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Useful Solaris Commands
truss -c (Solaris >= 8): This astounding option to truss provides a profile summary of the command being trussed:
$ truss -c grep asdf work.doc syscall seconds calls errors _exit .00 1 read .01 24 open .00 8 4 close .00 5 brk .00 15 stat .00 1 fstat .00 4 execve .00 1 mmap .00 10 munmap .01 3 memcntl .00 2 llseek .00 1 open64 .00 1 ---- --- --- sys totals: .02 76 4 usr time: .00 elapsed: .05
It can also show profile data on a running process. In this case, the data shows what the process did between when truss was started and when truss execution was terminated with a control-c. It’s ideal for determining why a process is hung without having to wade through the pages of truss output.
truss -d and truss -D (Solaris >= 8): These truss options show the time associated with each system call being shown by truss and is excellent for finding performance problems in custom or commercial code. For example:
$ truss -d who Base time stamp: 1035385727.3460 [ Wed Oct 23 11:08:47 EDT 2002 ] 0.0000 execve(“/usr/bin/who”, 0xFFBEFD5C, 0xFFBEFD64) argc = 1 0.0032 stat(“/usr/bin/who”, 0xFFBEFA98) = 0 0.0037 open(“/var/ld/ld.config”, O_RDONLY) Err#2 ENOENT 0.0042 open(“/usr/local/lib/libc.so.1”, O_RDONLY) Err#2 ENOENT 0.0047 open(“/usr/lib/libc.so.1”, O_RDONLY) = 3 0.0051 fstat(3, 0xFFBEF42C) = 0 . . .
truss -D is even more useful, showing the time delta between system calls:
Dilbert> truss -D who 0.0000 execve(“/usr/bin/who”, 0xFFBEFD5C, 0xFFBEFD64) argc = 1 0.0028 stat(“/usr/bin/who”, 0xFFBEFA98) = 0 0.0005 open(“/var/ld/ld.config”, O_RDONLY) Err#2 ENOENT 0.0006 open(“/usr/local/lib/libc.so.1”, O_RDONLY) Err#2 ENOENT 0.0005 open(“/usr/lib/libc.so.1”, O_RDONLY) = 3 0.0004 fstat(3, 0xFFBEF42C) = 0
In this example, the stat system call took a lot longer than the others.
truss -T: This is a great debugging help. It will stop a process at the execution of a specified system call. (“-U” does the same, but with user-level function calls.) A core could then be taken for further analysis, or any of the /proc tools could be used to determine many aspects of the status of the process.
truss -l (improved in Solaris 9): Shows the thread number of each call in a multi-threaded processes. Solaris 9 truss -l finally makes it possible to watch the execution of a multi-threaded application.
Truss is truly a powerful tool. It can be used on core files to analyze what caused the problem, for example. It can also show details on user-level library calls (either system libraries or programmer libraries) via the “-u” option.
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