up these businesses at extremely low prices. A letter from one Greek contemporary reads: "When I first came to Odessa in 1864, I became a purchaser of grain on behalf of our house, 14 at Moldovanka. The majority were Greeks, with a few Russian middlemen. Now there are no Russians, and as for the Greeks they are counted on the fingers of one hand. Jews are the ones who have taken over the market." [C15] Ibid, p.195
(Evridiki Sifneos, 'The Dark Side of the Moon: Rivalry and Riots for Shelter and Occupation Between the Greek and Jewish Populations in multi-ethnic Nineteenth Century Odessa,' The Historical Review , Vol.3 (2006), p.191)
According to Sifneos, Jews took advantage of the placement of their taverns in the villages to establish themselves as middlemen in the collection of grain from the surrounding countryside, and in addition "they worked more tightly within their ethnic network." [C16] Ibid, p.196
(Evridiki Sifneos, 'The Dark Side of the Moon: Rivalry and Riots for Shelter and Occupation Between the Greek and Jewish Populations in multi-ethnic Nineteenth Century Odessa,' The Historical Review , Vol.3 (2006), p.191)

Weinberg further states that when "Jewish employers followed the practice of only hiring their own, many Greek dockworkers now found themselves in the ranks of the unemployed." [C17] Robert Weinberg, 'Visualizing Pogroms in Russian History,' Jewish History , Vol.12 (1998), 71-92, p.75. When it became apparent that Jews had wrested economic supremacy from the Greeks in 1858, incidences of inter-ethnic violence began to escalate in frequency. In 1858 there were attacks on Greek and Jewish property, and numerous "Greek-Jewish brawls" in the city, and in 1859 a quarrel between Greek and Jewish children again escalated into full-scale inter-ethnic conflict. Violence was ended thanks only to the intervention of Russian police and Cossacks. [C18] Ibid, p.18
(Robert Weinberg, 'Visualizing Pogroms in Russian History,' Jewish History , Vol.12 (1998), 71-92, p.75.)
A major bout of Greek-Jewish violence occurred again in 1869.

How do we describe such events? In light of the context of these disturbances, does the term "pogrom" or "anti-Jewish riot" withstand scrutiny? Certainly not. Note my use of the terms "inter-ethnic violence" and "disturbance involving Jews." These terms do not feature in Jewish historiography on these events. "Anti-Jewish riot" or "pogrom" is merely part of the lexicon of the 'victim paradigm,' bequeathing passive status even through word use. To express it flippantly, when Tom and Bill have a fight in the street, one does not describe it as "anti-Tom violence." This automatically imparts passive, victim status to Tom, despite the fact that he may have started the fight, and certainly threw as many punches. Weinberg, for example, describes the 1859 disturbance as "anti-Jewish activity," but states that both "Jewish and gentile youths engaged in bloody brawls." [C19] Robert Weinberg, 'Visualizing Pogroms in Russian History,' Jewish History , Vol.12 (1998), 71-92, p.74 This is an obvious contradiction in terms.

It is only in 1871, during a particularly severe bout of disturbances, that we see the first Russian involvement in Odessa's inter-ethnic violence. The late John Doyle Klier, formerly Professor of Hebrew and Jewish Studies at Oxford University, informs us categorically that Russian involvement in the 1871 Odessa ethnic conflict had its roots in real, tangible economic grievances. Klier states that Russian participation was the result of "bitterness born of the exploitation of their work by Jews and the ability of the latter to enrich themselves and manipulate all manner of trade and commercial activity." [C20] John Klier, Pogroms: Anti-Jewish Violence in Modern Russian History , (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004) p.21 Similarly, Weinberg concedes that by 1871, there were "many others besides Greeks who perceived Jews as an economic threat." [C21] Robert Weinberg, 'Visualizing Pogroms in Russian History,' Jewish History , Vol.12 (1998), 71-92, p.75.

The roots of the 1871 disturbance are quite tangible, and there is a tremendous amount of evidence suggesting it was the result of real socio-economic grievances, rather than "images," "stereotypes," or any of the other usual suspects wheeled out in Jewish historiography. Brian Horowitz, Chair of Jewish Studies at Tulane University argues that by 1870 Jewish economic and social cohesiveness had been further enhanced in Odessa by founding of a branch of the Society for the Promotion of Enlightenment, an organization dedicated to in-group philanthropy as well as "alternative politics" whereby members "did not contact the government as an intercessor." [C22] Brian Horowitz, How Jewish was Odessa ? : http://www.wilsoncenter.net/sites/default/files/OP3...age=17 In this respect, it was the kahal -lite, and it had a significant positive impact on the wealth of Odessa Jewry. Klier states that under this organisation, the Jewish grip on the economic life of the city grew stronger, and that Russian government reports from 1871 attribute the disturbance above all to the fact that "the economic domination of the Jews in the area produced abnormal relations between Christians and Jews." [C23] John Klier, Pogroms: Anti-Jewish Violence in Modern Russian History , (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004) p.22 By 1871, Jewish economic domination had moved beyond grain exports. A US consular report from that year reveals the extent of Jewish control over Odessa's economic life. It reports that Jews in the city "occupy themselves with trade and favoring their own class or sect, that is that their combinations, in a great many instances, amount almost to monopolies. The common remark, therefore, is that 'everything is in the hands of the Jews.' To sell or buy a house, a horse, a carriage, to rent a lodging or contract for a loan, to engage a governess, and sometimes even to marry a wife the Jew gets his percent as a "go between." The poor laborer, the hungry soldier, the land proprietor, the money capitalist, and in fact every producer and every consumer is obliged in one way or another to pay tribute to the Jew." [C24] Evridiki Sifneos, 'The Dark Side of the Moon: Rivalry and Riots for Shelter and Occupation Between the Greek and Jewish Populations in multi-ethnic Nineteenth Century Odessa,' The Historical Review , Vol.3 (2006), p.198

Impoverished Greeks, Russians and Ukrainians looked on at increasingly ostentatious displays of Jewish wealth. In fact, Sifneos states that contemporary correspondence reveals that during the disturbances, many of Odessa's Jews attributed the trouble "to the widespread resentment against the growing prosperity of their community." [C25] Evridiki Sifneos, 'The Dark Side of the Moon: Rivalry and Riots for Shelter and Occupation Between the Greek and Jewish Populations in multi-ethnic Nineteenth Century Odessa,' The Historical Review , Vol.3 (2006), p.193 Sifneos also informs us that demographic shifts in the city were of extreme importance in creating unease among non-Jewish populations. In line with increasing wealth, the 1897 census revealed that during the preceding two decades Odessa Jewry was undergoing an extremely rapid demographic explosion, and that Odessa was "rapidly becoming a predominantly Jewish city." [C26] Ibid.
(Evridiki Sifneos, 'The Dark Side of the Moon: Rivalry and Riots for Shelter and Occupation Between the Greek and Jewish Populations in multi-ethnic Nineteenth Century Odessa,' The Historical Review , Vol.3 (2006), p.193)
To put this into some kind of perspective, the 1897 Odessa census reveals that by that date there were 5,086 Greek speakers, 10,248 German speakers, 1,137 French speakers, and 124,520 Yiddish speakers. The census further revealed that while almost all of the Greek and French speakers were predominantly residing in the inner city slum areas, a huge 54% of Odessa's Jews were living in the middle-class suburbs of Petropavlovsky, Mikhailovsky, and Peresipsky. [C27] Ibid.
(Evridiki Sifneos, 'The Dark Side of the Moon: Rivalry and Riots for Shelter and Occupation Between the Greek and Jewish Populations in multi-ethnic Nineteenth Century Odessa,' The Historical Review , Vol.3 (2006), p.193)

To conclude, when inter-ethnic violence broke out in 1871, it was not rooted in irrationality, but was quite obviously, as Sifneos argues, a desperate attempt to "weaken the economic power of the Jews." [C28] Ibid.
(Evridiki Sifneos, 'The Dark Side of the Moon: Rivalry and Riots for Shelter and Occupation Between the Greek and Jewish Populations in multi-ethnic Nineteenth Century Odessa,' The Historical Review , Vol.3 (2006), p.193)
In this context, we see the Jews of Odessa emerge from their passive role in the shadows of Jewish historiography, and how they truly appear in the cold light of day.

Notes

[A1] John Klier, Russians, Jews, and the Pogroms of 1881-2 , (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2011) p.xiii.

[A2] Jack Glazier, Dispersing the Ghetto: The Relocation of Jewish Immigrants Across America (New York: Cornell University Press, 1998) p.9.

[A3] Donald Dutton, The Psychology of Genocide, Massacres and Extreme Violence (New York: Prager, 2007 ) p.40

[A4] Michael Mann, The Dark Side of Democracy: Explaining Ethnic Cleansing (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2005) p.142.

[A5] I.M. Aronson, 'Geographical and Socioeconomic factors in the 1881 Anti-Jewish Pogroms in Russia,' Russian Review , Vol.39, No.1 (Jan. 1980) p.18.

[A6] Klier, Russians, Jews, and the Pogroms of 1881-2 , p.xiv.

[A7] Israel Bartal, The Jews of Eastern Europe: 1772-1881 , (Tel Aviv, Ministry of Defence, 2005) p.23.

[A8] Ibid, p.24.

[A9] Israel Friedlander, The Jews of Russia and Poland , (New York: G.P. Putnam, 1915), p.84.

[A10] Ibid.

[A11] Ibid, p.85.

[A12] Simon Dubnow, History of the Jews in Russia and Poland , (Bergenfield: Avontayu, 2000), p.173

[A13] Ibid.

[A14] Ibid, p.87.

[A15] Simon Dubnow, History of the Jews in Russia and Poland , (Bergenfield: Avontayu, 2000), p.173

[A16] John Klier, Pogroms: Anti-Jewish Violence in Modern Russian History , (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004) p.4.

[A17] http://www.guardian.co.uk/news/2007/oct/26/guardianobituaries.obituaries

[A18] http://www.guardian.co.uk/news/2007/oct/26/guardianobituaries.obituaries

[A19] Klier, Russians, Jews, and the Pogroms of 1881-2 , p.3.

[A20] Ibid.

[A21] Jacob Katz, Exclusiveness and Tolerance: Jewish-Gentile Relations in Medieval and Modern Times (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1962) p.56.

[A22] Ibid.

[A23] Klier, Russians, Jews, and the Pogroms of 1881-2 , p.4

[A24] Ibid.

[A25] Ibid.

[A26] Klier, Russians, Jews, and the Pogroms of 1881-2 , p.5

[A27] Klier, Russians, Jews, and the Pogroms of 1881-2 , p.5

[A28] Ibid.

[A29] Ibid, p.6

[A30] Ibid.

[B1] http://archive.org/stream/persecutionofjew00russ

[B2] Max Beloff, The Intellectual in Politics: And other essays , (London: Taylor and Francis, 1970) p.135

[B3] The Persecution of the Jews in Russia , (London: Russo-Jewish Committee, 1899), p.3.

[B4] Ibid, p.4

[B5] The Persecution of the Jews in Russia , (London: Russo-Jewish Committee, 1899), p.5

[B6] Ibid, p.8

[B7] Ibid, p.36

[B8] Ibid, p.38.

[B9] Anthony Heywood, The Russian Revolution of 1905: Centenary Perspectives (New York: Routledge, 2005) p.266.

[B10] "Jewish Massacre Denounced," New York Times , April 28, 1903, p.6

[B11] Anita Shapira, Land and Power: The Zionist Resort to Force, 1881-1948 (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1999), p.35

[B12] Ibid, p.34.

[B13] Ibid.

[B14] Joseph Brandes, Immigrants to Freedom , (New York: Xlibris, 2009) p.171

[B15] The Persecution of the Jews in Russia , (London: Russo-Jewish Committee, 1899), p.4

[B16] The Persecution of the Jews in Russia , (London: Russo-Jewish Committee, 1899), p.30

[B17] Ibid.

[B18] Albert Lindemann, Esau's Tears: Modern Anti-Semitism and the Rise of the Jews (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1997) p.291.

[B19] John Doyle Klier, Russians, Jews and the Pogroms of 1881-82 , p.399

[B20] Ibid.

[B21] Ibid.

[B22] Ibid, p.400

[B23] Edward Judge, Easter in Kishinev: Anatomy of a Pogrom (New York: New York University Press, 1993) p.89.

[B24] John Doyle Klier, Russians, Jews and the Pogroms of 1881-82 , p.400

[B25] Ibid, p.401

[B26] Ibid

[B27] Ibid.

[B28] Ibid.

[B29] Ibid.

[B30] Ibid.

[B31] Ibid, p.12

[B32] Ibid, p.404

[B33] Ibid.

[B34] Ibid, p.405. ( Correspondence Respecting the Treatment of Jews in Russia, Nos. 1 and 2, 1882, 1883)

[B35] John Doyle Klier, Russians, Jews and the Pogroms of 1881-82 , p.405

[B36] Ibid.

[B37] Ibid.

[B38] Ibid, p.405.

[B39] Ibid.

[B40] Ibid.

[B41] Ibid, p.406.

[B42] Ibid.

[B43] John Doyle Klier, Russians, Jews and the Pogroms of 1881-82 , p.407.

[B44] John Doyle Klier, Russians, Jews and the Pogroms of 1881-82 , p.408.

[B45] Ibid.

[B46] Ibid.

[B47] Ibid, p. 13.

[C1] Norman Finkelstein, 'The Holocaust Industry,' Index on Censorship , 29:2, 120-130, p.124

[C2] Ibid.

[C3] Ibid, p.125.

[C4] Leon Poliakov The History of anti-Semitism: From Voltaire to Wagner (Pennsylvania: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2003) p.viii

[C5] Jonathan Freedman, The Temple of Culture: Assimilation and Anti-Semitism in Literary Anglo-America (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002) p.60.

[C6] Robert Weinberg, 'Visualizing Pogroms in Russian History,' Jewish History , Vol.12 (1998), 71-92, p.72

[C7] Derek J. Penslar, Shylock's Children: Economics and Jewish Identity in Modern Europe, (Los Angeles: University of California Press, 2001) p.13.

[C8] Robert Weinberg, 'Visualizing Pogroms in Russian History,' Jewish History , Vol.12 (1998), 71-92, p.73

[C9] John Klier, Pogroms: Anti-Jewish Violence in Modern Russian History , (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004) p.15

[C10] Robert Weinberg, 'Visualizing Pogroms in Russian History,' Jewish History , Vol.12 (1998), 71-92, p.73

[C11] John Klier, Pogroms: Anti-Jewish Violence in Modern Russian History , (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004), p.16.

[C12] Ibid.

[C13] Ibid, p.15

[C14] Evridiki Sifneos, 'The Dark Side of the Moon: Rivalry and Riots for Shelter and Occupation Between the Greek and Jewish Populations in multi-ethnic Nineteenth Century Odessa,' The Historical Review , Vol.3 (2006), p.191

[C15] Ibid, p.195

[C16] Ibid, p.196

[C17] Robert Weinberg, 'Visualizing Pogroms in Russian History,' Jewish History , Vol.12 (1998), 71-92, p.75.

[C18] Ibid, p.18

[C19] Robert Weinberg, 'Visualizing Pogroms in Russian History,' Jewish History , Vol.12 (1998), 71-92, p.74

[C20] John Klier, Pogroms: Anti-Jewish Violence in Modern Russian History , (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004) p.21

[C21] Robert Weinberg, 'Visualizing Pogroms in Russian History,' Jewish History , Vol.12 (1998), 71-92, p.75.

[C22] Brian Horowitz, How Jewish was Odessa ? : http://www.wilsoncenter.net/sites/default/files/OP301.pdf#page=17

[C23] John Klier, Pogroms: Anti-Jewish Violence in Modern Russian History , (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004) p.22

[C24] Evridiki Sifneos, 'The Dark Side of the Moon: Rivalry and Riots for Shelter and Occupation Between the Greek and Jewish Populations in multi-ethnic Nineteenth Century Odessa,' The Historical Review , Vol.3 (2006), p.198

[C25] Evridiki Sifneos, 'The Dark Side of the Moon: Rivalry and Riots for Shelter and Occupation Between the Greek and Jewish Populations in multi-ethnic Nineteenth Century Odessa,' The Historical Review , Vol.3 (2006), p.193

[C26] Ibid.

[C27] Ibid.

[C28] Ibid.


mcohen , says: July 22, 2019 at 6:04 am GMT

Another attack on the jewish people by a white christian right liar thinly disguised as a historical account.if it is not the palestinian cause then it is some other propaganda fantasy.
The truth is that these articles are an attempt to discredit judaism solely for the purposes of promoting a modern crusade on behalf of chritianity.This is not about supporting the Palestinian cause or the arab people who have been attacked in endless wars these past decade.
This is about christian right wing fundamentalists hoping to capture jerusalem.
I hope that there are those ordinary Christian who see through this charade of evil that speaks in there name
Greg Bacon , says: Website July 22, 2019 at 6:42 am GMT
The definitive story of the Jews in Russia is by Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn, "200 Years Together A history of Russia and the Jews."

https://archive.org/stream/Solzhenitsyn200YearsTogether/Solzhenitsyn-200%20Years%20Together_djvu.txt

It's an excellent book, which you'll only find online to read, since no publisher in the West has had the audacity to print these truths so finely elaborated by Solzhenitsyn. You'll see that Russian Jews took advantage of their nation, refusing to pay taxes or let their sons be drafted. Their main contribution to Russia was money lending using usury and operating bars and stills.

As money lenders, they were ruthless, demanding full payment from farmers, even during bad crop seasons. Add in the booze factor, and sooner or later, the local Russians would rise up and toss out the bankers, sometimes rather violently.

Three different Czars that tried to right this malady wound up being assassinated, by whom you can already guess. Naturally, even though its accurately documented, it's been branded as being anti-Semitic, as many truths are.

Truth3 , says: July 22, 2019 at 8:45 am GMT
Russians have always hated Jews, and for numerous good reasons.

The fact that Jews greatly exaggerated the conflicts with Russian peasants is obvious for a whole host of reasons.

When the Bolshevik Jews overthrew the government and killed the Czar and Royal Family, the Russian people were left helpless against the black leather coat wearing, pistol carrying, Russian peasant and Christianity hating Jew Chekist.

Tens of Millions of Russian Christians were killed.

Pogroms? Hardly worth noting.

The situation is very much akin to Palestine.

Jews kill on the order of 100:1, but the propaganda would make you think otherwise.

Mikhail , says: Website July 22, 2019 at 9:13 am GMT
A thought provoking piece for sure. Regarding the aforementioned (in the article) Cossacks and Fiddler on the Roof

https://www.strategic-culture.org/news/2015/09/21/getting-russia-wrong-again/

joeshittheragman , says: July 22, 2019 at 9:50 am GMT
The rule of thumb is, everything jews say is a lie, including the words, and, and the
Fayez chergui , says: July 22, 2019 at 10:51 am GMT
To understand the myth of pogroms one has to read Alexandre Soljenistyne' book: two century together.
Jacques Sheete , says: July 22, 2019 at 10:55 am GMT

Subsequent articles will concern the pogroms themselves and how myth and exaggeration have plagued our conception of them.

Myth? Ya gotta be kidding. They wouldn't exaggerate something like that, would they? Wink, wink!

Annono56 , says: July 22, 2019 at 11:12 am GMT
"Little or no historiography has been dedicated to peeling back the layers of "refugee" stories to uncover what really happened in the Russian Empire in the years before and during the riots."

Alexander Solzhenitsyn did an exhaustive, balanced and masterful analysis of these years in his book "200 Years Together".

Kartoffelstampfer , says: July 22, 2019 at 11:13 am GMT

For example, University of British Columbia Professor, Donald G. Dutton has asserted that the mobs were not motivated by "the sudden rapid increase of the Jewish urban population, the extraordinary economic success of Russian Jews, or the involvement of Jews in Russian revolutionary politics" but rather by the "blood libel."

The author makes it sound like all over the Pale Russian peasants got upset because Jews were being falsely libeled. The reality here is that Rabbi's were getting powerful and sloppy. They were getting caught draining the blood from Christian boys and performing other satanic rituals, just as they have everywhere else they have been allowed to form their colonies.

Violence erupted in 1821 when, during the Greek War of Independence, a group of Muslims and Jews murdered and then mutilated Gregory V

Jews and Muslims working hand in hand to murder and mutilate Christians. Gods Chosen People and the people of Gods Religion of Peace expose their true genocidal nature century after century after century.

Speed 'n' Weed , says: July 22, 2019 at 11:18 am GMT
It's hard for me to dig up so much as a shred of sympathy for muh pogroms when you compare it to the gentile body count of genocidal jews from the Cheka all the way up to the modern IDF.
Cry me a river Shlomo.
"So harrible!!! Six million tears I swea-ahh!"
Jacques Sheete , says: July 22, 2019 at 11:27 am GMT

The poor laborer, the hungry soldier, the land proprietor, the money capitalist, and in fact every producer and every consumer is obliged in one way or another to pay tribute to the Jew."

There you have it.

Moi , says: July 22, 2019 at 12:32 pm GMT
@mcohen But Mr. Maga (aka Sunkist) has already handed over Jerusalem–and the Golan Heights, and, effectively the West Bank–to the Jews. Yahweh works in mysterious ways, mon ami.
Moi , says: July 22, 2019 at 12:34 pm GMT
@Kartoffelstampfer And how many Muslims have we killed since 9/11. Do tell.
Moi , says: July 22, 2019 at 12:35 pm GMT
@Truth3 A Jew killing goyim is of no consequence
geokat62 , says: July 22, 2019 at 12:41 pm GMT
@Greg Bacon

Three different Czars that tried to right this malady wound up being assassinated, by whom you can already guess.

Three Russian tsars and one American prince of Camelot by whom you can already guess.

Anatoly Karlin , says: Website July 22, 2019 at 12:41 pm GMT
There was a grand total of about a couple of thousand deaths during all the late Imperial era pogroms, which occurred precisely when state authority disappeared, as in 1905.

For comparison, that's about a week's worth of work for the (40% Jewish) NKVD in 1937-38.

Jake , says: July 22, 2019 at 12:48 pm GMT
"On the eve of the assassination of Alexander II, Russia's Jewish Question remained unanswered. Decades of legislation had done little to change the nature of Russian Jewry, which remained ethnically, politically, and culturally homogenous."

And that culture was expressed in Yiddish, in German. Russian-ruled Jews remained linguistically Germanic by choice.

[Jul 22, 2019] Latest desperate attempt to trigger a color revolution in Hong Kong

Jul 22, 2019 | www.moonofalabama.org

vk , Jul 22 2019 11:50 utc | 123

Latest desperate attempt to trigger a color revolution in Hong Kong:

Mob Attack at Hong Kong Train Station Heightens Seething Tensions in City

William Gruff , Jul 22 2019 12:36 utc | 130

Damnit, folks, it is their job to say things that are wrong!

There is being wrong because one is missing some crucial information, or because one is personally invested in a wrong narrative, but then there is being wrong because one is deliberately trying to change a narrative to a false one for duty and profit.

The goings on in Hong Kong are so obviously a retry of the previous color revolution attempt by the evil empire that it can be used as a reliable litmus test for who is carrying water for the US State Department and Atlantic Council.

Herr Ringbone , Jul 22 2019 12:57 utc | 135
gzon @129

Yes, they 'feel encroached upon'. But honestly, their feelings in this matter are delusional, and I mean that they are on the same level of delusion as the beliefs of those involved in the Salem witch trials. Fantastic, community-wide, shared delusion.

It is hard for people to get their heads around the truth, because the narrative universally starts from the assumption that 'China has been interfering', 'China hasn't kept its word', etc.

And why not? It's China, right? It's a communist dictatorship. All those have to be safe assumptions?

Except that they aren't; such assumptions are quite wrong. China has pretty much left Hong Kong alone.

Yes, many Hong Kongers believe that they are being oppressed by China. But the belief is simply and literally delusional. Very badly so.

vk , Jul 22 2019 13:00 utc | 136
@ Posted by: aspnaz | Jul 22 2019 1:51 utc | 90

Your theory fails the empirical test. It's an abstraction akin to the "Sea Peoples" theory about the end of the Late Bronze Age.

Hong Kong, even after receiving 2 million migrants (which should've risen it GDP considerably), begun to stagnate in relation to the Mainland. Since 1997, it's grown on average 30%-50% the Mainland's average annual GDP growth rate (it is now growing at a 3% annual average -- half the Mainland's rate).

In 2017, Shenzhen surpassed Hong Kong in terms of "GDP".

The matter is simple: after the handover (1997), Hongkongers demanded to remain capitalist. The "One country, two systems" deal was a Hongkonger condition to go back to China. At the time, it seemed like a wise decision: China was still a poor country, and there was no signal Deng Xiaoping's reforms would be able to get out of the "middle income trap".

They simply bet on the wrong horse: Chinese socialism demonstrated more dynamism than Soviet socialism and achieved an important breakthrough in the period that ranged from its accession to the WTO in 2001 to the aftermath of the 2008 crisis in 2012 (when, e.g. Brazil -- another country growing at an accelerated pace from 2005 to 2011 thanks to high commodities' prices and was used as a counterexample to Chinese socialism's success -- collapsed).

We can attest this "bet on the wrong horse" theory by simply looking at the protesters' face: most of them very young, probably born after 1997 or too young to remember pre-1997 Hong Kong. They didn't live during the British despotic and authoritarian rule; they waived the colonial flag and called it freedom. They forgot they are already living the British dream: Hong Kong is still capitalist to the bone -- and will be until 2047, as the deal dictates (legal guarantee of deals is a basic principle of freedom, since it's a basic principle of Rule of Law -- so I don't know why the protesters are complaining about it).


@ Posted by: Herr Ringbone | Jul 22 2019 12:15 utc | 126

This "Hongkonger is a nationality" is farce, a modern fabrication by the Western MSM. Hong Kong was never a nation, and never will be a nation. The city proper doesn't even have a source of potable water.

And you don't have to be unicultural to be a country; the same way, having a culture doesn't entitle you to be a country. Culture doesn't equal country. This myth, that states country borders are determined by cultural (specially, linguistic) differentiation is a post-WWI fabrication, when the big imperialist powers had to find an excuse to partition the Ottoman and Austro-Hungarian empires. Nobody outside Europe (and the Japanese) believes that.

In fact, China officially is a multi-ethnic nation, as it reiterated in a recent white paper about the Uighur quesiton.

Herr Ringbone , Jul 22 2019 13:18 utc | 140
Posted by: vk | Jul 22 2019 13:00 utc | 137

You are right. Hong Kongers effectively bet on the wrong horse. I mean, you can't really blame them. Even Deng didn't realize how quickly China would grow.

Personally I think that Hong Kongers are having a very hard time, psychologically, adjusting to the fact that Mainland Chinese are catching up or surpassing them in terms of wealth. In the 1990s, they felt superior to other Chinese, and were secure in this feeling.

That's all finished now.

In fact, given that this current colour revolution falls flat and we get back to normal in a couple of months, I predict that Hong Kongers themselves will beg for One Country, Two Systems to be ended early in about fifteen years' time. By then, it will be clear to anyone who isn't brain dead that 1C2S is harming the Hong Kong economy by preventing full integration with China, and no one in HK will support it any more.

You'll see Chinese flags being waved enthusiastically all over the place, probably by a lot of 37-year-olds who were once chucking bricks at the cops and yelling for 'independence' in 2019.

People are like that.

Jonathan , Jul 22 2019 15:23 utc | 157
@ Posted by: Herr Ringbone | Jul 22 2019 13:18 utc | 140

The lack of any productive industry is the fundamental economic problem with HK since 1997, and it's prior prosperity based on using itself as a main trade and investment gateway into the Mainland is a short and one-time affair of the unique geopolitics of that era. HKers who believe that privilege will last forever was naive to say the least, even when back in 97.

Contrast with Singapore that insists on sustaining a sizable manufacturing base to the point it's considered a top economic priority, albeit one where much of it is being owned by foreign capital.

Nemesiscalling , Jul 22 2019 16:18 utc | 167
Some posters are arguing that Hong Kongers are deluding themselves and that they should know better and stop fighting assimilation into the Chinese system.

Talk about arrogance. Hey, Venezuelans should stop fighting the U.S. And kiss the ring! I know what's good for them.

A good analogy for asserting our will over Hong Kong would be like trying to change the nature of lemmings because we know what's best for them. Sure they commit ritualistic suicide, but it is still their right and within their nature to do so.

Everything else equates to meddling and this is the stuff of absolute power and empire. A far cry indeed from the ideals that most here espouse in every other circumstance. I am not buying for a second that Hong Kongers don't have legitimate grievances with the concept of being absorbed into China and that they are indeed airing them out for the world to see.

*Applause*

[Jul 22, 2019] In Hong Kong, what we already suspected is now pretty much confirmed: there was an attempt of a color revolution in the city

Jul 22, 2019 | www.moonofalabama.org

vk , Jul 21 2019 16:51 utc | 19

In Hong Kong, what we already suspected is now pretty much confirmed: there was an attempt of a color revolution in the city:

Two of three men arrested over Hong Kong's biggest bomb plot, discovered on eve of major anti-government protest, are members of pro-independence groups

The process was textbook hybrid warfare: first, they tried to do "mass peaceful protests" in order to seek a violent police response (preferably, with some dead) so as to trigger a chain reaction to topple the democratically elected government. The Chinese are not stupid and ordered the police to not act violently. Then, they tried to storm the Legco in order to provoke a violent response: the police was against smart, and used the "scorched earth" tactic: the building was left empty and unprotected, so all that was left to the protesters was to vandalize the building (which played against their image); the fact that some blowhards waived the colonial flag also didn't help their image (good image is a conditio sine qua non for a color revolution).

Carrie Lam then outsmarted the protesters further by killing the bill (which is not essential to Mainland governance of Hong Kong either way). That further delegitimized the continuation of the protests. We can even speculate here if this bill wasn't a bait used to test the waters in Hong Kong.

As a last, desperate attempt by the protesters, they tried to besiege the police hq in order to try to induce a massacre. That obviously didn't work.

And then, this came to light:

Hong Kong protesters 'went to Taiwan in June' to explore options for asylum

Those "protesters" are likely the heads of the color revolution attempt, almost surely on the pockets of some NGO linked to Washington. They are now planning a fall back in order to regroup. Taiwan is using this to consolidate itself even more as liberal Festung in China.

As I stated here before, a color revolution only works against a strong government when it has the backup of the unconventional warfare (UW). Hong Kong is very susceptible to a color revolution, but is inviable as an unconventional warfare theater. That's because it doesn't have any sources of potable water -- which comes from the New Territories (the flatlands directly above the city-peninsula).

Well, it seems the color revolutionaires are very aware of this fact:

Police use tear gas against protesters in heart of city, violence erupts in New Territories

According to "Two masked male protesters", there's new reivindication in the agenda: they want the dissolution of the government and new elections, to be decided by "popular vote" (i.e. whoever is in the pockets of Washington).

vk , Jul 21 2019 17:10 utc | 21

Now even the Chinese government recognize the existence of the "Clash of Civilizations" doctrine in the USA:

Op-Ed: Promulgating the myth of "clash of civilizations" is stupid and dangerous

[Jul 22, 2019] T>here's a fundamental difference between debt in the past and debt today. In the past debt was owed to the state, today it's owed to some wealthy corporations. Good luck with debt jubilees in the absence of violent uprisings.

Notable quotes:
"... As Mael Colium says, the US picks off individual countries by isolating them. ..."
"... there's a fundamental difference between debt in the past and debt today. In the past debt was owed to the state, today it's owed to some wealthy corporations. Good luck with debt jubilees in the absence of violent uprisings. ..."
"... The difference is they internalize profit and externalize cost. And that's fundamentally different from all other epochs in the past. Even the birth of nation state was out of their rationalization of how to maximize profit extraction and cost externalization in the 1st place. Good luck with debt jubilees. ..."
"... How would this occur aside from a repudiation of the almighty buck one wonders, and would it be based on reserves in the vault, or actual use as money? ..."
"... The Eurozone and China could run trade deficits, thereby creating an opportunity for their currencies to become reasonably viable alternative reserves. But they don't because they don't want to cede control of their manufacturing and export-driven economic bases away. ..."
"... The sine qua non of our economic empire (which I learned here) is that a global currency requires global trade deficits, which must grow as quickly as the global economy to fulfill its role. ..."
"... So American deficits are structural. Our debt-ceiling controversies are theater. And our dollar is exceptional until the instant it isn't–then the Fed electron-tranfers trillions more to the speculators whose notional dollars just evaporated, keeping the currencies in the air with their new casino chips. Is this a loan? A gift? An electron cloud? It's the fog of war by other means . . . ..."
"... Resources and the critical health of the planet bother me a lot. Money and "gold" are, in the end, both fictitious obsessions. ..."
"... You'll find few authors willing to provide their seminal work for free online– 2nd Edition PDF . I think it fair for those unfamiliar with Hudson's work to read his analysis prior to being judgmental. ..."
Jul 22, 2019 | www.nakedcapitalism.com

"On a similar note, I've wondered why Russia has not defaulted on it's considerable USD and EUR debt (also too, why is Russia still doing debt in USD and thus strengthening U.S.?)"

It should be noted that Russia has almost zero foreign public debt and that the private foreign debt has been much reduced and now amounts to US dollars 450 billion.

As Russia has a surplus of more than US dollars 100 billion on the current account the total foreign debt amounts to 4 years current account surplus only.

Ad to this that Russias international currency reserves amounts to ca. US dollars 500 billion which meens that Russia is in a very strong fiscal position as it is capable of paying off its entire foreign debt any time it chooses.


Ian Perkins , July 21, 2019 at 9:16 am

Along the same lines, the summary starts with, "The first existential objective is to avoid the current threat of war by winding down U.S. military interference in foreign countries and removing U.S. military bases as relics of neocolonialism."

Either would be taken as proof of evil anti-US intentions, leading to sanctions, coups, assassinations, regime change, and eventually outright war. As Mael Colium says, the US picks off individual countries by isolating them.

Off The Street , July 21, 2019 at 9:19 am

Peripherally related MMT 2nd of 3 articles

jsn , July 21, 2019 at 11:50 am

When we have MMT paying for arts, history, journalism and particularly editors, I won't be so irritated by these kinds of criticisms.

We live in a very advanced world of Bernaysian propaganda where the communicative industries are privately owned and directed to ensure deep criticisms of the hyper-exploitative current reality CANNOT be published and promoted.

When someone takes the effort to produce something, like this or the book other commenters on this thread are also slighting, at great personal expense to themselves without corporate backing or institutional support, a decent reply would be "Thank you!", rather than tasking them or our hosts here at this site to "go back and clean up this mess??"

If you had any decency, you might suggest clarifying edits in comments, like changing "– so that it can taxing its own citizens." at the end of the 23rd paragraph to, "– so that it can avoid taxing its own citizens", to help the people you are criticizing for making things so difficult for you.

Jonathan Holland Becnel , July 21, 2019 at 1:43 pm

Michael Hudson is a modern day Saint! Who cares about a few typos when his ideas are truly REVOLUTIONARY!

For example, i had no idea about Debt Jubilees in early civilizations 3000 years ago! The pyramids built by FREE MEN! Liberty and Freedom originating from canceling debts! Torches and Beacons of light as representatives of said Debt Jubilees!

If you ask me, the #HudsonHawk is trying to awaken the Workers of the World in Forgiveness, Peace, Love, and Solidarity.

HUDSON 2024

softie , July 21, 2019 at 3:27 pm

I didn't know that until I read anthropologist David Graeber's Debt: The First 5,000 Years.

But there's a fundamental difference between debt in the past and debt today. In the past debt was owed to the state, today it's owed to some wealthy corporations. Good luck with debt jubilees in the absence of violent uprisings.

Kurtismayfield , July 21, 2019 at 5:20 pm

And those corporations get favorable rates on money printed by the government.. and the government backs trillions in mortgage and student loans.

Not much different.

softie , July 21, 2019 at 10:22 pm

The difference is they internalize profit and externalize cost. And that's fundamentally different from all other epochs in the past. Even the birth of nation state was out of their rationalization of how to maximize profit extraction and cost externalization in the 1st place. Good luck with debt jubilees.

Wukchumni , July 21, 2019 at 10:15 am

That is why Russia, China and other powers that U.S. strategists deem to be strategic rivals and enemies are looking to restore gold's role as the preferred asset to settle payments imbalances.

How would this occur aside from a repudiation of the almighty buck one wonders, and would it be based on reserves in the vault, or actual use as money?

Keep in mind that there isn't a human alive now who ever proffered a monetized gold coin in order to purchase something, and increasingly relatively few that have ever used a monetized silver coin for the same purpose.

Clive , July 21, 2019 at 10:44 am

I don't have a huge amount of sympathy. The Eurozone and China could run trade deficits, thereby creating an opportunity for their currencies to become reasonably viable alternative reserves. But they don't because they don't want to cede control of their manufacturing and export-driven economic bases away.

The US doesn't mind and doesn't care about the domestic repercussions. For how much longer that can continue, especially as Trump's America First policy is putting that under some strain, is an open question. But for now, it's willing to be satisfied with a little rowing back rather than wholesale reversal (back to, for example, an immediate-post war position of significant trade surpluses although the article is correct to point out this was due to the US being the last man standing, in terms of having a manufacturing base still intact).

The Eurozone and China are not only not showing any signs of a policy change, they've continued embedding and strengthening the current modus operandi. You pays your money, you takes your choices. Here as elsewhere. If they'd rather not have the US$ having a more-or-less monopoly position in then global financial system as a reserve currency, they'll need to make the compromises needed to set up these challenger currencies as viable alternatives.

But they can't have their economic cakes and eat them, too.

And it's not just currencies. You need legal systems which are deemed to be (which can only come through real, observational experience) investor-friendly -- not just prone to supporting or at the very least given an easy ride to domestic stalwarts. Again, this has repercussions if you then have to stop cosseting domestic "champions". The US legal system is ridiculously business friendly. But it doesn't, overtly, differentiate between US and non-US companies in a commercial dispute.

barefoot charley , July 21, 2019 at 11:31 am

The sine qua non of our economic empire (which I learned here) is that a global currency requires global trade deficits, which must grow as quickly as the global economy to fulfill its role. Tell that to Germany! If your silly little euro or yen or renminbi tries to go global, the dollar-based currency speculators will shrivel it like Soros did the pound in the 90s.

So American deficits are structural. Our debt-ceiling controversies are theater. And our dollar is exceptional until the instant it isn't–then the Fed electron-tranfers trillions more to the speculators whose notional dollars just evaporated, keeping the currencies in the air with their new casino chips. Is this a loan? A gift? An electron cloud? It's the fog of war by other means . . .

It may have been Hudson who explained that a quarter (or was it half?) of all corporate profits after WWII went to American companies, when our economy was that much of the world's. Now we're a much smaller fraction of the global economy, but our corporate sector still profits as much as it did when it was producing, rather than marketing, real goods. Another exceptional achievement.

Summer , July 21, 2019 at 1:20 pm

Really all we know is that such a plan would create a different order. That so many countries have continued to pauper their populations long after the obviousness that "development" is a sham doesn't bode well for their intentions even after the USA is brought to heel.

hunkerdown , July 22, 2019 at 5:20 am

Agreed. The likes of the Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership are still under negotiation and still, like every other multilateral investment agreement of recent vintage, apparently primarily concerned with creating supranational rights for landlords, especially of the absentee variety, at the expense of citizens in their collective capacity.

Susan the other` , July 21, 2019 at 2:30 pm

This is a good summary of our irrational world. MMT and the GND can save the situation but only if we industrialized humans forego any more fossil fuels except for long-term survival purposes. Ration it with draconian discipline. That in turn will discipline our military and turn our energies to things we can no longer ignore. Money doesn't bother me much. Resources and the critical health of the planet bother me a lot. Money and "gold" are, in the end, both fictitious obsessions.

karlof1 , July 21, 2019 at 4:56 pm

Thanks for providing this transcript prior to Hudson posting it to his own website. He was the first political-economist to lay out the Outlaw US Empire's game plan when he published Super Imperialism: The Economic Strategy of American Empire in 1972.

You'll find few authors willing to provide their seminal work for free online– 2nd Edition PDF . I think it fair for those unfamiliar with Hudson's work to read his analysis prior to being judgmental.

[Jul 21, 2019] Michael Hudson U.S. Economic Warfare and Likely Foreign Defenses naked capitalism

Jul 21, 2019 | www.nakedcapitalism.com

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https://c.deployads.com/sync?f=html&s=2343&u=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.nakedcapitalism.com%2F2019%2F07%2Fmichael-hudson-u-s-economic-warfare-and-likely-foreign-defenses.html <img src="http://b.scorecardresearch.com/p?c1=2&c2=16807273&cv=2.0&cj=1" /> By Michael Hudson, a research professor of Economics at University of Missouri, Kansas City, and a research associate at the Levy Economics Institute of Bard College. His latest book is "and forgive them their debts": Lending, Foreclosure and Redemption from Bronze Age Finance to the Jubilee Year Keynote paper delivered at the 14th Forum of the World Association for Political Economy, July 21, 2019

Today's world is at war on many fronts. The rules of international law and order put in place toward the end of World War II are being broken by U.S. foreign policy escalating its confrontation with countries that refrain from giving its companies control of their economic surpluses. Countries that do not give the United States control their oil and financial sectors or privatize their key sectors are being isolated by the United States imposing trade sanctions and unilateral tariffs giving special advantages to U.S. producers in violation of free trade agreements with European, Asian and other countries.

This global fracture has an increasingly military cast. U.S. officials justify tariffs and import quotas illegal under WTO rules on "national security" grounds, claiming that the United States can do whatever it wants as the world's "exceptional" nation. U.S. officials explain that this means that their nation is not obliged to adhere to international agreements or even to its own treaties and promises. This allegedly sovereign right to ignore on its international agreements was made explicit after Bill Clinton and his Secretary of State Madeline Albright broke the promise by President George Bush and Secretary of State James Baker that NATO would not expand eastward after 1991. ("You didn't get it in writing," was the U.S. response to the verbal agreements that were made.)

Likewise, the Trump administration repudiated the multilateral Iranian nuclear agreement signed by the Obama administration, and is escalating warfare with its proxy armies in the Near East. U.S. politicians are waging a New Cold War against Russia, China, Iran, and oil-exporting countries that the United States is seeking to isolate if cannot control their governments, central bank and foreign diplomacy.

The international framework that originally seemed equitable was pro-U.S. from the outset. In 1945 this was seen as a natural result of the fact that the U.S. economy was the least war-damaged and held by far most of the world's monetary gold. Still, the postwar trade and financial framework was ostensibly set up on fair and equitable international principles. Other countries were expected to recover and grow, creating diplomatic, financial and trade parity with each other.

But the past decade has seen U.S. diplomacy become one-sided in turning the International Monetary Fund (IMF), World Bank, SWIFT bank-clearing system and world trade into an asymmetrically exploitative system. This unilateral U.S.-centered array of institutions is coming to be widely seen not only as unfair, but as blocking the progress of other countries whose growth and prosperity is seen by U.S. foreign policy as a threat to unilateral U.S. hegemony. What began as an ostensibly international order to promote peaceful prosperity has turned increasingly into an extension of U.S. nationalism, predatory rent-extraction and a more dangerous military confrontation.

Deterioration of international diplomacy into a more nakedly explicit pro-U.S. financial, trade and military aggression was implicit in the way in which economic diplomacy was shaped when the United Nations, IMF and World Bank were shaped mainly by U.S. economic strategists. Their economic belligerence is driving countries to withdraw from the global financial and trade order that has been turned into a New Cold War vehicle to impose unilateral U.S. hegemony. Nationalistic reactions are consolidating into new economic and political alliances from Europe to Asia.

We are still mired in the Oil War that escalated in 2003 with the invasion of Iraq, which quickly spread to Libya and Syria. American foreign policy has long been based largely on control of oil. This has led the United States to oppose the Paris accords to stem global warming. Its aim is to give U.S. officials the power to impose energy sanctions forcing other countries to "freeze in the dark" if they do not follow U.S. leadership.

To expand its oil monopoly, America is pressuring Europe to oppose the Nordstream II gas pipeline from Russia, claiming that this would make Germany and other countries dependent on Russia instead of on U.S. liquified natural gas (LNG). Likewise, American oil diplomacy has imposed unilateral sanctions against Iranian oil exports, until such time as a regime change opens up that country's oil reserves to U.S., French, British and other allied oil majors.

U.S. control of dollarized money and credit is critical to this hegemony. As Congressman Brad Sherman of Los Angeles told a House Financial Services Committee hearing on May 9, 2019: "An awful lot of our international power comes from the fact that the U.S. dollar is the standard unit of international finance and transactions. Clearing through the New York Fed is critical for major oil and other transactions. It is the announced purpose of the supporters of cryptocurrency to take that power away from us, to put us in a position where the most significant sanctions we have against Iran, for example, would become irrelevant."[1]

The U.S. aim is to keep the dollar as the transactions currency for world trade, savings, central bank reserves and international lending. This monopoly status enables the U.S. Treasury and State Department to disrupt the financial payments system and trade for countries with which the United States is at economic or outright military war.

Russian President Vladimir Putin quickly responded by describing how "the degeneration of the universalist globalization model [is] turning into a parody, a caricature of itself, where common international rules are replaced with the laws of one country."[2]That is the trajectory on which this deterioration of formerly open international trade and finance is now moving. It has been building up for a decade. On June 5, 2009, then-Russian President Dmitry Medvedev cited this same disruptive U.S. dynamic at work in the wake of the U.S. junk mortgage and bank fraud crisis.

Those whose job it was to forecast events were not ready for the depth of the crisis and turned out to be too rigid, unwieldy and slow in their response. The international financial organisations – and I think we need to state this up front and not try to hide it – were not up to their responsibilities, as has been said quite unambiguously at a number of major international events such as the two recent G20 summits of the world's largest economies.

Furthermore, we have had confirmation that our pre-crisis analysis of global economic trends and the global economic system were correct. The artificially maintained uni-polar system and preservation of monopolies in key global economic sectors are root causes of the crisis. One big centre of consumption, financed by a growing deficit, and thus growing debts, one formerly strong reserve currency, and one dominant system of assessing assets and risks – these are all factors that led to an overall drop in the quality of regulation and the economic justification of assessments made, including assessments of macroeconomic policy. As a result, there was no avoiding a global crisis.[3]

That crisis is what is now causing today's break in global trade and payments.

Warfare on Many Fronts, with Dollarization Being the Main Arena

Dissolution of the Soviet Union 1991 did not bring the disarmament that was widely expected. U.S. leadership celebrated the Soviet demise as signaling the end of foreign opposition to U.S.-sponsored neoliberalism and even as the End of History. NATO expanded to encircle Russia and sponsored "color revolutions" from Georgia to Ukraine, while carving up former Yugoslavia into small statelets. American diplomacy created a foreign legion of Wahabi fundamentalists from Afghanistan to Iran, Iraq, Syria and Libya in support of Saudi Arabian extremism and Israeli expansionism.

The United States is waging war for control of oil against Venezuela, where a military coup failed a few years ago, as did the 2018-19 stunt to recognize an unelected pro-American puppet regime. The Honduran coup under President Obama was more successful in overthrowing an elected president advocating land reform, continuing the tradition dating back to 1954 when the CIA overthrew Guatemala's Arbenz regime.

U.S. officials bear a special hatred for countries that they have injured, ranging from Guatemala in 1954 to Iran, whose regime it overthrew to install the Shah as military dictator. Claiming to promote "democracy," U.S. diplomacy has redefined the word to mean pro-American, and opposing land reform, national ownership of raw materials and public subsidy of foreign agriculture or industry as an "undemocratic" attack on "free markets," meaning markets controlled by U.S. financial interests and absentee owners of land, natural resources and banks.

A major byproduct of warfare has always been refugees, and today's wave fleeing ISIS, Al Qaeda and other U.S.-backed Near Eastern proxies is flooding Europe. A similar wave is fleeing the dictatorial regimes backed by the United States from Honduras, Ecuador, Colombia and neighboring countries. The refugee crisis has become a major factor leading to the resurgence of nationalist parties throughout Europe and for the white nationalism of Donald Trump in the United States.

Dollarization as the Vehicle for U.S. Nationalism

The Dollar Standard – U.S. Treasury debt to foreigners held by the world's central banks – has replaced the gold-exchange standard for the world's central bank reserves to settle payments imbalances among themselves. This has enabled the United States to uniquely run balance-of-payments deficits for nearly seventy years, despite the fact that these Treasury IOUs have little visible likelihood of being repaid except under arrangements where U.S. rent-seeking and outright financial tribute from other enables it to liquidate its official foreign debt.

The United States is the only nation that can run sustained balance-of-payments deficits without having to sell off its assets or raise interest rates to borrow foreign money. No other national economy in the world can could afford foreign military expenditures on any major scale without losing its exchange value. Without the Treasury-bill standard, the United States would be in this same position along with other nations. That is why Russia, China and other powers that U.S. strategists deem to be strategic rivals and enemies are looking to restore gold's role as the preferred asset to settle payments imbalances.

The U.S. response is to impose regime change on countries that prefer gold or other foreign currencies to dollars for their exchange reserves. A case in point is the overthrow of Libya's Omar Kaddafi after he sought to base his nation's international reserves on gold. His liquidation stands as a military warning to other countries.

Thanks to the fact that payments-surplus economies invest their dollar inflows in U.S. Treasury bonds, the U.S. balance-of-payments deficit finances its domestic budget deficit. This foreign central-bank recycling of U.S. overseas military spending into purchases of U.S. Treasury securities gives the United States a free ride, financing its budget – also mainly military in character – so that it can taxing its own citizens.

Trump Is Forcing Other Countries To Create an Alternative to the Dollar Standard

The fact that Donald Trump's economic policies are proving ineffective in restoring American manufacturing is creating rising nationalist pressure to exploit foreigners by arbitrary tariffs without regard for international law, and to impose trade sanctions and diplomatic meddling to disrupt regimes that pursue policies that U.S. diplomats do not like.

There is a parallel here with Rome in the late 1 st century BC. It stripped its provinces to pay for its military deficit, the grain dole and land redistribution at the expense of Italian cities and Asia Minor. This created foreign opposition to drive Rome out. The U.S. economy is similar to Rome's: extractive rather than productive, based mainly on land rents and money-interest. As the domestic market is impoverished, U.S. politicians are seeking to take from abroad what no longer is being produced at home.

What is so ironic – and so self-defeating of America's free global ride – is that Trump's simplistic aim of lowering the dollar's exchange rate to make U.S. exports more price-competitive. He imagines commodity trade to be the entire balance of payments, as if there were no military spending, not to mention lending and investment. To lower the dollar's exchange rate, he is demanding that China's central bank and those of other countries stop supporting the dollar by recycling the dollars they receive for their exports into holdings of U.S. Treasury securities.

This tunnel vision leaves out of account the fact that the trade balance is not simply a matter of comparative international price levels. The United States has dissipated its supply of spare manufacturing capacity and local suppliers of parts and materials, while much of its industrial engineering and skilled manufacturing labor has retired. An immense shortfall must be filled by new capital investment, education and public infrastructure, whose charges are far above those of other economics.

Trump's infrastructure ideology is a Public-Private Partnership characterized by high-cost financialization demanding high monopoly rents to cover its interest charges, stock dividends and management fees. This neoliberal policy raises the cost of living for the U.S. labor force, making it uncompetitive. The United States is unable to produce more at any price right now, because its has spent the past half-century dismantling its infrastructure, closing down its part suppliers and outsourcing its industrial technology.

The United States has privatized and financialized infrastructure and basic needs such as public health and medical care, education and transportation that other countries have kept in their public domain to make their economies more cost-efficient by providing essential services at subsidized prices or freely. The United States also has led the practice of debt pyramiding, from housing to corporate finance. This financial engineering and wealth creation by inflating debt-financed real estate and stock market bubbles has made the United States a high-cost economy that cannot compete successfully with well-managed mixed economies.

Unable to recover dominance in manufacturing, the United States is concentrating on rent-extracting sectors that it hopes monopolize, headed by information technology and military production. On the industrial front, it threatens disrupt China and other mixed economies by imposing trade and financial sanctions.

The great gamble is whether these other countries will defend themselves by joining in alliances enabling them to bypass the U.S. economy. American strategists imagine their country to be the world's essential economy, without whose market other countries must suffer depression. The Trump Administration thinks that There Is No Alternative (TINA) for other countries except for their own financial systems to rely on U.S. dollar credit.

To protect themselves from U.S. sanctions, countries would have to avoid using the dollar, and hence U.S. banks. This would require creation of a non-dollarized financial system for use among themselves, including their own alternative to the SWIFT bank clearing system. Table 1 lists some possible related defenses against U.S. nationalistic diplomacy.

As noted above, what also is ironic in President Trump's accusation of China and other countries of artificially manipulating their exchange rate against the dollar (by recycling their trade and payments surpluses into Treasury securities to hold down their currency's dollar valuation) involves dismantling the Treasury-bill standard. The main way that foreign economies have stabilized their exchange rate since 1971 has indeed been to recycle their dollar inflows into U.S. Treasury securities. Letting their currency's value rise would threaten their export competitiveness against their rivals, although not necessarily benefit the United States.

Ending this practice leaves countries with the main way to protect their currencies from rising against the dollar is to reduce dollar inflows by blocking U.S. lending to domestic borrowers. They may levy floating tariffs proportioned to the dollar's declining value. The U.S. has a long history since the 1920s of raising its tariffs against currencies that are depreciating: the American Selling Price (ASP) system. Other countries can impose their own floating tariffs against U.S. goods.

Trade dependency as an Aim of the World Bank, IMF and US AID

The world today faces a problem much like what it faced on the eve of World War II. Like Germany then, the United States now poses the main threat of war, and equally destructive neoliberal economic regimes imposing austerity, economic shrinkage and depopulation. U.S. diplomats are threatening to destroy regimes and entire economies that seek to remain independent of this system, by trade and financial sanctions backed by direct military force.

Dedollarization will require creation of multilateral alternatives to U.S. "front" institutions such as the World Bank, IMF and other agencies in which the United States holds veto power to block any alternative policies deemed not to let it "win." U.S. trade policy through the World Bank and U.S. foreign aid agencies aims at promoting dependency on U.S. food exports and other key commodities, while hiring U.S. engineering firms to build up export infrastructure to subsidize U.S. and other natural-resource investors.[4]The financing is mainly in dollars, providing risk-free bonds to U.S. and other financial institutions. The resulting commercial and financial "interdependency" has led to a situation in which a sudden interruption of supply would disrupt foreign economies by causing a breakdown in their chain of payments and production. The effect is to lock client countries into dependency on the U.S. economy and its diplomacy, euphemized as "promoting growth and development."

U.S. neoliberal policy via the IMF imposes austerity and opposes debt writedowns. Its economic model pretends that debtor countries can pay any volume of dollar debt simply by reducing wages to squeeze more income out of the labor force to pay foreign creditors. This ignores the fact that solving the domestic "budget problem" by taxing local revenue still faces the "transfer problem" of converting it into dollars or other hard currencies in which most international debt is denominated. The result is that the IMF's "stabilization" programs actually destabilize and impoverish countries forced into following its advice.

IMF loans support pro-U.S. regimes such as Ukraine, and subsidize capital flight by supporting local currencies long enough to enable U.S. client oligarchies to flee their currencies at a pre-devaluation exchange rate for the dollar. When the local currency finally is allowed to collapse, debtor countries are advised to impose anti-labor austerity. This globalizes the class war of capital against labor while keeping debtor countries on a short U.S. financial leash.

U.S. diplomacy is capped by trade sanctions to disrupt economies that break away from U.S. aims. Sanctions are a form of economic sabotage, as lethal as outright military warfare in establishing U.S. control over foreign economies. The threat is to impoverish civilian populations, in the belief that this will lead them to replace their governments with pro-American regimes promising to restore prosperity by selling off their domestic infrastructure to U.S. and other multinational investors.

US Warfare on Many Fronts Dedollarization defense

Military warfare (the Near East, Asia)

NATO and bilateral treaty (Saudi, ISIS, Al Qaida). color revolutions and proxy wars.

Shanghai Cooperation Organization, and pressure for Europe to withdraw from NATO unless the U.S. alleviates its New Cold War threats.
Dollarization is monetary warfare. The US Treasury-bill standard finances the mainly military U.S. balance-of-payments deficit. SWIFT threatens to isolate Iran and Russia Dedollarization will refrain from foreign central banks financing U.S. overseas military spending by keeping their savings in dollars.

Creation of alternative payments clearing system.

The IMF finances US client regimes and seeks to isolate those not following US policy. An alternative global financial organization, such as Europe's INSTEX to circumvent US anti-Iran sanctions, and Russo-China alternative to SWIFT.
Creditor policy forcing austerity on debtor economies, forcing them to privatize and sell off their public domain to pay debts. An international court empowered to write down debts to the ability to pay, based on the original principles that were to guide the BIS in 1931.
The World Bank finances trade dependency on US food exports and opposes national food self-sufficiency. An alternative development organization based on food self-sufficiency. Annulment of World Bank and IMF debt as "odious debt."
Unilateral US trade war based on levy of US protectionist tariffs, quotas and sanctions, Countervailing sanctions, and creation of an alternative to the WTO or a strengthened organization free of US control.
Cyber War, spycraft via US internet platforms, and Stuxnet sabotage. Work with Huawei and other alternatives to US internet options.
Class War: austerity program for labor MMT, taxation of rentier income and capital gains.
Neoliberal monetarist doctrine of privatization and creditor-oriented rules Promotion of a mixed economy with public infrastructure as a factor of production.
US patent policy seeks monopoly rents. Non-recognition of predatory monopoly patents.
Investment control Deprivatization and buyoutsof US assets abroad.
International law and diplomacy The U.S. as the world's "exceptional nation," not subject to international laws or even to its own treaty agreements.

Veto power in any organization it joins. The basic principle that the U.S. is not subject to any foreign say over its laws and policies.

Global Problems caused by US Policy Response to U.S. Disruptive Policy

U.S. refuses to join international agreements to reduce carbon emissions, Global Warming and Extreme Weather.

U.S. diplomacy is based on control of oil to make other countries dependent on U.S. energy dominance.

Trade and tax sanctions against U.S. exporters and banks. Taxes on U.S. tax avoidance by the oil industry's "flags of convenience" (convenient for tax avoidance).

Taxation or isolation of U.S. exports based on high-carbon production.

Attempt to monopolize new G5 Internet technology, Sanctioning of Huawei, insistence on US priority in high-tech. Rejection of patents on basic IT, medicine and other basic human needs.
Patent laws in pharmaceuticals, etc. Taxation of monopoly rents.

There Are Alternatives, on Many Fronts

Militarily, today's leading alternative to NATO expansionism is the Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO), along with Europe following France's example under Charles de Gaulle and withdrawing. After all, there is no real threat of military invasion today in Europe. No nation can occupy another without an enormous military draft and such heavy personnel losses that domestic protests would unseat the government waging such a war. The U.S. anti-war movement in the 1960s signaled the end of the military draft, not only in the United States but in nearly all democratic countries (Israel, Switzerland, Brazil and South Korea are exceptions).

The enormous spending on armaments for a kind of war unlikely to be fought is not really military, but simply to provide profits to the military industrial complex. The arms are not really to be used. They are simply to be bought, and ultimately scrapped. The danger, of course, is that these not-for-use arms actually might be used, if only to create a need for new profitable production.

Likewise, foreign holdings of dollars are not really to be spent on purchases of U.S. exports or investments. They are like fine-wine collectibles, for saving rather than for drinking. The alternative to such dollarized holdings is to create a mutual use of national currencies, and a domestic bank-clearing payments system as an alternative to SWIFT.Russia, China, Iran and Venezuela already are said to be developing a crypto-currency payments to circumvent U.S. sanctions and hence financial control.

In the World Trade Organization, the United States has tried to claim that any industry receiving public infrastructure or credit subsidy deserves tariff retaliation in order to force privatization. In response to WTO rulings that U.S. tariffs are illegally imposed, the United States "has blocked all new appointments to the seven-member appellate body in protest, leaving it in danger of collapse because it may not have enough judges to allow it to hear new cases."[5]In the U.S. view, only privatized trade financed by private rather than public banks is "fair" trade.

An alternative to the WTO (or removal of its veto privilege given to the U.S. bloc) is needed to cope with U.S. neoliberal ideology and, most recently, the U.S. travesty claiming "national security" exemption to free-trade treaties, impose tariffs on steel, aluminum, and on European countries that circumvent sanctions on Iran or threaten to buy oil from Russia via the Nordstream II pipeline instead of high-cost liquified "freedom gas" from the United States.

In the realm of development lending, China's bank along with its Belt and Road initiative is an incipient alternative to the World Bank, whose main role has been to promote foreign dependency on U.S. suppliers. The IMF for its part now functions as an extension of the U.S. Department of Defense to subsidize client regimes such as Ukraine while financially isolating countries not subservient to U.S. diplomacy.

To save debt-strapped economies suffering Greek-style austerity, the world needs to replace neoliberal economic theory with an analytic logic for debt writedowns based on the ability to pay. The guiding principle of the needed development-oriented logic of international law should be that no nation should be obliged to pay foreign creditors by having to sell of the public domain and rent-extraction rights to foreign creditors. The defining character of nationhood should be the fiscal right to tax natural resource rents and financial returns, and to create its own monetary system.

The United States refuses to join the International Criminal Court. To be effective, it needs enforcement power for its judgments and penalties, capped by the ability to bring charges of war crimes in the tradition of the Nuremberg tribunal. U.S. to such a court, combined with its military buildup now threatening World War III, suggests a new alignment of countries akin to the Non-Aligned Nations movement of the 1950s and 1960s. Non-aligned in this case means freedom from U.S. diplomatic control or threats.

Such institutions require a more realistic economic theory and philosophy of operations to replace the neoliberal logic for anti-government privatization, anti-labor austerity, and opposition to domestic budget deficits and debt writedowns. Today's neoliberal doctrine counts financial late fees and rising housing prices as adding to "real output" (GDP), but deems public investment as deadweight spending, not a contribution to output. The aim of such logic is to convince governments to pay their foreign creditors by selling off their public infrastructure and other assets in the public domain.

Just as the "capacity to pay" principle was the foundation stone of the Bank for International Settlements in 1931, a similar basis is needed to measure today's ability to pay debts and hence to write down bad loans that have been made without a corresponding ability of debtors to pay. Without such an institution and body of analysis, the IMF's neoliberal principle of imposing economic depression and falling living standards to pay U.S. and other foreign creditors will impose global poverty.

The above proposals provide an alternative to the U.S. "exceptionalist" refusal to join any international organization that has a say over its affairs. Other countries must be willing to turn the tables and isolate U.S. banks, U.S. exporters, and to avoid using U.S. dollars and routing payments via U.S. banks. To protect their ability to create a countervailing power requires an international court and its sponsoring organization.

Summary

The first existential objective is to avoid the current threat of war by winding down U.S. military interference in foreign countries and removing U.S. military bases as relics of neocolonialism. Their danger to world peace and prosperity threatens a reversion to the pre-World War II colonialism, ruling by client elites along lines similar to the 2014 Ukrainian coup by neo-Nazi groups sponsored by the U.S. State Department and National Endowment for Democracy. Such control recalls the dictators that U.S. diplomacy established throughout Latin America in the 1950s. Today's ethnic terrorism by U.S.-sponsored Wahabi-Saudi Islam recalls the behavior of Nazi Germany in the 1940s.

Global warming is the second major existentialist threat. Blocking attempts to reverse it is a bedrock of American foreign policy, because it is based on control of oil. So the military, refugee and global warming threats are interconnected.

The U.S. military poses the greatest immediate danger. Today's warfare is fundamentally changed from what it used to be. Prior to the 1970s, nations conquering others had to invade and occupy them with armies recruited by a military draft. But no democracy in today's world can revive such a draft without triggering widespread refusal to fight, voting the government out of power. The only way the United States – or other countries – can fight other nations is to bomb them. And as noted above, economic sanctions have as destructive an effect on civilian populations in countries deemed to be U.S. adversaries as overt warfare. The United States can sponsor political coups (as in Honduras and Pinochet's Chile), but cannot occupy. It is unwilling to rebuild, to say nothing of taking responsibility for the waves of refugees that our bombing and sanctions are causing from Latin America to the Near East.

U.S. ideologues view their nation's coercive military expansion and political subversion and neoliberal economic policy of privatization and financialization as an irreversible victory signaling the End of History. To the rest of the world it is a threat to human survival.

The American promise is that the victory of neoliberalism is the End of History, offering prosperity to the entire world. But beneath the rhetoric of free choice and free markets is the reality of corruption, subversion, coercion, debt peonage and neofeudalism. The reality is the creation and subsidy of polarized economies bifurcated between a privileged rentier class and its clients, eir debtors and renters. America is to be permitted to monopolize trade in oil and food grains, and high-technology rent-yielding monopolies, living off its dependent customers. Unlike medieval serfdom, people subject to this End of History scenario can choose to live wherever they want. But wherever they live, they must take on a lifetime of debt to obtain access to a home of their own, and rely on U.S.-sponsored control of their basic needs, money and credit by adhering to U.S. financial planning of their economies. This dystopian scenario confirms Rosa Luxemburg's recognition that the ultimate choice facing nations in today's world is between socialism and barbarism.

___________________

[1]Billy Bambrough, "Bitcoin Threatens To 'Take Power' From The U.S. Federal Reserve," Forbes , May 15, 2019. https://www.forbes.com/sites/billybambrough/2019/05/15/a-u-s-congressman-is-so-scared-of-bitcoin-and-crypto-he-wants-it-banned/#36b2700b6405.

[2]Vladimir Putin, keynote address to the Economic Forum, June 5-6 2019. Putin went on to warn of "a policy of completely unlimited economic egoism and a forced breakdown." This fragmenting of the global economic space "is the road to endless conflict, trade wars and maybe not just trade wars. Figuratively, this is the road to the ultimate fight of all against all."

[3]Address to St Petersburg International Economic Forum's Plenary Session, St Petersburg, Kremlin.ru, June 5, 2009, from Johnson's Russia List, June 8, 2009, #8,

[4] https://www.rt.com/business/464013-china-russia-cryptocurrency-dollar-dethrone/ . Already in the late 1950s the Forgash Plan proposed a World Bank for Economic Acceleration. Designed by Terence McCarthy and sponsored by Florida Senator Morris Forgash, the bank would have been a more truly development-oriented institution to guide foreign development to create balanced economies self-sufficient in food and other essentials. The proposal was opposed by U.S. interests on the ground that countries pursuing land reform tended to be anti-American. More to the point, they would have avoided trade and financial dependency on U.S. suppliers and banks, and hence on U.S. trade and financial sanctions to prevent them from following policies at odds with U.S. diplomatic demands.

[5]Don Weinland, "WTO rules against US in tariff dispute with China," Financial Times , July 17, 2019.


Mael Colium , July 21, 2019 at 8:53 am

Views from an economist who has been promoting neoclassical ideology for decades and then wonders when there are no alternatives to escape the narrative? Completely ignores how a monetary sovereign capacity can move away from US hegemony. The countries under the heel of the US are there because the IMF has engineered their economies in favour of the US. They could all threaten default at the same time and scare off the IMF horses – the US picks off individual countries by isolating them. Play the united game and the power of division practiced by the US would crumble. Just saying.

timbers , July 21, 2019 at 9:13 am

"They could all threaten default at the same time and scare off the IMF horses – the US picks off individual countries by isolating them. Play the united game and the power of division practiced by the US would crumble."

This is interesting. On a similar note, I've wondered why Russia has not defaulted on it's considerable USD and EUR debt (also too, why is Russia still doing debt in USD and thus strengthening U.S.?).

But only after she sells off all her U.S. holdings which will be (and have been already) seized by Out Law America.

I believe Russia would be on some sort of legal ground in doing so in response to the illegal sanctions imposed upon by by the EU and U.S.

And it will be interesting to see if Germany backs down on Nordstream II. Will she be a total puppet of the U.S.?

Of course, it's depressing Russia has not reformed it's internal economy so that she can grow faster. Maybe because while Putin and others don't want to take orders from Washington they are trapped in neoliberal economic thinking and can't think outside the box?

Until Washington changes, I firmly believe Russia and other nations must act as if their future hold one totally without U.S. interdependence and must create completely independent economies the U.S. can not touch. China? Hard to include China in that right now with so much trade with the U.S. but on the other hand their are reports U.S. related firms are starting to move out of China.

Synoia , July 21, 2019 at 11:57 am

Among the reports of companies leaving China, I've not seen any who declare they will return manufacturing to the US.

One of the major objectives of Tariffs, historically, is to favor local manufacture over imports. Other than defense, is that happening?

Boeing appears to be the poster child of how well a company with a large defense arm performs in the commercial sector.

Oh , July 21, 2019 at 12:44 pm

The corporations that moved manufacturing to Mexico and then subsequently to China will continue to seek cheaper labor so that their management can feather their own nests. They're not going to bring back manufacturing to the US. Look at these greedy corporations that sell Hanes underwear for example. They get rid of labels on their product to save less than a cent per item and spend money and spend millions in extolling the virtues of not having labesl on their tee shirts (Michael Jordon is the spokesman in the ad). Greed has no limits.

lazycat1984 , July 21, 2019 at 12:23 pm

"Maybe because while Putin and others don't want to take orders from Washington they are trapped in neoliberal economic thinking and can't think outside the box?"

Probably a lot there. Maybe the idea is that the system can work but needs to be fiddled with to make it more fair to B stringers like Russia and China.

The only time anyone has had any success escaping Anglo-American finance was Germany, Japan and the USSR in the 1930-45 period. The Soviets managed to keep their thing going until much later, but internal corruption ( where isn't this a factor?) did them in.

Oh , July 21, 2019 at 1:03 pm

Post WWII Japan kept away from the stranglehold of US Financiers by only purchasing technology and protecting their markets which other countries have to emulate.

Plenue , July 21, 2019 at 2:30 pm

"I've wondered why Russia has not defaulted on it's considerable USD and EUR debt (also too, why is Russia still doing debt in USD and thus strengthening U.S.?)"

They have. Russia has dropped 84% of the Treasury Securities it held. https://money.cnn.com/2018/07/30/investing/russia-us-debt-treasury/index.html

Notice how this hasn't effected anything; other parties just happily bought it all up. The Russians were stupid to drop it because Treasury Securities are a guaranteed return on investment. Because, stick with me here on this, the US government can't run out of US dollars.

Roger Boyd , July 21, 2019 at 4:10 pm

They have removed those assets from the very great possibility of seizure by the US and others (like the Venezuelan gold seized by the UK). When push comes to shove the US and its minions have no ethics abut breaking whatever laws they deem to be in their way.

They bought quite a lot of gold, which seems to be doing pretty well these days.

timbers , July 21, 2019 at 5:35 pm

You misunderstood me. Russia borrows USD and EUR from Western banks. That makes US – Russia's enemy – stronger. Russia should borrow from Russia not the US. I'm asking why don't they default on that debt. Your response assumed I was referring to Russia holding US assets. That's different. BTW I don't agree with you that Russia made a mistake getting rid of US assets given the US has stolen Russian real estate holdings in the US and other nations property held in US banks like Venezuela's USD deposits and gold.

Ian Perkins , July 21, 2019 at 9:16 am

Along the same lines, the summary starts with, "The first existential objective is to avoid the current threat of war by winding down U.S. military interference in foreign countries and removing U.S. military bases as relics of neocolonialism." Either would be taken as proof of evil anti-US intentions, leading to sanctions, coups, assassinations, regime change, and eventually outright war. As Mael Colium says, the US picks off individual countries by isolating them.

flora , July 21, 2019 at 1:11 pm

I noticed that. I think Michael Hudson is a classical economist pushing back against the currently reigning neo-classical economists. Classical economics is not Neo-classical economics. Saying Hudson promotes neo-classical economics is a mistake.

http://heteconomist.com/classical-vs-neoclassical-economics-tax-and-rent/

RBHoughton , July 21, 2019 at 9:42 pm

I believe his hope is for the world to recognise that Athens, Rome and Constantinoiple collapsed economically due to legislatively favoring creditors over debtors. Its a process we see alive in North America and Europe today. That's where he is coming from

jsn , July 21, 2019 at 11:36 am

"Views from an economist who has been promoting neoclassical ideology for decades and then wonders when there are no alternatives to escape the narrative?"

Really, you should read the article you posted this note under. What text is this comment in reference to?

Vato , July 21, 2019 at 12:57 pm

Michael Hudson promoting neoclassical ideology for decades?? Are we talking about the same Michael Hudson from UMKC?
Could you please provide one single link to a paper that was written by him relying on inductive methodology-based equilibrium theory??

Thank you

Off The Street , July 21, 2019 at 9:19 am

Peripherally related MMT 2nd of 3 articles

Trey N , July 21, 2019 at 9:20 am

There are a number of such "unclear sentences" in the article. Is the original article so poorly written/edited, or is it errata in the transcription here?

Either way, it's a shame that such errors detract from the clarity of the ideas presented. Is there any way to go back and clean this mess up??

barefoot charley , July 21, 2019 at 10:05 am

Reading Michael's fascinating history of debt forgiveness isn't much different. I'm grateful for his writing but suffer from his typing. Have proofreaders gone the way of buggy whips?

(And we must stipulate that typos here on NC are so buggy they're a feature. Which makes me wonder if/when Roman inscriptions went illiterate–first century BC civil wars, or third century AD Christian takeover? Valuable historic perspective!)

ex-PFC Chuck , July 21, 2019 at 12:36 pm

" Have proofreaders gone the way of buggy whips?"

Yes. The job has been outsourced to Spellcheck.

Vato , July 21, 2019 at 1:04 pm

The translations of his books into German are even worse. Lots of typos and often contentual mistranslation.

Adams , July 21, 2019 at 10:09 am

Support. I would go further and say the article should be taken down for editing. Needs to be translated into English.

Also, too, the final sentence: "This dystopian scenario confirms Rosa Luxemburg's recognition that the ultimate choice facing nations in today's world is between socialism and barbarism." is a rather large jump from the text. While many regular NC readers will agree, the connection for others is obscure.

Monty , July 21, 2019 at 6:02 pm

You should ask for a refund!

Oh wait

Anon , July 21, 2019 at 8:42 pm

Wait the final sentence is what it is because it comes after everything before it. The quote distills much of what precedes it: The US is determined to be "the winner" in all dealings and nations acquiescing to US goals will likely lead to barbarism (austerity) for those populations.

Sometimes a phrase hits to the core of a wider meaning: "Send Her Back!" (a racist chant in any language).

jsn , July 21, 2019 at 11:50 am

When we have MMT paying for arts, history, journalism and particularly editors, I won't be so irritated by these kinds of criticisms.

We live in a very advanced world of Bernaysian propaganda where the communicative industries are privately owned and directed to ensure deep criticisms of the hyper-exploitative current reality CANNOT be published and promoted.

When someone takes the effort to produce something, like this or the book other commenters on this thread are also slighting, at great personal expense to themselves without corporate backing or institutional support, a decent reply would be "Thank you!", rather than tasking them or our hosts here at this site to "go back and clean up this mess??"

If you had any decency, you might suggest clarifying edits in comments, like changing "– so that it can taxing its own citizens." at the end of the 23rd paragraph to, "– so that it can avoid taxing its own citizens", to help the people you are criticizing for making things so difficult for you.

sporble , July 21, 2019 at 1:14 pm

+1

Jonathan Holland Becnel , July 21, 2019 at 1:43 pm

Michael Hudson is a modern day Saint!

Who cares about a few typos when his ideas are truly REVOLUTIONARY!

For example, i had no idea about Debt Jubilees in early civilizations 3000 years ago! The pyramids built by FREE MEN! Liberty and Freedom originating from canceling debts! Torches and Beacons of light as representatives of said Debt Jubilees!

If you ask me, the #HudsonHawk is trying to awaken the Workers of the World in Forgiveness, Peace, Love, and Solidarity.

HUDSON 2024

softie , July 21, 2019 at 3:27 pm

I didn't know that until I read anthropologist David Graeber's Debt: The First 5,000 Years.

But there's a fundamental difference between debt in the past and debt today. In the past debt was owed to the state, today it's owed to some wealthy corporations. Good luck with debt jubilees in the absence of violent uprisings.

Stephen Gardner , July 21, 2019 at 4:45 pm

Uprising? Whatever it takes.

Kurtismayfield , July 21, 2019 at 5:20 pm

And those corporations get favorable rates on money printed by the government.. and the government backs trillions in mortgage and student loans.

Not much different.

softie , July 21, 2019 at 10:22 pm

The difference is they internalize profit and externalize cost. And that's fundamentally different from all other epochs in the past. Even the birth of nation state was out of their rationalization of how to maximize profit extraction and cost externalization in the 1st place. Good luck with debt jubilees.

Oh , July 21, 2019 at 3:17 pm

I agree. I can read through typos, missing words, etc as long as the writing conveys the intended meaning. I think the criticism of the document for grammatical perfection is not warranted. I enjoyed the article myself anad I thank the author.

Wukchumni , July 21, 2019 at 10:15 am

That is why Russia, China and other powers that U.S. strategists deem to be strategic rivals and enemies are looking to restore gold's role as the preferred asset to settle payments imbalances.

How would this occur aside from a repudiation of the almighty buck one wonders, and would it be based on reserves in the vault, or actual use as money?

Keep in mind that there isn't a human alive now who ever proffered a monetized gold coin in order to purchase something, and increasingly relatively few that have ever used a monetized silver coin for the same purpose.

Synoia , July 21, 2019 at 3:51 pm

I've used Copper .

Clive , July 21, 2019 at 10:44 am

I don't have a huge amount of sympathy. The Eurozone and China could run trade deficits, thereby creating an opportunity for their currencies to become reasonably viable alternative reserves. But they don't because they don't want to cede control of their manufacturing and export-driven economic bases away.

The US doesn't mind and doesn't care about the domestic repercussions. For how much longer that can continue, especially as Trump's America First policy is putting that under some strain, is an open question. But for now, it's willing to be satisfied with a little rowing back rather than wholesale reversal (back to, for example, an immediate-post war position of significant trade surpluses although the article is correct to point out this was due to the US being the last man standing, in terms of having a manufacturing base still intact).

The Eurozone and China are not only not showing any signs of a policy change, they've continued embedding and strengthening the current modus operandi. You pays your money, you takes your choices. Here as elsewhere. If they'd rather not have the US$ having a more-or-less monopoly position in then global financial system as a reserve currency, they'll need to make the compromises needed to set up these challenger currencies as viable alternatives.

But they can't have their economic cakes and eat them, too.

And it's not just currencies. You need legal systems which are deemed to be (which can only come through real, observational experience) investor-friendly -- not just prone to supporting or at the very least given an easy ride to domestic stalwarts. Again, this has repercussions if you then have to stop cosseting domestic "champions". The US legal system is ridiculously business friendly. But it doesn't, overtly, differentiate between US and non-US companies in a commercial dispute.

barefoot charley , July 21, 2019 at 11:31 am

The sine qua non of our economic empire (which I learned here) is that a global currency requires global trade deficits, which must grow as quickly as the global economy to fulfill its role. Tell that to Germany! If your silly little euro or yen or renminbi tries to go global, the dollar-based currency speculators will shrivel it like Soros did the pound in the 90s. So American deficits are structural. Our debt-ceiling controversies are theater. And our dollar is exceptional until the instant it isn't–then the Fed electron-tranfers trillions more to the speculators whose notional dollars just evaporated, keeping the currencies in the air with their new casino chips. Is this a loan? A gift? An electron cloud? It's the fog of war by other means . . .

It may have been Hudson who explained that a quarter (or was it half?) of all corporate profits after WWII went to American companies, when our economy was that much of the world's. Now we're a much smaller fraction of the global economy, but our corporate sector still profits as much as it did when it was producing, rather than marketing, real goods. Another exceptional achievement.

barefoot charley , July 21, 2019 at 11:41 am

Oops, and I meant to begin with strong agreement, Clive, just developing your point about the need for deficits to 'buy' control with unpayable debt. And it's an excellent point that "The US doesn't mind and doesn't care about the domestic repercussions." Just imagine if we did.

The Rev Kev , July 21, 2019 at 11:05 am

Oh man, this is definitely a two coffee cup read with a ton of material to absorb. Definitely a keeper this. I'll just make a brief comment as it is late here. Maybe what is key here is that there are so many trends working against the US as power shifts from a unipolar to a multipolar world that a determination has been made in Washington to try to set out a unilateral domineering position with regards the rest of the world to stop the loss of prestige and power. This is just not Trump but the Washington political establishment backing him up to put the US in a domineering position for at least the first half of this century.

Peter , July 21, 2019 at 12:29 pm

This is the first serious article I've seen linking opposition to climate action with the US strategic focus on securing oil. The current oil wars may have started in 2003, but we've really been fighting them for longer, at least since the Tanker War of the late 80s, which led into the first Gulf War (which was explicitly for oil). We've been openly preparing for such wars since the Carter Doctrine of the late 70s as well. Those dates matter because the public generally became aware of global warming with the congressional hearings in 1988, and the oil companies (and thus presumably the rest of the deep state) became aware of the science as early as the 70s.

US military strategy has been based around ensuring climate change happens for as long as climate change has been known about. Why isn't this more of a scandal? Why isn't this more openly discussed as a justification for changing US foreign policy? Why isn't reducing imperial adventures discussed as a side benefit of any policy, like a Green New Deal, that seriously attempted to cut carbon emissions? It boggles the mind, and seems like the sort of thing that'll be obvious to future generations so long as civilization hasn't collapsed by then.

Daniel Rich , July 21, 2019 at 8:57 pm

@ Peter,

Perhaps we'll get an 'Easter Island V2.0 – The Extended Edition' rehash

Summer , July 21, 2019 at 1:20 pm

Really all we know is that such a plan would create a different order. That so many countries have continued to pauper their populations long after the obviousness that "development" is a sham doesn't bode well for their intentions even after the USA is brought to heel.

Susan the other` , July 21, 2019 at 2:30 pm

This is a good summary of our irrational world. MMT and the GND can save the situation but only if we industrialized humans forego any more fossil fuels except for long-term survival purposes. Ration it with draconian discipline. That in turn will discipline our military and turn our energies to things we can no longer ignore. Money doesn't bother me much. Resources and the critical health of the planet bother me a lot. Money and "gold" are, in the end, both fictitious obsessions.

karlof1 , July 21, 2019 at 4:56 pm

Thanks for providing this transcript prior to Hudson posting it to his own website. He was the first political-economist to lay out the Outlaw US Empire's game plan when he published Super Imperialism: The Economic Strategy of American Empire in 1972. You'll find few authors willing to provide their seminal work for free online– 2nd Edition PDF . I think it fair for those unfamiliar with Hudson's work to read his analysis prior to being judgmental.

Jonathan Holland Becnel , July 21, 2019 at 6:56 pm

Thanks for the link!

flora , July 21, 2019 at 10:25 pm

One quibble with the closing Summary:

The first existential objective is to avoid the current threat of war by winding down U.S. military interference in foreign countries and removing U.S. military bases as relics of neocolonialism.

US Naval base in Subic Bay, Philippines was closed in 1992 after a leasing disagreement with the Philippine govt .
https://www.nytimes.com/1991/12/28/world/philippines-orders-us-to-leave-strategic-navy-base-at-subic-bay.html

Clark Air Force base in Angeles City, Philippines had closed the year earlier in 1991.

China is growing power and challenger to shipping freedom of the South China Sea trading route, building artificial fortified islands and aircraft carriers. History has not ended. Power abhors a vacuum.

I agree with Hudson's point about the dangers of misdirected militarism, but I don't think closing military bases around the world necessarily guarantees the end of military adventurism dangers by other rising powers.

ElViejito , July 21, 2019 at 10:50 pm

Subic Bay is back in business as a resupply port for U.S. exercises in the Phillipines. https://www.csmonitor.com/World/Asia-Pacific/2015/1112/US-Navy-edges-back-to-Subic-Bay-in-Philippines-under-new-rules

[Jul 21, 2019] Merchants of Death business uber alles" as the new interpretation of "Drain the Swamp" election time slogan by Trump administration

"Drain the swamp" now means good times for Raytheon.
Jul 21, 2019 | www.zerohedge.com

rwe2late , 1 hour ago link

Draining the swamp means hiring the lobbyists

- Orwell

...err, I meant Trump.

War is Peace

- well, now that's Orwell

(and many others in government and elsewhere)

Klassenfeind , 2 hours ago link

The Donald Trump Administration is looking more and more like George W. Bush's Administration: a dumb clueless idiot surrounded by neocons.

Remember Donald Rumsfeld , Karl Rove, Condoleezza Rice, John Bolton , George Tenet, Henry Paulson, Paul Wolfowitz , and **** Cheney from the George W Bush Administration?

Tell me Trumptards, what's so "different this time" about Donald Trump hiring Bolton, Pompeo, Mattis/Shanahan/Esper, Haley, Haspel and Mnuchin?

[Jul 20, 2019] New US Pentagon Chief Vested Interest in War Conflict

Highly recommended!
Notable quotes:
"... "President Trump's Cabinet is already rife with corruption, stocked full of former lobbyists and other private industry power players who don't seem to mind leveraging their government positions to enrich themselves personally. Esper should fit right in," ..."
"... The linkage between officials in US government, the Pentagon and private manufacturers is a notorious example of "revolving door". It is not unusual, or even remarkable, that individuals go from one sector to another and vice versa. That crony relationship is fundamental to the functioning of the "military-industrial complex" which dominates the entire American economy and the fiscal budget ($730 billion annually – half the total discretionary public spend by federal government). ..."
"... Raytheon is a $25 billion company whose business is all about selling missile-defense systems. Its products have been deployed in dozens of countries, including in the Middle East, as well as Japan, Romania and, as of next year, Poland. It is in Raytheon's vital vested interest to capitalize on alleged security threats from Iran, Russia, China and North Korea in order to sell "defense" systems to nations that then perceive a "threat" and need to be "protected". ..."
"... It is a certainty that Esper shares the same worldview, not just for engrained ideological reasons, but also because of his own personal motives for self-aggrandizement as a former employee of Raytheon and quite possibly as a future board member when he retires from the Pentagon. ..."
"... It is also about how US foreign policy and military decisions are formulated and executed, including decisions on matters of conflict and ultimately war. The insidiousness is almost farcical, if the implications weren't so disturbing, worthy of satire from the genre of Dr Strangelove or Catch 22. ..."
"... During senate hearings this week, Esper openly revealed his dubious quality of thinking and the kind of policies he will pursue as Pentagon chief. He told credulous senators that Russia was to blame for the collapse of the Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces (INF) Treaty. That equates to more Raytheon profits from selling defense systems in Europe. ..."
"... It is ludicrous how blatant a so-called democratic nation (the self-declared "leader of the free world") is in actuality an oligarchic corporate state whose international relations are conducted on the basis of making obscene profits from conflict and war. ..."
Jul 20, 2019 | www.strategic-culture.org

Mark Esper is expected to be confirmed in coming days as the new US Secretary of Defense. His appointment is awaiting final Congressional approval after customary hearings this week before senators. The 55-year-old nominee put forward by President Trump was previously a decorated Lieutenant Colonel and has served in government office during the GW Bush administration.

But what stands out as his most conspicuous past occupation is working for seven years as a senior lobbyist for Raytheon, the US' third biggest military manufacturing company. The firm specializes in missile-defense systems, including the Patriot, Iron Dome and the Aegis Ashore system (the latter in partnership with Lockheed Martin).

As Defense Secretary, Esper will be the most senior civilian executive member of the US government, next to the president, on overseeing military policy, including decisions about declaring war and deployment of American armed forces around the globe. His military counterpart at the Pentagon is Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, currently held by Marine General Joseph Dunford who is expected to be replaced soon by General Mark Milley (also in the process of senate hearings).

Esper's confirmation hearings this week were pretty much a rubber-stamp procedure, receiving lame questioning from senators about his credentials and viewpoints. The only exception was Senator Elizabeth Warren, who slammed the potential "conflict of interest" due to his past lobbying service for Raytheon. She said it "smacks of corruption". Other than her solitary objection, Esper was treated with kid gloves by other senators and his appointment is expected to be whistled through by next week. During hearings, the former lobbyist even pointedly refused to recuse himself of any matters involving Raytheon if he becomes the defense boss.

As Rolling Stone magazine quipped on Esper's nomination, "it is as swampy as you'd expect".

"President Trump's Cabinet is already rife with corruption, stocked full of former lobbyists and other private industry power players who don't seem to mind leveraging their government positions to enrich themselves personally. Esper should fit right in," wrote Rolling Stone.

The linkage between officials in US government, the Pentagon and private manufacturers is a notorious example of "revolving door". It is not unusual, or even remarkable, that individuals go from one sector to another and vice versa. That crony relationship is fundamental to the functioning of the "military-industrial complex" which dominates the entire American economy and the fiscal budget ($730 billion annually – half the total discretionary public spend by federal government).

Nevertheless, Esper is a particularly brazen embodiment of the revolving-door's seamless connection.

Raytheon is a $25 billion company whose business is all about selling missile-defense systems. Its products have been deployed in dozens of countries, including in the Middle East, as well as Japan, Romania and, as of next year, Poland. It is in Raytheon's vital vested interest to capitalize on alleged security threats from Iran, Russia, China and North Korea in order to sell "defense" systems to nations that then perceive a "threat" and need to be "protected".

It is a certainty that Esper shares the same worldview, not just for engrained ideological reasons, but also because of his own personal motives for self-aggrandizement as a former employee of Raytheon and quite possibly as a future board member when he retires from the Pentagon. The issue is not just merely about corruption and ethics, huge that those concerns are.

It is also about how US foreign policy and military decisions are formulated and executed, including decisions on matters of conflict and ultimately war. The insidiousness is almost farcical, if the implications weren't so disturbing, worthy of satire from the genre of Dr Strangelove or Catch 22.

How is Esper's advice to the president about tensions with Russia, Iran, China or North Korea, or any other alleged adversary, supposed to be independent, credible or objective? Esper is a de facto lobbyist for the military-industrial complex sitting in the Oval Office and Situation Room. Tensions, conflict and war are meat and potatoes to this person.

During senate hearings this week, Esper openly revealed his dubious quality of thinking and the kind of policies he will pursue as Pentagon chief. He told credulous senators that Russia was to blame for the collapse of the Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces (INF) Treaty. That equates to more Raytheon profits from selling defense systems in Europe. Also, in a clumsy inadvertent admission he advised that the US needs to get out of the INF in order to develop medium-range missiles to "counter China". The latter admission explains the cynical purpose for why the Trump administration unilaterally ditched the INF earlier this year. It is not about alleged Russian breaches of the treaty; the real reason is for the US to obtain a freer hand to confront China.

It is ludicrous how blatant a so-called democratic nation (the self-declared "leader of the free world") is in actuality an oligarchic corporate state whose international relations are conducted on the basis of making obscene profits from conflict and war.

Little wonder then than bilateral relations between the US and Russia are in such dire condition. Trump's soon-to-be top military advisor Mark Esper is not going to make bilateral relations any better, that's for sure.

Also at a precarious time of possible war with Iran, the last person Trump should consult is someone whose corporate cronies are craving for more weapons sales. The views of individual contributors do not necessarily represent those of the Strategic Culture Foundation.

Tags: Esper INF Treaty Pentagon US

[Jul 20, 2019] FBI's spreadsheet puts a stake through the heart of Steele's dossier

Jul 20, 2019 | thehill.com

But lest anyone be tempted to think Steele's 2016 dossier is about to be mysteriously revived as credible, consider this: Over months of work, FBI agents painstakingly researched every claim Steele made about Trump's possible collusion with Russia, and assembled their findings into a spreadsheet-like document.

The over-under isn't flattering to Steele.

Multiple sources familiar with the FBI spreadsheet tell me the vast majority of Steele's claims were deemed to be wrong, or could not be corroborated even with the most awesome tools available to the U.S. intelligence community. One source estimated the spreadsheet found upward of 90 percent of the dossier's claims to be either wrong, nonverifiable or open-source intelligence found with a Google search.

In other words, it was mostly useless.

"The spreadsheet was a sea of blanks, meaning most claims couldn't be corroborated, and those things that were found in classified intelligence suggested Steele's intelligence was partly or totally inaccurate on several claims," one source told me.

The FBI declined comment when asked about the spreadsheet.

The FBI's final assessment was driven by many findings contained in classified footnotes at the bottom of the spreadsheet. But it was also informed by an agent's interview, in early 2017, with a Russian that Steele claimed was one of his main providers of intelligence, according to my sources.

The FBI came to suspect that the Russian misled Steele, either intentionally or through exaggeration, the sources said.

The spreadsheet and a subsequent report by special prosecutor Robert Mueller show just how far off the seminal claims in the Steele dossier turned out to be.

For example, U.S. intelligence found no evidence that Carter Page, during a trip to Moscow in July 2016, secretly met with two associates of Vladimir Putin Igor Sechin and senior government official Igor Divyekin -- as part of the effort to collude with the Trump campaign, as Steele reported.

Page did meet with a lower-level Rosneft official, and shook hands with a Russian deputy prime minister, the FBI found, but it was a far cry from the tale that Steele's dossier spun.

Likewise, Steele claimed that Sechin had offered Page a hefty finder's fee if he could get Trump to help lift sanctions on Moscow: "a 19 percent (privatized) stake in Rosneft in return."

That offer, worth billions of dollars, was never substantiated and was deemed by some in U.S. intelligence to be preposterous.

The inaccuracy of Steele's intelligence on Page is at the heart of the inspector general investigation specifically because the FBI represented to the FISA court that the intelligence on Page was verified and strong enough to support the FISA warrant. It was, in the end, not verified.

Another knockdown of the dossier occurred when U.S. intelligence determined former Trump lawyer Michael Cohen was not in Prague in the summer of 2016 when Steele claimed he was meeting with Russians to coordinate a hijacking of the election, the sources said.

Steele's theory about who in the Trump campaign might be conspiring with Russia kept evolving from Page to Cohen to former campaign chairman Paul Manafort. None of those theories checked out in the end, as the Mueller report showed.

Again, Steele's intelligence was wrong or unverifiable.

The salacious, headline-grabbing claim that Russians had incriminating sex tapes showing Trump engaged in depraved acts with prostitutes also met a factual dead end when the FBI interviewed the Georgian-American businessman who claimed to know about them. Giorgi Rtskhiladze told investigators "he was told the tapes were fake," according to a footnote in the Mueller report. Rtskhiladze's lawyer subsequently issued a letter taking issue with some of Mueller's characterizations.

Steele had some general things right, of course, including that the Russians were behind the hacking of the Democratic National Committee's emails. Of course, there were public reports saying so when Steele reported this.

But even then, his dossier's theory of how the hackers worked, who paid them and how they communicated with Trump was determined in the FBI spreadsheet and subsequent Mueller investigation to be far from accurate.

Even State officials, who listened to Steele's theories in October 2016 -- less than two weeks before his dossier was used to support the FISA request -- instantly determined he was grossly wrong on some points.

Any effort to use Steele's belated cooperation with the inspector general's investigation to prop up the credibility of his 2016 anti-Trump dossier or the FBI's reliance on it for the FISA warrant is deeply misguided.

Rep. Mark Meadows (R-N.C.), a key defender of Trump, said he talked with DOJ officials after the most recent stories surfaced about Steele and was told the reporting is wrong. "Based on my conversations with DOJ officials, recent reports which suggest Christopher Steele's dossier and allegations are somehow deemed credible by DOJ, are simply false and not based on any confirmation from sources with direct knowledge of ongoing investigations," Meadows told me.

The FBI's own spreadsheet was so conclusive that it prompted then-FBI Director James Comey (no fan of Trump, mind you) to dismiss the document as " salacious and unverified " and for lead FBI agent Peter Strzok to text, " There's no big there there ." FBI lawyer Lisa Page testified that nine months into reviewing Steele's dossier they had not found evidence of the collusion that Steele alleged.

Two years later, Mueller came to the same conclusion: Steele's intelligence alleging a conspiracy was never verified.

The next time you hear a pundit suggesting Steele's dossier is credible or that the FBI's reliance on it as FISA evidence was justified, just picture all those blanks in that FBI spreadsheet.

They speak volumes as to what went wrong in the Russia investigation.

John Solomon is an award-winning investigative journalist whose work over the years has exposed U.S. and FBI intelligence failures before the Sept. 11 attacks, federal scientists' misuse of foster children and veterans in drug experiments, and numerous cases of political corruption. He serves as an investigative columnist and executive vice president for video at The Hill. Follow him on Twitter @jsolomonReports .