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Currently, the CRAN package repository features 6212 available packages.
Table of available packages, sorted by date of publication
Table of available packages, sorted by name
From R Installation and Administration by R-core team
| Default packages:|
| Managing libraries:|
| Installing packages:|
| Updating packages:|
| Removing packages:|
| Setting up a package repository:|
| Checking installed source packages:|
It is helpful to use the correct terminology. A package is loaded from a library
by the function
library(). Thus a library is a directory containing installed packages;
the main library is R_HOME/library, but others can be used, for example by
setting the environment variable
R_LIBS or using the R function
The set of packages loaded on startup is by default
> getOption("defaultPackages")  "datasets" "utils" "grDevices" "graphics" "stats" "methods"
(plus, of course, base) and this can be changed by setting the option in startup
code (e.g. in ~/.Rprofile). It is initially set to the value of the environment
R_DEFAULT_PACKAGES if set (as a comma-separated list). Setting
R_DEFAULT_PACKAGES=NULL ensures that only package base is loaded.
Changing the set of default packages is normally used to reduce the set for speed when scripting:
in particular not using methods will reduce the start-up time by a factor of up to
two (and this is done by
Rscript). But it can also be used to customize R, e.g. for
R packages are installed into libraries, which are directories in the file system containing a subdirectory for each package installed there.
R comes with a single library, R_HOME/library which is the value of the R object .Library containing the standard and recommended12 packages. Both sites and users can create others and make use of them (or not) in an R session. At the lowest level .libPaths() can be used to add paths to the collection of libraries or to report the current collection.
R will automatically make use of a site-specific library R_HOME/site-library
if this exists (it does not in a vanilla R installation). This location can be overridden by setting13
.Library.site in R_HOME/etc/Rprofile.site, or (not
recommended) by setting the environment variable
R_LIBS_SITE. Like .Library,
the site libraries are always included by .libPaths().
Users can have one or more libraries, normally specified by the environment variable
R_LIBS_USER. This has a default value (to see it, use Sys.getenv("R_LIBS_USER")
within an R session), but that is only used if the corresponding directory actually exists (which by
default it will not).
R_LIBS_SITE can specify multiple library paths,
separated by colons (semicolons on Windows).
Please type help("INSTALL") or help("install.packages") in R for information on how to install packages from this repository. The manual R Installation and Administration (also contained in the R base sources) explains the process in detail.
CRAN Task Views allow you to browse packages by topic and provide tools to automatically install all packages for special areas of interest. Currently, 33 views are available.
| Windows packages:|
| OS X packages:|
| Customizing package compilation:|
| Multiple sub-architectures:|
Packages may be distributed in source form or compiled binary form. Installing source packages which contain C/C++/Fortran code requires that compilers and related tools be installed. Binary packages are platform-specific and generally need no special tools to install, but see the documentation for your platform for details.
Note that you may need to specify implicitly or explicitly the library to which the package is to be installed. This is only an issue if you have more than one library, of course.
Ensure that the environment variable
TMPDIR is either unset (and /tmp
exists and can be written in and executed from) or is the absolute path to a valid temporary
directory, not containing spaces.
For most users it suffices to call install.packages(pkgname) or its GUI equivalent if the intention is to install a CRAN package and internet access is available. On most systems install.packages() will allow packages to be selected from a list box (typically with several thousand items).
To install packages from source on a Unix-alike use in a terminal
R CMD INSTALL -l /path/to/library pkg1 pkg2
The part -l /path/to/library can be omitted, in which case the first library of a
normal R session is used (that shown by
There are a number of options available: use
R CMD INSTALL --help to see the current
Alternatively, packages can be downloaded and installed from within R. First choose your nearest
CRAN mirror using
chooseCRANmirror(). Then download and install
packages pkg1 and pkg2 by
> install.packages(c("pkg1", "pkg2"))
The essential dependencies of the specified packages will also be fetched. Unless the library is
lib) the first library in the library search path is used: if this
is not writable, R will ask the user (in an interactive session) if the default personal library
should be created, and if allowed to will install the packages there.
If you want to fetch a package and all those it depends on (in any way) that are not already installed, use e.g.
> install.packages("Rcmdr", dependencies = TRUE)
install.packages can install a source package from a local .tar.gz file
(or a URL to such a file) by setting argument
NULL: this will be
selected automatically if the name given is a single .tar.gz file.
install.packages can look in several repositories, specified as a character vector
by the argument
repos: these can include a CRAN mirror, Bioconductor,
Omegahat, R-forge, rforge.net, local archives, local files,
can select amongst those repositories that the R installation is aware of.
Naive users sometimes forget that as well as installing a package, they have to use
to make its functionality available.
All packages are tested regularly on machines running Debian GNU/Linux, Fedora and Solaris. Packages are also checked under OS X and Windows, but typically only on the day the package appears on CRAN.
The results are summarized in the check summary (some timings are also available). Additional details for Windows checking and building can be found in the Windows check summary.
The manual Writing R Extensions (also contained in the R base sources) explains how to write new packages and how to contribute them to CRAN.
The manual CRAN Repository Policy [PDF] describes the policies in place for the CRAN package repository.
Groupthink : Two Party System as Polyarchy : Corruption of Regulators : Bureaucracies : Understanding Micromanagers and Control Freaks : Toxic Managers : Harvard Mafia : Diplomatic Communication : Surviving a Bad Performance Review : Insufficient Retirement Funds as Immanent Problem of Neoliberal Regime : PseudoScience : Who Rules America : Neoliberalism : The Iron Law of Oligarchy : Libertarian Philosophy
War and Peace : Skeptical Finance : John Kenneth Galbraith :Talleyrand : Oscar Wilde : Otto Von Bismarck : Keynes : George Carlin : Skeptics : Propaganda : SE quotes : Language Design and Programming Quotes : Random IT-related quotes : Somerset Maugham : Marcus Aurelius : Kurt Vonnegut : Eric Hoffer : Winston Churchill : Napoleon Bonaparte : Ambrose Bierce : Bernard Shaw : Mark Twain Quotes
Vol 25, No.12 (December, 2013) Rational Fools vs. Efficient Crooks The efficient markets hypothesis : Political Skeptic Bulletin, 2013 : Unemployment Bulletin, 2010 : Vol 23, No.10 (October, 2011) An observation about corporate security departments : Slightly Skeptical Euromaydan Chronicles, June 2014 : Greenspan legacy bulletin, 2008 : Vol 25, No.10 (October, 2013) Cryptolocker Trojan (Win32/Crilock.A) : Vol 25, No.08 (August, 2013) Cloud providers as intelligence collection hubs : Financial Humor Bulletin, 2010 : Inequality Bulletin, 2009 : Financial Humor Bulletin, 2008 : Copyleft Problems Bulletin, 2004 : Financial Humor Bulletin, 2011 : Energy Bulletin, 2010 : Malware Protection Bulletin, 2010 : Vol 26, No.1 (January, 2013) Object-Oriented Cult : Political Skeptic Bulletin, 2011 : Vol 23, No.11 (November, 2011) Softpanorama classification of sysadmin horror stories : Vol 25, No.05 (May, 2013) Corporate bullshit as a communication method : Vol 25, No.06 (June, 2013) A Note on the Relationship of Brooks Law and Conway Law
Fifty glorious years (1950-2000): the triumph of the US computer engineering : Donald Knuth : TAoCP and its Influence of Computer Science : Richard Stallman : Linus Torvalds : Larry Wall : John K. Ousterhout : CTSS : Multix OS Unix History : Unix shell history : VI editor : History of pipes concept : Solaris : MS DOS : Programming Languages History : PL/1 : Simula 67 : C : History of GCC development : Scripting Languages : Perl history : OS History : Mail : DNS : SSH : CPU Instruction Sets : SPARC systems 1987-2006 : Norton Commander : Norton Utilities : Norton Ghost : Frontpage history : Malware Defense History : GNU Screen : OSS early history
The Peter Principle : Parkinson Law : 1984 : The Mythical Man-Month : How to Solve It by George Polya : The Art of Computer Programming : The Elements of Programming Style : The Unix Haters Handbook : The Jargon file : The True Believer : Programming Pearls : The Good Soldier Svejk : The Power Elite
Most popular humor pages:
Manifest of the Softpanorama IT Slacker Society : Ten Commandments of the IT Slackers Society : Computer Humor Collection : BSD Logo Story : The Cuckoo's Egg : IT Slang : C++ Humor : ARE YOU A BBS ADDICT? : The Perl Purity Test : Object oriented programmers of all nations : Financial Humor : Financial Humor Bulletin, 2008 : Financial Humor Bulletin, 2010 : The Most Comprehensive Collection of Editor-related Humor : Programming Language Humor : Goldman Sachs related humor : Greenspan humor : C Humor : Scripting Humor : Real Programmers Humor : Web Humor : GPL-related Humor : OFM Humor : Politically Incorrect Humor : IDS Humor : "Linux Sucks" Humor : Russian Musical Humor : Best Russian Programmer Humor : Microsoft plans to buy Catholic Church : Richard Stallman Related Humor : Admin Humor : Perl-related Humor : Linus Torvalds Related humor : PseudoScience Related Humor : Networking Humor : Shell Humor : Financial Humor Bulletin, 2011 : Financial Humor Bulletin, 2012 : Financial Humor Bulletin, 2013 : Java Humor : Software Engineering Humor : Sun Solaris Related Humor : Education Humor : IBM Humor : Assembler-related Humor : VIM Humor : Computer Viruses Humor : Bright tomorrow is rescheduled to a day after tomorrow : Classic Computer Humor
The Last but not Least Technology is dominated by two types of people: those who understand what they do not manage and those who manage what they do not understand ~Archibald Putt. Ph.D
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Last modified: October, 18, 2019