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Python cannot and should not install everything on your computer because there are many libraries that serve a niche purpose. It would be wasteful to install them. To go beyond the basics of the last chapter, we are going to need to tell our computer to install external Python packages. Luckily, the tools exist to make this process very very easy.
There is a directory of Python packages called PyPI, which stores the package, package location, documentation (if it exists), authors, and much more.
To install the package, we use pip in the following way:
pip install xlrd
If we want to remove the package, we would run the uninstall command:
pip uninstall xlrd
Choosing a Python library is an imperfect process. There are different ways to go about your selection. Donít worry about trying to figure out what is the right library. When you are perfecting your skills and you find a couple of options, use the library that makes sense to you.
The first thing we recommend is using Google.com to see which libraries other people recommend.
The answer is not always obvious though. In [Link to Come], we will learn more about this process when looking into Twitter libraries.
Q: How to create a binary RPM package out of Python 2.7.2 sources for installation into a non-standard prefix such as /opt/python27?A:
Assume the following builds correctly.
wget http://python.org/ftp/python/2.7.2/Python-2.7.2.tgz tar zxvf Python-2.7.2.tgz cd Python-2.7.2 ./configure --prefix=/opt/python27 --enable-shared make make test sudo make install
Instead of the last command I'd like to build a binary RPM.
RPMs are built using rpmbuild from a .spec file. As an example, look at python.spec from Fedora.
If you don't need to build from sources then try rpm's --relocate switch on a pre-built RPM for your distribution:
rpm -i --relocate /usr=/opt/python27 python-2.7.rpm
Python 2.7 RPMsPort of the Fedora 15 Python 2.7 RPM and some of the related stack to build on RHEL 5 & 6 (and derivatives such as CentOS). Can be installed in parallel to the system Python packages.
I was asked today to install Python 2.7 on a CentOS based node and I thought I'd take this oportunity to add a companion article to my Python 2.6 article.
We're all well aware that CentOS is pretty backwards when it comes to having the latest and greatest sotware packages and is particularly finicky when it comes to Python since so much of RHEL depends on it.
As a rule, I refuse to rush in and install anything in production that isn't in a manageable package format such as RPM. I need to be able to predictably reproduce software installs across a large number of nodes.
The following steps will not clobber your default Python 2.4 install and will keep both CentOS and your developers happy.
So, here we go.
Install the dependancies.
sudo yum -y install rpmdevtools tk-devel tcl-devel expat-devel db4-devel \ gdbm-devel sqlite-devel bzip2-devel openssl-devel \ ncurses-devel readline-devel
Setup you RPM build envirnoment.
Grab my spec file.
wget https://raw.github.com/nmilford/specfiles/master/python-2.7/python27-2.7.2.spec \ -O ~/rpmbuild/SPECS/python27-2.7.2.spec
wget http://www.python.org/ftp/python/2.7.2/Python-2.7.2.tar.bz2 \ -O ~/rpmbuild/SOURCES/Python-2.7.2.tar.bz2
Build RPM. (FYI, the QA_RPATHS variable tells the rpmbuild to skip some file path errors).
QA_RPATHS=$[ 0x0001|0x0010 ] rpmbuild -bb ~/rpmbuild/SPECS/python-2.7.2.spec
Install the RPMs.
sudo rpm -Uvh ~/rpmbuild/RPMS/x86_64/python27*.rpm
Now on to the the setuptools.
Grab my spec file.
wget https://raw.github.com/nmilford/specfiles/master/python-2.7/python27-setuptools-0.6c11.spec \ -O ~/rpmbuild/SPECS/python27-setuptools-0.6c11.spec
Grab the source.
wget http://pypi.python.org/packages/source/s/setuptools/setuptools-0.6c11.tar.gz \ -O ~/rpmbuild/SOURCES/setuptools-0.6c11.tar.gz
Build the RPMs.
rpmbuild -bb ~/rpmbuild/SPECS/python27-setuptools-0.6c11.spec
Install the RPMs.
sudo rpm -Uvh ~/rpmbuild/RPMS/noarch/python27-setuptools-0.6c11-milford.noarch.rpm
Now, we'll install MySQL-python as an example.
Grab the mysql-dev package
yum -y install mysql-devel
Grab, build and install the MySQL-python package.
curl http://superb-sea2.dl.sourceforge.net/project/mysql-python/mysql-python/1.2.3/MySQL-python-1.2.3.tar.gz | tar zxv cd MySQL-python-1.2.3 python2.7 setup.py build python2.7 setup.py install
Like with the previous Python 2.6 article, note how I called the script explicitly using the following python binary:
Now we're good to give it the old test thus:
python2.7 -c "import MySQLdb"
If it doesn't puke out some error message, you're all set.
cfv is a utility to both test and create .sfv (Simple File Verify), .csv, .crc, .md5(sfv style), md5sum, BSD md5, sha1sum, and .torrent checksum verification files. It also includes test-only support for .par and .par2 files. These files are commonly used to ensure the correct retrieval or storage of data.
Release focus: Major bugfixes
Help output is printed to stdout under non-error conditions. A mmap file descriptor leak in Python 2.4.2 was worked around. The different module layout of BitTorrent 5.x is supported. A "struct integer overflow masking is deprecated" warning was fixed. The --private_torrent flag was added. A bug was worked around in 64-bit Python version 2.5 and later which causes checksums of files larger than 4GB to be incorrectly calculated when using mmap.
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Last modified: March, 12, 2019