May the source be with you, but remember the KISS principle ;-)
Home Switchboard Unix Administration Red Hat TCP/IP Networks Neoliberalism Toxic Managers
(slightly skeptical) Educational society promoting "Back to basics" movement against IT overcomplexity and  bastardization of classic Unix

Zoo package

News R programming language R Bookshelf Recommended Links Debugging R help system R Debugging An Introduction to R
R Packages CRAN package repository Quantmod package TTR package Zoo package Quandl package ggplot2 package  
Software Fashion Conway Law KISS Principle Tips Quotes R history Humor Etc

The native R classes suitable for storing time series data include vector, matrix, data.frame, and ts objects. But the types of data that can be stored in these objects are narrow; furthermore, the methods provided by these representations are limited in scope.

Luckily, there exist specialized objects that deal with more general representation of time series data: zoo, xts, or timeSeries objects, available from packages of the same name.

It is not necessary to create time series objects for every time series analysis problem, but more sophisticated analyses require time series objects. You could calculate the mean or variance of time series data represented as a vector in R, but if you want to perform a seasonal decomposition using decompose, you need to have the data stored in a time series object.

The zoo package provides an infrastructure and key operations for analysis of regularly-spaced and irregularly spaced time series

Key functions:

In the following examples, we assume you are working with zoo objects because we think it is one of the most widely used packages. Before we can use zoo objects, we need to install and load the zoo package (if you have already installed it, you only need to load it) using the following command:

> install.packages("zoo")
> library("zoo")

In order to familiarize ourselves with the available methods, we create a zoo object called aapl from the daily closing prices of Apple's stock, which are stored in the CSV file aapl.csv. Each line on the sheet contains a date and a closing price separated by a comma. The first line contains the column headings (Date and Close). The date is formatted according to the recommended primary standard notation of ISO 8601 (YYYY-MM-DD). The closing price is adjusted for stock splits, dividends, and related changes.


Downloading the example code

You can download the example code files for all Packt books you have purchased from your account at If you purchased this book elsewhere, you can visit and register to have the files e-mailed directly to you.

We load the data from our current working directory using the following command:

> aapl<-read.zoo("aapl.csv",+   sep=",", header = TRUE, format = "%Y-%m-%d")

To get a first impression of the data, we plot the stock price chart and specify a title for the overall plot (using the main argument) and labels for the x and y axis (using xlab and ylab respectively).

> plot(aapl, main = "APPLE Closing Prices on NASDAQ",+   ylab = "Price (USD)", xlab = "Date")

We can extract the first or last part of the time series using the following commands:

> head(aapl)
2000-01-03 2000-01-04 2000-01-05 2000-01-06 2000-01-07 2000-01-10
     27.58      25.25      25.62      23.40      24.51      24.08
> tail(aapl)
2013-04-17 2013-04-18 2013-04-19 2013-04-22 2013-04-23 2013-04-24
    402.80     392.05     390.53     398.67     406.13     405.46

Apple's all-time high and the day on which it occurred can be found using the following command:

> aapl[which.max(aapl)]

When dealing with time series, one is normally more interested in returns instead of prices. This is because returns are usually stationary. So we will calculate simple returns or continuously compounded returns (in percentage terms).

> ret_simple <- diff(aapl) / lag(aapl, k = -1) * 100
> ret_cont   <- diff(log(aapl)) * 100

Summary statistics about simple returns can also be obtained. We use the coredata method here to indicate that we are only interested in the stock prices and not the index (dates).

> summary(coredata(ret_simple))
     Min.   1st Qu.    Median      Mean   3rd Qu.      Max.
-51.86000  -1.32500   0.07901   0.12530   1.55300  13.91000

The biggest single-day loss is -51.86%. The date on which that loss occurred can be obtained using the following command:

> ret_simple[which.min(ret_simple)]

A quick search on the Internet reveals that the large movement occurred due to the issuance of a profit warning. To get a better understanding of the relative frequency of daily returns, we can plot the histogram. The number of cells used to group the return data can be specified using the break argument.

> hist(ret_simple, breaks=100, main = "Histogram of Simple Returns",+  xlab="%")

We can restrict our analysis to a subset (a window) of the time series. The highest stock price of Apple in 2013 can be found using the following command lines:

> aapl_2013 <- window(aapl, start = '2013-01-01', end = '2013-12-31')
> aapl_2013[which.max(aapl_2013)]

The quantiles of the return distribution are of interest from a risk-management perspective. We can, for example, easily determine the 1 day 99% Value-at-Risk using a naive historical approach.

> quantile(ret_simple, probs = 0.01)

Hence, the probability that the return is below 7% on any given day is only 1%. But if this day occurs (and it will occur approximately 2.5 times per year), 7% is the minimum amount you will lose.



Groupthink : Two Party System as Polyarchy : Corruption of Regulators : Bureaucracies : Understanding Micromanagers and Control Freaks : Toxic Managers :   Harvard Mafia : Diplomatic Communication : Surviving a Bad Performance Review : Insufficient Retirement Funds as Immanent Problem of Neoliberal Regime : PseudoScience : Who Rules America : Neoliberalism  : The Iron Law of Oligarchy : Libertarian Philosophy


War and Peace : Skeptical Finance : John Kenneth Galbraith :Talleyrand : Oscar Wilde : Otto Von Bismarck : Keynes : George Carlin : Skeptics : Propaganda  : SE quotes : Language Design and Programming Quotes : Random IT-related quotesSomerset Maugham : Marcus Aurelius : Kurt Vonnegut : Eric Hoffer : Winston Churchill : Napoleon Bonaparte : Ambrose BierceBernard Shaw : Mark Twain Quotes


Vol 25, No.12 (December, 2013) Rational Fools vs. Efficient Crooks The efficient markets hypothesis : Political Skeptic Bulletin, 2013 : Unemployment Bulletin, 2010 :  Vol 23, No.10 (October, 2011) An observation about corporate security departments : Slightly Skeptical Euromaydan Chronicles, June 2014 : Greenspan legacy bulletin, 2008 : Vol 25, No.10 (October, 2013) Cryptolocker Trojan (Win32/Crilock.A) : Vol 25, No.08 (August, 2013) Cloud providers as intelligence collection hubs : Financial Humor Bulletin, 2010 : Inequality Bulletin, 2009 : Financial Humor Bulletin, 2008 : Copyleft Problems Bulletin, 2004 : Financial Humor Bulletin, 2011 : Energy Bulletin, 2010 : Malware Protection Bulletin, 2010 : Vol 26, No.1 (January, 2013) Object-Oriented Cult : Political Skeptic Bulletin, 2011 : Vol 23, No.11 (November, 2011) Softpanorama classification of sysadmin horror stories : Vol 25, No.05 (May, 2013) Corporate bullshit as a communication method  : Vol 25, No.06 (June, 2013) A Note on the Relationship of Brooks Law and Conway Law


Fifty glorious years (1950-2000): the triumph of the US computer engineering : Donald Knuth : TAoCP and its Influence of Computer Science : Richard Stallman : Linus Torvalds  : Larry Wall  : John K. Ousterhout : CTSS : Multix OS Unix History : Unix shell history : VI editor : History of pipes concept : Solaris : MS DOSProgramming Languages History : PL/1 : Simula 67 : C : History of GCC developmentScripting Languages : Perl history   : OS History : Mail : DNS : SSH : CPU Instruction Sets : SPARC systems 1987-2006 : Norton Commander : Norton Utilities : Norton Ghost : Frontpage history : Malware Defense History : GNU Screen : OSS early history

Classic books:

The Peter Principle : Parkinson Law : 1984 : The Mythical Man-MonthHow to Solve It by George Polya : The Art of Computer Programming : The Elements of Programming Style : The Unix Haterís Handbook : The Jargon file : The True Believer : Programming Pearls : The Good Soldier Svejk : The Power Elite

Most popular humor pages:

Manifest of the Softpanorama IT Slacker Society : Ten Commandments of the IT Slackers Society : Computer Humor Collection : BSD Logo Story : The Cuckoo's Egg : IT Slang : C++ Humor : ARE YOU A BBS ADDICT? : The Perl Purity Test : Object oriented programmers of all nations : Financial Humor : Financial Humor Bulletin, 2008 : Financial Humor Bulletin, 2010 : The Most Comprehensive Collection of Editor-related Humor : Programming Language Humor : Goldman Sachs related humor : Greenspan humor : C Humor : Scripting Humor : Real Programmers Humor : Web Humor : GPL-related Humor : OFM Humor : Politically Incorrect Humor : IDS Humor : "Linux Sucks" Humor : Russian Musical Humor : Best Russian Programmer Humor : Microsoft plans to buy Catholic Church : Richard Stallman Related Humor : Admin Humor : Perl-related Humor : Linus Torvalds Related humor : PseudoScience Related Humor : Networking Humor : Shell Humor : Financial Humor Bulletin, 2011 : Financial Humor Bulletin, 2012 : Financial Humor Bulletin, 2013 : Java Humor : Software Engineering Humor : Sun Solaris Related Humor : Education Humor : IBM Humor : Assembler-related Humor : VIM Humor : Computer Viruses Humor : Bright tomorrow is rescheduled to a day after tomorrow : Classic Computer Humor

The Last but not Least Technology is dominated by two types of people: those who understand what they do not manage and those who manage what they do not understand ~Archibald Putt. Ph.D

Copyright © 1996-2021 by Softpanorama Society. was initially created as a service to the (now defunct) UN Sustainable Development Networking Programme (SDNP) without any remuneration. This document is an industrial compilation designed and created exclusively for educational use and is distributed under the Softpanorama Content License. Original materials copyright belong to respective owners. Quotes are made for educational purposes only in compliance with the fair use doctrine.

FAIR USE NOTICE This site contains copyrighted material the use of which has not always been specifically authorized by the copyright owner. We are making such material available to advance understanding of computer science, IT technology, economic, scientific, and social issues. We believe this constitutes a 'fair use' of any such copyrighted material as provided by section 107 of the US Copyright Law according to which such material can be distributed without profit exclusively for research and educational purposes.

This is a Spartan WHYFF (We Help You For Free) site written by people for whom English is not a native language. Grammar and spelling errors should be expected. The site contain some broken links as it develops like a living tree...

You can use PayPal to to buy a cup of coffee for authors of this site


The statements, views and opinions presented on this web page are those of the author (or referenced source) and are not endorsed by, nor do they necessarily reflect, the opinions of the Softpanorama society. We do not warrant the correctness of the information provided or its fitness for any purpose. The site uses AdSense so you need to be aware of Google privacy policy. You you do not want to be tracked by Google please disable Javascript for this site. This site is perfectly usable without Javascript.

Last modified: October, 16, 2019