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The setgid bit in directories has a special meaning in BSD Unix, and this behavior is now emulated by Solaris and most other commercial and free Unixes. When a directory has setgid on, files written by a user in that directory will have the same group owner as the directory, rather than the primary group of the user. In this case writable directories that belong to any system group are very dangerous (you can set sgid bit on the directory and create a file that will be owned by a group and generally it should not be used with world writable directories.
Note: NFS can mount filesystem with the option "grpid". This will cause all directories to always have the setgid bit set.
If you set the setgid bit on a directory (with chmod g+s directory), files created in that directory will have their group set to the directory's group. This is a very elegant way to enforce the necessary group on subtree. Most IT organizations like to create a group for each major project and assign people to the groups they should be in. Managing access to files created by various applications traditionally has been a difficult task in Unix. When someone creates a file it is owned by the primary group he or she belongs to. When a single person works on multiple projects, it becomes hard to associate the right files to the right ownership group. Here setgid bit came into play.
Let's say you have a big project called SGE_cluster for which sge group was created and we need that all files, which are located in a /srv/SGE_cluster directory be editable by all members of SGE_cluster project. Make a group called sge and assign it to the directory. Now assign setgid to /srv/SGE_cluster directory and add all members working on the project to the sge group. Change permission for existing files to 775. From this point, users belonging to the sge group will be able to edit the files and create new files in the /srv/SGE_cluster directory. New files created by any member of the sge group will belong to the sge group, not to the primary group of the particular user.
If you have multiple projects and users who are working on multiple projects, these users will never have to change their umask or primary group when they move from project to project. The setgid bit on each project's main directory "selects" the proper group.
In ls listing such group is marked by letter s in execute position. The designator letter is capitalized if the bit is set, and the corresponding execute bit is not set. Otherwise lower case "s" is displayed. Thus, a directory that has its sticky and SGID bits set, and is otherwise mode 775, would appear in an ls listing as
ls -l /srv/SGE_cluster drwxrwsr-x 2 root sge 4096 Jun 2 21:08 /srv/SGE_cluster
On most systems, if a directory's set-group-ID bit is set, newly created subfiles inherit the same group as the directory, and newly created subdirectories inherit the set-group-ID bit of the parent directory. On a few systems, a directory's set-user-ID bit has a similar effect on the ownership of new subfiles and the set-user-ID bits of new subdirectories. These mechanisms let users share files more easily, by lessening the need to use chmod or chown to share new files.
These convenience mechanisms rely on the set-user-ID and set-group-ID bits of directories. If commands like chmod and mkdir routinely cleared these bits on directories, the mechanisms would be less convenient and it would be harder to share files. Therefore, a command like chmod does not affect the set-user-ID or set-group-ID bits of a directory unless the user specifically mentions them in a symbolic mode, or sets them in a numeric mode. For example, on systems that support set-group-ID inheritance:# These commands leave the set-user-ID and # set-group-ID bits of the subdirectories alone, # so that they retain their default values. mkdir A B C chmod 755 A chmod 0755 B chmod u=rwx,go=rx C mkdir -m 755 D mkdir -m 0755 E mkdir -m u=rwx,go=rx F
If you want to try to set these bits, you must mention them explicitly in the symbolic or numeric modes, e.g.:# These commands try to set the set-user-ID # and set-group-ID bits of the subdirectories. mkdir G H chmod 6755 G chmod u=rwx,go=rx,a+s H mkdir -m 6755 I mkdir -m u=rwx,go=rx,a+s J
If you want to try to clear these bits, you must mention them explicitly in a symbolic mode, e.g.:# This command tries to clear the set-user-ID # and set-group-ID bits of the directory D. chmod a-s D
This behavior is a GNU extension. Portable scripts should not rely on requests to set or clear these bits on directories, as POSIX allows implementations to ignore these requests.
If you work on a UNIX system with lots of users, you may be taking advantage of UNIX group permissions ( 22.2 ) to let users in one group write to files in a directory - but not let people in other groups write there.
How does UNIX determine what group should own the files you create? There are three ways:
On most System V-based systems, the effective group ID of the process determines the ownership of the files you create. (Your effective GID is your primary group membership ( 22.13 ) unless you're running a SGID ( 1.23 ) program.)
On most BSD UNIXes, files are owned by the group that owns the directory in which you create the file .
The rules under SunOS 4. x and System V Release 4 are more complicated. The system administrator decides which of the two above methods a filesystem will use for group ownership. There are other wrinkles, too. A good place to look for the gory details is your system's open (2) manpage... but it's probably easier to just create an empty new file ( 21.7 ) and then check the group ownership with ls -l or -lg ( 22.2 ) .
You may be able to use the directory's set group ID (setgid) bit to control group ownership. In those cases, if the bit is set, the BSD rules apply. if the bit is not set, the System V rules apply. To set and remove the setgid bit, use the commands chmod g+s ( 22.7 ) and chmod g-s , respectively.
You can use the chgrp ( 1.23 ) command to change a file's group. However, you must own the file. And you must also be a member of the file's new group.
If you've reset directory mode bits, it's possible to wind up with ls -l permissions that have an uppercase "S", like
drwxr-S--. What's that? (It's often a mistake.) The directory's setgid bit is set, but the execute bit isn't set. If you want the directory to be group-accessible, add execute permission with chmod g+x . Otherwise, you may want to clear the setgid bit with chmod g-s .
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