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Python Cheatsheet

Operator Precedence

This table is a remix of the official documentation on precedence in Python 3, with highest precedence operators at the top.

Operator Description and examples
[ v1 , ] , { v1 , } , { k1 : v1 , } , ( ) List/set/dict/generator creation or comprehension, parenthesized expression
seq [ n ] , seq [ n : m ] , func ( args ) , obj . attr Index, slice, function call, attribute reference
** Exponentiation
`+`x, `-`x, `~`x Positive, negative, bitwise not
* , / , // , % Multiplication, float division, int division, remainder
+ , - Addition, subtraction
<< , >> Bitwise left, right shifts
& Bitwise and
| Bitwise or
in , not in , is , is not , < , <= , > , >= , != , == Membership and equality tests
not x Boolean (logical) not
and Boolean and
or Boolean or
if else Conditional expression
lambda lambda expression
String Methods

Python offers both string methods (can be used with any str object) and a string module with some useful definitions.

>>> s = "OH, my paws and whiskers!"
>>> t = "I'm late!"
Change Case
>>> s.capitalize()
'Oh, my paws and whiskers!'
>>> s.lower()
'oh, my paws and whiskers!'
>>> s.swapcase()
'oh, MY PAWS AND WHISKERS!'
>>> s.title()
'Oh, My Paws And Whiskers!'
>>> s.upper()
'OH, MY PAWS AND WHISKERS!'
Search
>>> s.count('w')
2
>>> s.find('w')
9
>>> s.index('w')
9
>>> s.rfind('w')
16
>>> s.rindex('w')
16
>>> s.startswith('OH')
True
Modify
>>> ''.join(s)
'OH, my paws and whiskers!'
>>> ' '.join(s)
'O H ,   m y   p a w s   a n d   w h i s k e r s !'
>>> ' '.join((s, t))
"OH, my paws and whiskers! I'm late!"
>>> s.lstrip('HO')
', my paws and whiskers!'
>>> s.replace('H', 'MG')
'OMG, my paws and whiskers!'
>>> s.rsplit()
['OH,', 'my', 'paws', 'and', 'whiskers!']
>>> s.rsplit(' ', 1)
['OH, my paws and', 'whiskers!']
>>> s.split()
['OH,', 'my', 'paws', 'and', 'whiskers!']
>>> s.split(' ')
['OH,', 'my', 'paws', 'and', 'whiskers!']
>>> s.splitlines()
['OH, my paws and whiskers!']
>>> s.strip()
'OH, my paws and whiskers!'
>>> s.strip('s!')
'OH, my paws and whisker'
Format
>>> s.center(30)
'  OH, my paws and whiskers!   '
>>> s.expandtabs()
'OH, my paws and whiskers!'
>>> s.ljust(30)
'OH, my paws and whiskers!     '
>>> s.rjust(30)
'     OH, my paws and whiskers!'
String Type
>>> s.isalnum()
False
>>> s.isalpha()
False
>>> s.isprintable()
True
>>> s.istitle()
False
>>> s.isupper()
False
>>> s.isdecimal()
False
>>> s.isnumeric()
False
String Module Attributes

These are class attributes that are used as constant

Attribute Example
ascii_letters 'abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyzABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ'
ascii_lowercase 'abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz'
ascii_uppercase 'ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ'
digits '0123456789'
hexdigits '0123456789abcdefABCDEF'
octdigits '01234567'
punctuation '!"#$%&\'()*+,-./:;<=>?@[\\]^_\ {|}~'`
printable '0123456789abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz' + 'ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ' + '!"#$%&\'()*+,-./:;<=>?@[\\]^_` {|}~' + ' \t\n\r\x0b\x0c'`
whitespace ' \t\n\r\x0b\x0c'
Fin

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[Sept 20, 2006] Python 101 cheat sheet

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Last modified: November, 23, 2019