|Home||Switchboard||Unix Administration||Red Hat||TCP/IP Networks||Neoliberalism||Toxic Managers|
|May the source be with you, but remember the KISS principle ;-)|
|News||Recommended Books||Recommended Links||Recommended Tools||Unixification||Norton Ghost|
|Recovery of lost files using DD||FAT||NTFS||Knoppix and other linux minidistributions||Cloning harddrives and partitions using dd||Recovery of lost files using DD||Mount a partition from dd disk image|
|Admin Horror Stories||Tips||Humor||Random Findings||Etc|
Offence is best defense and similarly it's better to do regular backups and recover files form the backup then try to undelete accidentally deleted files. But often there is no backup and undeletion is the last chance of recovering the information lost.
Undeletion files in windows like in any OS is a surgical operation and like any surgical operation it is better performed under anesthesia. That means that after accidental deletion of files it is wise to shutdown the OS and boot another OS specifically defined for this task. It can be Knoppix or good old Dos or another version of Windows. You chances to recover information are generally greater if you use FAT and not NTFS and if you use small separate partition for your data and do not keep everything on drive C:. (you can always repartition the disk using Partition magic or similar programs and create additonal partitions; just do it !).
Classic utility that essentially created the "undeletion" class was "undelete" from Norton utilities. The idea was that in FAT new files are not usually overwrite the last freed sectors and thus there is a chance recovering the file even if you accidentally delete it. Chances of recovery are greater, if no write operations were performed on the disk after you deleted the file. Also chances are greater if you periodically defragmented your drive so that files occupy consecutive clusters.
Chances of recovery are greater, if no write operations were performed on the disk after you deleted the file.
Also chances are greater if you periodically defagmented your drive so that files occupy consecutive clusters.
The most file operations is performed after then the less changes are to recover the file. that's why it is wise to shut down the system and use a separate system to read the disk for recovery.
|Tip: It is common (and very unfortunate) that many windows user
has a single drive C: and this is also the drive from where files need to
be undeleted. It is always wise to have two drives on you harddisk: one
for programs and one for data.
In such cases always use a USB drive or a flash drive if you need to install any software. Never install anything of drive C: if this is the drive from which you need to undelete files.
If deleted files are very important it is wise to create immediately a DD-based image of your disk before any attempt to undelete the files using Knoppix of similar system
The firs step in recovery actually can be performed on the system itself: you need to check if the file went to windows Recycle bin. If you are lucky and it is in the recycler bin then recovery is really trivial. If not old "Dos-style" recovery based of heuristic of free clusters can be attempted.
While I was an expert in this area, I am out of this field for a long, long time so I did not check the most recent offerings. Among few which I check two stand out and can perform decent job even in complex cases:
FreeUndelete . Good but limited utility. Should probably be your first try. It has a limited browser. Can crash on large disks with large number of deleted files and can take down system with it. Still very useful if you disk is "fresh" you did not perform any operations on it after the deletion.
Also useful from browsing Recycler folder.
by Sergey Petrov. It provide Windows Explore style browsing of filesystem
and permit recovery of one file per day free during trial period. Full version
is priced $39 for a single user license. In my test it was not able successfully
recover complex cases, but recovered all simple cases. What is good
you can look at the first cluster of the deleted
file via viewer to determine if recovery make sense: if file
is not overwritten it makes sense, if it is overwritten your chances are very
slim and other Linux based methods might be better. It supports FAT12/16/32,
NTFS and NTFS 5 file systems and runs under Windows 95/98/Me/NT/2000/XP/2003
Unearaser. This is a capable software from well-known authors but you
need to buy it. It does not permit you to try is even for single file.
Crashes if too many files were deleted form the disk so test it using trial
version before buying.
Undelete Plus is a quick and effective way to retrieve accidentally deleted files, files removed from the Recycle Bin, in a DOS window, from a network drive, from Windows Explorer with the SHIFT key held down. Undelete Plus works under Win 95/98/Me/NT/2000/XP/2003 operating systems. The program supports all Windows file systems for hard and floppy drives including FAT12/16/32,NTFS/NTFS5 and image recovery from CompactFlash, SmartMedia, MultiMedia and Secure Digital cards . Try it, it is free and it won't even take too much space on your hard disk.
Undelete Plus is a quick and effective way to retrieve accidentally deleted files, files removed from the Recycle Bin, in a DOS window, from a network drive, from Windows Explorer with the SHIFT key held down. Undelete Plus works under Win 95/98/Me/NT/2000/XP/2003 operating systems. The program supports all Windows file systems for hard and floppy drives including FAT12/16/32,NTFS/NTFS5 and image recovery from CompactFlash, SmartMedia, MultiMedia and Secure Digital cards. Try it, it is free and it won't even take too much space on your hard disk.
Foremost is a console program to recover files based on their headers, footers, and internal data structures. This process is commonly referred to as data carving. Foremost can work on image files, such as those generated by dd, Safeback, Encase, etc, or directly on a drive. The headers and footers can be specified by a configuration file or you can use command line switches to specify built-in file types. These built-in types look at the data structures of a given file format allowing for a more reliable and faster recovery.
Originally developed by the United States Air Force Office of Special Investigations and The Center for Information Systems Security Studies and Research , foremost has been opened to the general public. We welcome any comments, suggestions, patches, or feedback you have on this program. Please direct all correspondence to firstname.lastname@example.org.The latest version of Foremost is version 1.5.4
Some sample carving test images can downloaded from http://dftt.sourceforge.net/ (Test 11 & 12).
- Foremost 1.5.4 05/14/08. Man Page
- Older versions:
- Foremost 1.0. The MD5sum for this package is 73dbb1484d7678fdd0e32ac2905edf80
- Foremost 0.69. The MD5sum for this package is c52a0aa87180a5331f28acbb6563e9b2
- Foremost 0.68. The MD5sum for this package is 59379d47a9e4e86efa4f84c856c77fe5
- Foremost 0.67. The MD5sum for this package is 95feb629835bcd4ab00f066e5824da4c
- Foremost 0.64. The MD5sum for this package is 59b8652be9414538314c6548ee86d5f7
- Foremost 0.63. The MD5sum for this package is 37e65a9889c9d46be29b5baca309af8b.
How does this technology work? When a file is deleted, Windows 2000/XP modifies the file system (FAT32) that is why usual utilities cannot find some of the deleted files. An additional analysis makes it possible to find the location of the deleted folder with high precision and, therefore, recover its contents.
Our method is very fast. Due to a selective analysis, the program does not need to read the contents of the entire disk that is why searching for a deleted folder does not take more than a second.
The method is quite transparent to an end user and does not require any technical knowledge. While looking through the contents of a directory, the program automatically selects optimal access method.
Unique technology for deleted files
The mechanism is implemented for the FAT32 file system. When saving a file, several methods (currently 2) are used to search for its contents. The program automatically analyzes the file body and selects the most correct variants to be saved. After recovery, the user gets several most exact copies of a deleted file to choose the correct one.
Why do several file variants appear? Due to some peculiarities of Windows 2000/XP and FAT32, it is impossible to find the 100% correct location of a deleted file. Only several most probable file variants can be suggested.
For Windows users we recommend DiskInternals Uneraser and consider it one of the best undelete software products available. Uneraser has powerful tools to help locate lost data among the thousands of files on a hard drive. It also has the widest range of built-in viewers to let you examine the files it finds before recovery. There is a free trial version so you can see for yourself what it can recover. If a file looks perfect in the viewer then recovery is pretty much guaranteed.
Master Uneraser is reasonably priced and costs only $29.95 USD. But we think it is good idea to give the possibility to evaluate this software without buying it for all comers.
So, trial version can be downloaded and tested during the period of 31 day. And only if you like it, you can buy it.
If you want to know more about how to buy license code (converting trial version into the full functional one) - please click here. Please note, we sell not only license code but provide technical support for registered users and give them discount for other security software developed by our team.
Read what's new in version 1.1 ( September 09, 2007 )
eDATA Unerase is a powerful and easy-to-use data recovery software to recover lost or deleted files from hard drives, floppy disks, digital cameras, SmartMedia, CompactFlash, Sony Memory Sticks, IBM Micro Drives, Flash cards or other removable media types. Simply use eDATA Unerase to restore your lost files in 3 wizard steps even if they have been deleted by a virus attack, emptied from the Recycle Bin, lost due to the format of a hard drive or system crash. No special skills are required.
HxD is a carefully designed and fast hex editor which, additionally to raw disk editing and modifying of main memory (RAM), handles files of any size.
The easy to use interface offers features such as searching and replacing, exporting, checksums/digests, insertion of byte patterns, a file shredder, concatenation or splitting of files, statistics and much more.
Editing works like in a text editor with a focus on a simple and task-oriented operation, as such functions were streamlined to hide differences that are purely technical.
For example, drives and memory are presented similar to a file and are shown as a whole, in contrast to a sector/region-limited view that cuts off data which potentially belongs together. Drives and memory can be edited the same way as a regular file including support for undo. In addition memory-sections define a foldable region and inaccessible sections are hidden by default.
Furthermore a lot of effort was put into making operations fast and efficient, instead of forcing you to use specialized functions for technical reasons or arbitrarily limiting file sizes. This includes a responsive interface and progress indicators for lengthy operations.
- Available as a portable and installable edition
- To edit the main memory
- Memory sections are tagged with data-folds
- Disk-Editor (Hard disks, floppy disks, ZIP-disks, USB flash drives, CDs, ...)
- RAW reading and writing of disks and drives
- for Win9x, WinNT and higher
- Instant opening regardless of file-size
- Up to 8EB; opening and editing is very fast
- Liberal but safe file sharing with other programs
- Flexible and fast searching/replacing for several data types
- Data types: text (including Unicode), hex-values, integers and floats
- Search direction: Forward, Backwards, All (starting from the beginning)
- File compare (simple)
- View data in Ansi, DOS, EBCDIC and Macintosh character sets
- Checksum-Generator: Checksum, CRCs, Custom CRC, SHA-1, SHA-512, MD5, ...
- Exporting of data to several formats
- Source code (Pascal, C, Java, C#, VB.NET)
- Formatted output (plain text, HTML, Richtext, TeX)
- Hex files (Intel HEX, Motorola S-record)
- Insertion of byte patterns
- File tools
- File shredder for safe file deletion
- Splitting or concatenating of files
- Basic data analysis (statistics)
- Graphical representation of the byte/character distribution
- Helps to identify the data type of a selection
- Byte grouping
- 1, 2, 4, 8 or 16 bytes packed together into one column
- "Hex only" or "text only"-modes
- Progress-window for lengthy operations
- Shows the remaining time
- Button to cancel
- Modified data is highlighted
- Unlimited undo
- "Find updates..."-function
- Easy to use and modern interface
- Goto address
- Overwrite or insert mode
- Cut, copy, paste insert, paste write
- Clipboard support for other hex editors
- Visual Studio/Visual C++, WinHex, HexWorkshop, ...
- Ctrl+Shift+Number (0-9) sets a bookmark
- Ctrl+Number (0-9) goes to a bookmark
- Navigating to nibbles with Ctrl+Left or Ctrl+Right
- Flicker free display and fast drawing
lde is a disk editor for linux, originally written to help recover deleted files. It has a simple ncurses interface that resembles an old version of Norton Disk Edit for DOS. lde is 100 percent free under the Gnu public license.
I've put a little bit documentation on this site. There is a very basic walkthrough of the editor which includes something like screenshots. Also, you can read the man page online and a file with some tips on restoring deleted files using lde.
There's more information and the latest binaries over at the lde sourceforge project page.
SystemRescueCd View topic - Linux disk editor
Firstly, thank you for your efforts in creating such a useful collection in a package that works so well. I love it and think it's a great system rescue tool.
Will you please consider including the Linux Disk Editor (http://lde.sourceforge.net/) in the next release of SystemRescue CD. I use it for recovering 'lost' partitions that parted won't even look at (yes I use 1.6.6 from your 0.2.8 CD). I use the statically linked lde-i386, as downloaded directly from SourceForge, and run it from a floppy after booting from your SystemRescue CD.
Incidentally, to really mess up a disk's partitions, just create them with parted, then load Partition Magic and let it 'fix' the 'misalignment' errors it finds, then watch as neither Partition Magic, nor parted will look at the disk again. It doesn't always happen, but sometimes yes. One way to avoid this is if only one person with one set of tools works on a system. Not always possible unfortunately.
To fix this, I use gpart to give me a list of 'possible' partition locations, use linux disk editor to view the contents of the partition tables, and a calculator to determine the 'actual' table locations, then linux disk editor again to edit the tables so they work. Tedious, but such a relief (especially for the owner) when it all works again.
I used to boot a DOS floppy and use Norton Disk Editor, but I much prefer to stay within Linux and use Linux tools.
Thank you for your consideration.
Tip #1: Use your system as little as possible until you recover all of your lost files. The more activity taking place on your hard disk, the greater the chance that some of your lost data might be written over.
- Don't copy any files to the disk containing your lost data;
- Avoid browsing the web, because your web browser saves cache files on the disk;
- Don't launch any unnecessary programs, because they can also use your disk;
- Don't restart your computer.
Tip #2: Before you go further, take steps to free up some space on the disk containing your lost files. The more free space your system has, the less chance of overwriting any lost files with new ones. You can do one or more of the following things.
- Delete old files that you don't need anymore (you can also move them to another source, like a USB flash drive, instead of deleting);
- Empty your Recycle Bin - making sure that you haven't put any important files in there by mistake;
- Empty your browser cache. For Internet Explorer, click on the "Tools" menu, then select "Internet Options". Then, on the "General" tab, click the "Delete Files…" button.
Tip #3: To install any software after data damage increases the risk of your data being overwritten, so if you haven't had any data problems yet, consider installing a data recovery program just in case. Prevention is always better than cure, and a recovery program is good insurance for your data. However, if you don't yet have a recovery program, find one and - if possible - avoid installing it to the disk where your lost files are located.
Most recovery programs work fairly similarly. You need to select the disk where the lost files are located, let the program analyze the content of the disk - this can take a while - and then select the file you want to recover. Then, provide a location where you want to save that file. You should try to avoid recovering files to the same disk. You could use another hard drive, a network or removable media like a floppy disk or USB flash drive.
Active UNDELETE is powerful data recovery software that helps you to recover lost, deleted and formatted data from Hard Drives, Floppy Disks, Dynamic Volumes, Hardware or Software RAIDs. Active UNDELETE supports recovery from Removable Drives and digital media like Secure Digital, CompactFlash, SmartMedia, MemoryStick. The program can recover files on FAT NTFS NTFS5 EFS. Active@ UNDELETE Professional & Enterprise installation packages contain a CD/DVD ISO image that you can burn to get a bootable CD or DVD with a lightweight version of Windows Vista (c) running in RAM (WinPE 2.0). It is the only way to recover your data in the case that your system is not bootable and you cannot attach the damaged Hard Disk Drive to another machine. After booting from the CD/DVD you will see a Windows environment with Networking, so you can either just recover your data (copy files to a USB drive or Network drive). Many other useful utilities are included besides data recovery utilities: Web Browser, File Manager (similar to Window Explorer), Terminal Client, Partition Manager, Notepad, Task Manager, Command Prompt, Network Drive Mapper, etc...
Undelete Plus is a quick and effective way to retrieve accidentally deleted files, files removed from the Recycle Bin, in a DOS window, from a network drive, from Windows Explorer with the SHIFT key held down. Undelete Plus works under Win 95/98/Me/NT/2000/XP/2003 operating systems. The program supports all Windows file systems for hard and floppy drives including FAT12/16/32,NTFS/NTFS5 and image recovery from CompactFlash, SmartMedia, MultiMedia and Secure Digital cards. Try it, it is free and it won't even take too much space on your hard disk..
R-Undelete Demo mode R-Undelete run in the Demo mode allows you to evaluate how the software recovers lost files. The Demo mode is fully functional except it has a limitation to recover files larger than 64KB. Graphic files ( see the list ), video and audio files (all files are supported if a proper codec is installed on the system) can be previewed in R-Undelete Demo mode to estimate recovery chances before you pay for the license.
Google matched content
Data Recovery First Aid 3 tips to increase your chances of success SoftwareTalks
Software Download Undelete Fat32
Undeleting files under Windows XP-2000-NT-Me-98-95
Free Undelete Utility Recovers Deleted Files, Unerases Lost Data
restore files for Windows FAT, Windows NTFS.
Undelete file recovery for Windows NT, Windows 2000, and Windows XP
XXCLONE License: Freeware
XXCLONE duplicates the whole Win NT, 2000 or XP system volume to another
volume that will become ready to boot without a restore step. You may boot
the system from the clone volume by simply swapping the disks when a disaster
strikes. The cloned volume may be larger than the source volume, or even
smaller as long as the volume data can fit. You may copy from FAT to NTFS
or vice versa. It supports USB-disk, PATA and SATA. Ideal for periodic backup,
or a one-time disk upgrade, or migration. Unlike the disk imaging tools,
XXCLONE copies files and directories. Therefore, you stay in Windows and
may do some work while the cloning runs in the background. With a full volume
backup, files in the target volume will always de-fragmented automatically
without the need for the time-consuming de-frag on the source. It maintains
Restore Points with most recent 7 daily, 4 weekly, 12 monthly and 5 yearly
records with which you can restore the exact state of the system registry.
Additional features include tools to duplicate the Volume ID, to repair
non-bootable disk, and more. It supports command line arguments and suits
batch file invocations, also. Extremely easy to use with user-friendly GUI.
Author:Pixelab, Inc.| Date: 07-02-2007 | Size: 1177 KB
Recover Fixed/Floppy Disk License: Freeware
RECOVER Fixed/Floppy Disk v1.4 ( 5-star rated). Folder / File level Data
Recovery Utility for Hard Disk Drives and Floppy Disks. RECOVER Fixed/Floppy
Disk handles File Allocation Table (FAT) damage and subfolder damage. If
FAT damage should not affect you, just defragment the file system as often
as you can. If subfolder damage should not affect you, save the subfolder
to a safe location. This FREEWARE version would not save the Root Folder
for later use. RECOVER Fixed/Floppy Disk handles these error conditions
at individual folder level. Recovers all the files from the specified directory
on 16-bit and 12-bit FAT file systems in DOS and WINDOWS even if both copies
of the FAT have considerable number of damaged sectors, if the disk involved
had been regularly defragmented. If FAT is good, FAT1 or FAT2 can be used.
All you need to do is put all your important files in a few directories
(note: entire drives can be ZIPped up and sent to the backup drive) and
defrag that backup drive after each update and if you want to be playful
enough, note down the first sector of file(s) or if you want 100 percent
safety, save the subdirectory having your important data as a file somewhere
else. IF YOU DEFRAG FLOPPY/HDD REGULARLY, YOU GET THE UTMOST BENEFIT. Supports
FAT12 File Systems (Floppies) from DOS to WINDOWS 98SE and FAT16 File Systems
in DOS, WINDOWS 3.1/3.11, WINDOWS 95, and (up to 2 GB partitions in) WINDOWS
95-OSR2, WINDOWS 98 and WINDOWS 98SE (HDD can be 120 GB). This program is
certainly for those who backup because backup programs never talk about
uncertainties w.r.t. FAT and Directory entries. A floppy ora FAT16 partition
needed to get started. You can find out the TECHIE in you.
Author:Systech Software| Date: 05-11-2001 | Size: 37 KB
Smart Fat Recovery License: Freeware
Smart FAT Recovery is a data recovery tool for Windows operating system
that supports the FAT 12/16/32 file system. The software easily recovers
data from hard disks, digital cameras, and any type of storage media - flash
drives, USB drives, memory stick, PC card, multimedia card, secure digital
card and diskette. Smart FAT Recovery can recover any deleted files, including
MS Office files, photos, mp3 and zip files, even if the partition table
Author:Smart PC Solutions, Inc.| Date: 23-04-2007 | Size: 797 KB
Groupthink : Two Party System as Polyarchy : Corruption of Regulators : Bureaucracies : Understanding Micromanagers and Control Freaks : Toxic Managers : Harvard Mafia : Diplomatic Communication : Surviving a Bad Performance Review : Insufficient Retirement Funds as Immanent Problem of Neoliberal Regime : PseudoScience : Who Rules America : Neoliberalism : The Iron Law of Oligarchy : Libertarian Philosophy
War and Peace : Skeptical Finance : John Kenneth Galbraith :Talleyrand : Oscar Wilde : Otto Von Bismarck : Keynes : George Carlin : Skeptics : Propaganda : SE quotes : Language Design and Programming Quotes : Random IT-related quotes : Somerset Maugham : Marcus Aurelius : Kurt Vonnegut : Eric Hoffer : Winston Churchill : Napoleon Bonaparte : Ambrose Bierce : Bernard Shaw : Mark Twain Quotes
Vol 25, No.12 (December, 2013) Rational Fools vs. Efficient Crooks The efficient markets hypothesis : Political Skeptic Bulletin, 2013 : Unemployment Bulletin, 2010 : Vol 23, No.10 (October, 2011) An observation about corporate security departments : Slightly Skeptical Euromaydan Chronicles, June 2014 : Greenspan legacy bulletin, 2008 : Vol 25, No.10 (October, 2013) Cryptolocker Trojan (Win32/Crilock.A) : Vol 25, No.08 (August, 2013) Cloud providers as intelligence collection hubs : Financial Humor Bulletin, 2010 : Inequality Bulletin, 2009 : Financial Humor Bulletin, 2008 : Copyleft Problems Bulletin, 2004 : Financial Humor Bulletin, 2011 : Energy Bulletin, 2010 : Malware Protection Bulletin, 2010 : Vol 26, No.1 (January, 2013) Object-Oriented Cult : Political Skeptic Bulletin, 2011 : Vol 23, No.11 (November, 2011) Softpanorama classification of sysadmin horror stories : Vol 25, No.05 (May, 2013) Corporate bullshit as a communication method : Vol 25, No.06 (June, 2013) A Note on the Relationship of Brooks Law and Conway Law
Fifty glorious years (1950-2000): the triumph of the US computer engineering : Donald Knuth : TAoCP and its Influence of Computer Science : Richard Stallman : Linus Torvalds : Larry Wall : John K. Ousterhout : CTSS : Multix OS Unix History : Unix shell history : VI editor : History of pipes concept : Solaris : MS DOS : Programming Languages History : PL/1 : Simula 67 : C : History of GCC development : Scripting Languages : Perl history : OS History : Mail : DNS : SSH : CPU Instruction Sets : SPARC systems 1987-2006 : Norton Commander : Norton Utilities : Norton Ghost : Frontpage history : Malware Defense History : GNU Screen : OSS early history
The Peter Principle : Parkinson Law : 1984 : The Mythical Man-Month : How to Solve It by George Polya : The Art of Computer Programming : The Elements of Programming Style : The Unix Hater’s Handbook : The Jargon file : The True Believer : Programming Pearls : The Good Soldier Svejk : The Power Elite
Most popular humor pages:
Manifest of the Softpanorama IT Slacker Society : Ten Commandments of the IT Slackers Society : Computer Humor Collection : BSD Logo Story : The Cuckoo's Egg : IT Slang : C++ Humor : ARE YOU A BBS ADDICT? : The Perl Purity Test : Object oriented programmers of all nations : Financial Humor : Financial Humor Bulletin, 2008 : Financial Humor Bulletin, 2010 : The Most Comprehensive Collection of Editor-related Humor : Programming Language Humor : Goldman Sachs related humor : Greenspan humor : C Humor : Scripting Humor : Real Programmers Humor : Web Humor : GPL-related Humor : OFM Humor : Politically Incorrect Humor : IDS Humor : "Linux Sucks" Humor : Russian Musical Humor : Best Russian Programmer Humor : Microsoft plans to buy Catholic Church : Richard Stallman Related Humor : Admin Humor : Perl-related Humor : Linus Torvalds Related humor : PseudoScience Related Humor : Networking Humor : Shell Humor : Financial Humor Bulletin, 2011 : Financial Humor Bulletin, 2012 : Financial Humor Bulletin, 2013 : Java Humor : Software Engineering Humor : Sun Solaris Related Humor : Education Humor : IBM Humor : Assembler-related Humor : VIM Humor : Computer Viruses Humor : Bright tomorrow is rescheduled to a day after tomorrow : Classic Computer Humor
The Last but not Least
Copyright © 1996-2016 by Dr. Nikolai Bezroukov. www.softpanorama.org was initially created as a service to the (now defunct) UN Sustainable Development Networking Programme (SDNP) in the author free time and without any remuneration. This document is an industrial compilation designed and created exclusively for educational use and is distributed under the Softpanorama Content License.
Original materials copyright belong to respective owners. Quotes are made for educational purposes only in compliance with the fair use doctrine.
FAIR USE NOTICE This site contains copyrighted material the use of which has not always been specifically authorized by the copyright owner. We are making such material available to advance understanding of computer science, IT technology, economic, scientific, and social issues. We believe this constitutes a 'fair use' of any such copyrighted material as provided by section 107 of the US Copyright Law according to which such material can be distributed without profit exclusively for research and educational purposes.
This is a Spartan WHYFF (We Help You For Free) site written by people for whom English is not a native language. Grammar and spelling errors should be expected. The site contain some broken links as it develops like a living tree...
|You can use PayPal to make a contribution, supporting development of this site and speed up access. In case softpanorama.org is down you can use the at softpanorama.info|
The statements, views and opinions presented on this web page are those of the author (or referenced source) and are not endorsed by, nor do they necessarily reflect, the opinions of the author present and former employers, SDNP or any other organization the author may be associated with. We do not warrant the correctness of the information provided or its fitness for any purpose.
Last modified: September 12, 2017