Softpanorama

May the source be with you, but remember the KISS principle ;-)
Contents Bulletin Scripting in shell and Perl Network troubleshooting History Humor

Oracle Scheduler Agent Installation

Enabling and Disabling Remote External Jobs

To install, configure, and start the Scheduler agent on a remote Windows, Linux, or UNIX host:

  1. Log in to the remote host.
    • For Windows, log in as an administrator.
    • For UNIX and Linux, log in as the user that you want the Scheduler agent to run as. This user requires no special privileges.
  2. Run the Oracle Universal Installer (OUI) from the installation media for Oracle Database Gateway.
    • For Windows, run setup.exe.
    • For UNIX and Linux, use the following command:
      /directory_path/runInstaller

    where directory_path is the path to the Oracle Database Gateway installation media.

  3. On the OUI Welcome page, click Next.
  4. On the product selection page, select Oracle Scheduler Agent, and then click Next.
  5. On the Specify Home Details page, enter a name and path for a new Oracle home for the agent, and then click Next.
  6. On the Oracle Scheduler Agent page:
    1. In the Scheduler Agent Host Name field, enter the host name of the computer on which the Scheduler agent is to run, or accept the default host name.
    2. In the Scheduler Agent Port Number field, enter the TCP port number on which the Scheduler agent is to listen for connections, and then click Next.

      Choose an integer between 1 and 65535. On UNIX and Linux, the number must be greater than 1023. Ensure that the port number is not already in use.

  7. On the Summary page, click Install.
  8. (UNIX and Linux only) When the Oracle Universal Installer prompts you to run the script root.sh, enter the following command as the root user:
    script_path/root.sh
    

    The script is located in the directory that you chose for agent installation.

ORACLE-BASE - Scheduler Enhancements in Oracle Database 11g Release 1

Once the server configuration is complete, we need to install the Oracle Scheduler Agent on the machine we wish to run remote jobs against. The agent software is on the Transparent Gateways disk available with the database software downloads from Oracle Technology Network. After running the installer, proceed with the following installation.

On the "Welcome" screen, click the "Next" button.

Welcome

Select the "Oracle Scheduler Agent" option and click the "Next" button.

Select Product

Enter the appropriate name and path for the Oracle home, then click the "Next" button.

Specify Home Details

Enter the hostname and port for the agent installation, then click the "Next" button. This is the hostname for the machine running the agent, not the database server. The port should be an unused port greater than 1023.

Oracle Scheduler Agent

Click the "Install" button on the "Summary" screen.

Summary

Wait while the installation takes place.

Install

Once the installation is complete, click the "Exit" button and "OK" the subsequent message dialog.

End Of Installation

Once the agent installation is complete, register it against any databases wishing to run external jobs on this machine using the schagent utility, passing in the hostname of the database and the HTTP port of XML DB. The schagent utility is present in the "$ORACLE_HOME/bin" directory of the agent installation.
C:\>cd C:\app\oracle\product\11.1.0\tg_1\bin

C:\app\oracle\product\11.1.0\tg_1\bin>schagent -registerdatabase bart.localdomain 8080
Agent Registration Password ? *************
*

Oracle Scheduler Agent Registration
Agent Registration Successful!

C:\app\oracle\product\11.1.0\tg_1\bin>
The schagent utility is also used to stop and start the agent on UNIX style platforms.
$ schagent -stop
$ schagent -start
On Windows platforms, simply stop and start the <home-name>_OracleSchedulerExecutionAgent service.

The agent configuration information is stored in the "$ORACLE_HOME/schagent.conf" file.

Credentials

Credentials are database objects that hold a username/password pair for authenticating local and remote external jobs. They are created using the CREATE_CREDENTIAL procedure in the DBMS_SCHEDULER package. The procedure also allows you to specify the Windows domain for remote external jobs executed against a Windows server. Credentials owned by SYS
CONN test/test

BEGIN
  -- Basic credential.
  DBMS_SCHEDULER.create_credential(
    credential_name => 'TIM_HALL_CREDENTIAL',
    username        => 'tim_hall',
    password        => 'password');

  -- Credential including Windows domain.
  DBMS_SCHEDULER.create_credential(
    credential_name => 'TIM_HALL_WIN_CREDENTIAL',
    username        => 'tim_hall',
    password        => 'password',
    windows_domain  => 'localdomain');
END;
/
Information about credentials is displayed using the [DBA|ALL|USER]_SCHEDULER_CREDENTIALS views.
COLUMN credential_name FORMAT A25
COLUMN username FORMAT A20
COLUMN windows_domain FORMAT A20

SELECT credential_name,
       username,
       windows_domain
FROM   user_scheduler_credentials
ORDER BY credential_name;


CREDENTIAL_NAME           USERNAME             WINDOWS_DOMAIN
------------------------- -------------------- --------------------
TIM_HALL_CREDENTIAL       tim_hall
TIM_HALL_WIN_CREDENTIAL   tim_hall             LOCALDOMAIN

2 rows selected.

SQL>
Credentials are dropped using the DROP_CREDENTIAL procedure.
EXEC DBMS_SCHEDULER.drop_credential('TIM_HALL_CREDENTIAL');
EXEC DBMS_SCHEDULER.drop_credential('TIM_HALL_WIN_CREDENTIAL');
For backwards compatibility, it is not mandatory to specify credentials for local external jobs. If no credentials are set the default users are: Oracle recommend using credentials for all local and remote external jobs as the default values may be deprecated in future.

The operating system user specified by the credential must have the necessary privileges to perform the required action. On Windows platforms this must include the "Log on as batch job" security policy, applied using the "Local Security Policies" dialog.

Creating Remote External Jobs

Remote external jobs are similar to local external jobs. Both require a JOB_TYPE, or PROGRAM_TYPE for program definitions, set to 'EXECUTABLE'. Commands and batch files that require parameters must set the parameters using the SET_JOB_ARGUMENT_VALUE procedure. The following job performs a directory listing of the "/tmp" directory. Notice how the directory name is specified as a parameter. In addition to setting the CREDENTIAL_NAME attribute, the job also includes the DESTINATION attribute, signifying this is a remote external job. This attribute is set to the "hostname:port" of the scheduler agent. If the DESTINATION attribute is not set, or set to "localhost", the job runs as a local external job.
 
BEGIN
  -- UNIX
  DBMS_SCHEDULER.create_job(
    job_name             => 'unix_command_job',
    job_type             => 'EXECUTABLE',
    number_of_arguments  => 1,
    job_action           => '/bin/ls',
    auto_drop            => FALSE,
    enabled              => FALSE);

  DBMS_SCHEDULER.set_job_argument_value('unix_command_job',1,'/tmp');

  DBMS_SCHEDULER.set_attribute('unix_command_job', 'credential_name', 'TIM_HALL_CREDENTIAL');
  DBMS_SCHEDULER.set_attribute('unix_command_job', 'destination', 'marge.localdomain:65001');
  DBMS_SCHEDULER.enable('unix_command_job');
END;
/
Windows commands and scripts must be run using the "cmd.exe" executable with the first parameter of "/c". To perform an action similar to the previous example, we would need to use three parameters.
BEGIN
  -- Windows
  DBMS_SCHEDULER.create_job(
    job_name             => 'win_command_job',
    job_type             => 'EXECUTABLE',
    number_of_arguments  => 3,
    job_action           => 'C:\windows\system32\cmd.exe',
    auto_drop            => FALSE,
    enabled              => FALSE);

  DBMS_SCHEDULER.set_job_argument_value('win_command_job',1,'/c');
  DBMS_SCHEDULER.set_job_argument_value('win_command_job',2,'dir');
  DBMS_SCHEDULER.set_job_argument_value('win_command_job',3,'C:\');

  DBMS_SCHEDULER.set_attribute('win_command_job', 'credential_name', 'TIM_HALL_WIN_CREDENTIAL');
  DBMS_SCHEDULER.set_attribute('win_command_job', 'destination', 'marge.localdomain:65001');
  DBMS_SCHEDULER.enable('win_command_job');
END;
/
The documentation suggests this should be all that is necessary to run a remote external job, but this does not seem to be the case. Unlike local external jobs, it appears remote external jobs run as detached jobs, so Oracle does not know when they are complete. It is up to job itself to tell Oracle when it is complete by calling the END_DETACHED_JOB_RUN procedure.
BEGIN
  DBMS_SCHEDULER.end_detached_job_run('UNIX_COMMAND_JOB');
  DBMS_SCHEDULER.end_detached_job_run('WINDOWS_COMMAND_JOB');
END;
/
This raises a couple of questions:

Returning stdout and stderr

The DBMS_SCHEDULER package includes a GET_FILE procedure for returning the stdout and stderr created by calls to external jobs. Local external jobs write stdout and stderr information to files in the "$ORACLE_HOME/scheduler/log" directory on the database server. Remote external jobs write this information to the "$AGENT_HOME/data/log" directory on the remote server.

When a local external job completes, information about the run is written to the ADDITIONAL_INFO column of the [DBA|ALL|USER]_SCHEDULER_JOB_RUN_DETAILS view, including a name value pair of the EXTERNAL_LOG_ID. Concatenating "_stdout" or "_stderr" to this external log ID gives you the name of the file to pass into the GET_FILE procedure as the SOURCE_FILE parameter. To see this in action create a local external job similar to that of the previous examples.
BEGIN
  DBMS_SCHEDULER.create_job(
    job_name             => 'local_unix_command_job',
    job_type             => 'EXECUTABLE',
    number_of_arguments  => 1,
    job_action           => '/bin/ls',
    auto_drop            => FALSE,
    enabled              => FALSE);

  DBMS_SCHEDULER.set_job_argument_value('local_unix_command_job',1,'/tmp');

  DBMS_SCHEDULER.set_attribute('local_unix_command_job', 'credential_name', 'TIM_HALL_CREDENTIAL');
  DBMS_SCHEDULER.enable('local_unix_command_job');
END;
/
Next, query the USER_SCHEDULER_JOB_RUN_DETAILS view to retrieve the EXTERNAL_LOG_ID and use this value to return the stdout using the GET_FILE procedure.
 
SET SERVEROUTPUT ON
DECLARE
  l_clob             CLOB;
  l_additional_info  VARCHAR2(50);
  l_external_log_id  VARCHAR2(50);
BEGIN
  SELECT additional_info, external_log_id
  INTO   l_additional_info, l_external_log_id
  FROM   (SELECT log_id, 
                 additional_info,
                 REGEXP_SUBSTR(additional_info,'job[_0-9]*') AS external_log_id
          FROM   user_scheduler_job_run_details
          WHERE  job_name = 'LOCAL_UNIX_COMMAND_JOB'
          ORDER BY log_id DESC)
  WHERE  ROWNUM = 1;

  DBMS_OUTPUT.put_line('ADDITIONAL_INFO: ' || l_additional_info);
  DBMS_OUTPUT.put_line('EXTERNAL_LOG_ID: ' || l_external_log_id);

  DBMS_LOB.createtemporary(l_clob, FALSE);

  DBMS_SCHEDULER.get_file(
    source_file     => l_external_log_id ||'_stdout',
    credential_name => 'TIM_HALL_CREDENTIAL',
    file_contents   => l_clob,
    source_host     => NULL);

  DBMS_OUTPUT.put_line('stdout:');
  DBMS_OUTPUT.put_line(l_clob);
END;
/
ADDITIONAL_INFO: EXTERNAL_LOG_ID="job_88372_27729"
EXTERNAL_LOG_ID: job_88372_27729
stdout:
gconfd-root
hsperfdata_oracle
keyring-9TWYY7
keyring-WnjRiP
mapping-oracle
mapping-root
orbit-root
sealert.log
ssh-KWaTN22006
virtual-root.tr3Sbw
vmware-config0


PL/SQL procedure successfully completed.

SQL>
The documentation claims this functionality will also work with remote external jobs in the same way, but there is a problem here as these jobs appear to run as detached jobs, so it is up to the script to notify Oracle when it is complete using the END_DETACHED_JOB_RUN procedure. This procedure optionally accepts an ADDITIONAL_INFO parameter, so it is up to the script to provide the necessary EXTERNAL_LOG_ID to support the GET_FILE procedure functionality. To see this we will repeat the previous example as an external job by setting the DESTINATION attribute.
 
BEGIN
  DBMS_SCHEDULER.create_job(
    job_name             => 'remote_unix_command_job',
    job_type             => 'EXECUTABLE',
    number_of_arguments  => 1,
    job_action           => '/bin/ls',
    auto_drop            => FALSE,
    enabled              => FALSE);

  DBMS_SCHEDULER.set_job_argument_value('remote_unix_command_job',1,'/tmp');

  DBMS_SCHEDULER.set_attribute('remote_unix_command_job', 'credential_name', 'TIM_HALL_CREDENTIAL');
  DBMS_SCHEDULER.set_attribute('remote_unix_command_job', 'destination', 'marge.localdomain:65001');
  DBMS_SCHEDULER.enable('remote_unix_command_job');
END;
/
If we check the remote server, the stdout file is present.
 
# pwd
/u01/app/oracle/product/11.1.0/gt_1/data/log
# ls
job_88373_8_stdout  job_ids
#
We can identify the EXTERNAL_LOG_ID is "job_88373_8" by looking at the stdout file name, or by checking the contents of the "job_ids" file.
 
# cat job_ids
job_88373_8 "DB11G.WORLD" "oel5-11g.localdomain" "TEST" "REMOTE_UNIX_COMMAND_JOB" - "tim_hall" "/bin/ls"
#
Next, signal the end of the job run by passing the external job ID information to the END_DETACHED_JOB_RUN procedure.
 
BEGIN
  DBMS_SCHEDULER.end_detached_job_run(
    job_name        => 'remote_unix_command_job',
    error_number    => 0,
    additional_info => 'EXTERNAL_JOB_ID="job_88373_8"');
END;
/
Retrieve the contents of the stdout file in the same way as before, but this time pass the agent location information in the SOURCE_HOST parameter of the GET_FILE procedure.
 
SET SERVEROUTPUT ON
DECLARE
  l_clob             CLOB;
  l_additional_info  VARCHAR2(50);
  l_external_log_id  VARCHAR2(50);
BEGIN
  SELECT additional_info, external_log_id
  INTO   l_additional_info, l_external_log_id
  FROM   (SELECT log_id, 
                 additional_info,
                 REGEXP_SUBSTR(additional_info,'job[_0-9]*') AS external_log_id
          FROM   user_scheduler_job_run_details
          WHERE  job_name = 'REMOTE_UNIX_COMMAND_JOB'
          ORDER BY log_id DESC)
  WHERE  ROWNUM = 1;

  DBMS_OUTPUT.put_line('ADDITIONAL_INFO: ' || l_additional_info);
  DBMS_OUTPUT.put_line('EXTERNAL_LOG_ID: ' || l_external_log_id);

  DBMS_LOB.createtemporary(l_clob, FALSE);

  DBMS_SCHEDULER.get_file(
    source_file     => l_external_log_id ||'_stdout',
    credential_name => 'TIM_HALL_CREDENTIAL',
    file_contents   => l_clob,
    source_host     => 'marge.localdomain:65001');

  DBMS_OUTPUT.put_line('stdout:');
  DBMS_OUTPUT.put_line(l_clob);
END;
/
ADDITIONAL_INFO: EXTERNAL_JOB_ID="job_88373_8
EXTERNAL_LOG_ID: job_88373_8
stdout:
command
gen_cfg2html.txt
hsperfdata_oracle
hsperfdata_root
hsperfdata_tim_hall
orbit-oracle
orbit-root


PL/SQL procedure successfully completed.

SQL>

Disabling Remote External Job Functionality

To prevent a database from executing remote external jobs, simply drop the REMOTE_SCHEDULER_AGENT user.
 
SQL> DROP USER REMOTE_SCHEDULER_AGENT CASCADE;

Detached Jobs

Detached jobs allow you to run jobs in a separate processes, independent of the scheduler. If it is an external job, it is also independent of the database state, meaning the job continues to run after the database is shutdown. Once a detached job is initiated, the scheduler marks the job as running then ceases to track its progress. It is up to the detached job to signal its completion using the END_DETACHED_JOB_RUN procedure. The following example creates an external job to restart the database, proving the job runs independently of the database state.

First create a script owned by the oracle user called "restart_db_script" with the following contents.
#!/bin/bash

export ORACLE_BASE=/u01/app/oracle
export ORACLE_HOME=$ORACLE_BASE/product/11.1.0/db_1
export ORACLE_SID=DB11G
export LD_LIBRARY_PATH=$LD_LIBRARY_PATH:$ORACLE_HOME/lib

$ORACLE_HOME/bin/sqlplus / as sysdba <<EOF

SHUTDOWN IMMEDIATE;
STARTUP;

EXEC DBMS_SCHEDULER.end_detached_job_run('restart_db_job', 0, null);

EOF

exit 0
Notice how the last action of the SQL script is the call to the END_DETACHED_JOB_RUN procedure to signal that the job is complete.

Make sure the script is executable.
 
$ chmod u+x restart_db
Next, connect to SQL*Plus as the SYS user and create a program object to run the script. Make sure the DETACHED attribute is set to TRUE.
 
CONN / AS SYSDBA

BEGIN
  DBMS_SCHEDULER.create_program(
    program_name   => 'restart_db_program',
    program_type   => 'executable',
    program_action => '/u01/app/oracle/dba/restart_db_script',
    enabled        =>  TRUE);

  DBMS_SCHEDULER.set_attribute('restart_db_program', 'detached', TRUE);
END;
/
Next, create a job that runs immediately using the program.
BEGIN
  DBMS_SCHEDULER.create_job(
    job_name        => 'restart_db_job',
    program_name    => 'restart_db_program',
    enabled         => TRUE);
END;
/

DISCONNECT
You can watch the background processes shutting down and restarting using the "ps -ef | grep ora" command. Once the database is back you can query the DBA_SCHEDULER_JOB_RUN_DETAILS view to check the status of the job.
CONN / AS SYSDBA
SELECT status,
       run_duration
FROM   dba_scheduler_job_run_details
WHERE  job_name = 'RESTART_DB_JOB';

STATUS     RUN_DURATION
---------- --------------------
SUCCEEDED  +000 00:01:12

1 row selected.

SQL>

Lightweight Jobs

Regular jobs, like programs and schedules, are schema objects and as such take time to create and drop. Under normal circumstances this overhead is hardly noticeable, but it can become apparent when you need to create large numbers of short-lived jobs. For example, you may wish to use jobs to decouple processes, or to parallelize them. In these circumstances you may see improved performance using lightweight jobs.

Lightweight jobs have a JOB_STYLE attribute of 'LIGHTWEIGHT', the default being 'REGULAR', and must be based on a program object with an object type of 'PLSQL_BLOCK' or 'STORED_PROCEDURE'. Lightweight jobs are not schema objects and therefore require less meta data, so they have quicker create and drop times. Since they are not schema objects, you cannot grant privileges on them, so lightweight jobs inherit their privileges from their referenced program objects.

The following example compares the creation time for regular and lightweight jobs. First, create a program suitable for a lightweight job. In this case, the PL/SQL block does no work.
 
BEGIN
  DBMS_SCHEDULER.create_program(
    program_name   => 'lightweight_program',
    program_type   => 'PLSQL_BLOCK',
    program_action => 'BEGIN NULL; END;',
    enabled        =>  TRUE);
END;
/
The following script displays the time taken to create 100 lightweight jobs and 100 regular jobs.
SET SERVEROUTPUT ON
DECLARE
  l_start    NUMBER;
BEGIN

  l_start := DBMS_UTILITY.get_time;

  FOR i IN 1 .. 100 LOOP
    DBMS_SCHEDULER.create_job (
      job_name        => 'lightweight_job_' || i,
      program_name    => 'lightweight_program',
      job_style       => 'LIGHTWEIGHT',
      enabled         => TRUE);
  END LOOP;

  DBMS_OUTPUT.put_line('LIGHTWEIGHT (hsecs): ' || (DBMS_UTILITY.get_time - l_start));

  l_start := DBMS_UTILITY.get_time;

  FOR i IN 1 .. 100 LOOP
    DBMS_SCHEDULER.create_job (
      job_name        => 'regular_job_' || i,
      program_name    => 'lightweight_program',
      job_style       => 'REGULAR',
      enabled         => TRUE);
  END LOOP;

  DBMS_OUTPUT.put_line('REGULAR (hsecs): ' || (DBMS_UTILITY.get_time - l_start));
END;
/
LIGHTWEIGHT (hsecs): 174
REGULAR (hsecs): 412

PL/SQL procedure successfully completed.

SQL>
The output clearly shows there is less overhead associated with the creation of lightweight jobs.

Scheduler Support for Data Guard

The Oracle 11g scheduler now supports Data Guard environments, allowing jobs to be run dependent on their role in the environment.

In physical standby configurations, all scheduler changes are applied to the physical standby. In logical standby configurations jobs can be created to run specifically on the primary or logical standby database. This is done by setting the DATABASE_ROLE job attribute to 'PRIMARY' or 'LOGICAL STANDBY'. During a switchover or failover, the new role of the database is recognized and the appropriate jobs will be run based on the new role.
 
BEGIN
  DBMS_SCHEDULER.create_job (
     job_name       => 'primary_job',
     program_name   => 'primary_job_prog',
     schedule_name  => 'primary_job_schedule',
     enable         => TRUE);

  DBMS_SCHEDULER.set_attribute('primary_job','database_role','PRIMARY');
END;
/

Oracle Enterprise Manager (OEM)

The current version of Oracle Enterprise Manager (OEM) has no built in support for the new scheduler features.

For more information see:



Etc

FAIR USE NOTICE This site contains copyrighted material the use of which has not always been specifically authorized by the copyright owner. We are making such material available in our efforts to advance understanding of environmental, political, human rights, economic, democracy, scientific, and social justice issues, etc. We believe this constitutes a 'fair use' of any such copyrighted material as provided for in section 107 of the US Copyright Law. In accordance with Title 17 U.S.C. Section 107, the material on this site is distributed without profit exclusivly for research and educational purposes.   If you wish to use copyrighted material from this site for purposes of your own that go beyond 'fair use', you must obtain permission from the copyright owner. 

ABUSE: IPs or network segments from which we detect a stream of probes might be blocked for no less then 90 days. Multiple types of probes increase this period.  

Society

Groupthink : Two Party System as Polyarchy : Corruption of Regulators : Bureaucracies : Understanding Micromanagers and Control Freaks : Toxic Managers :   Harvard Mafia : Diplomatic Communication : Surviving a Bad Performance Review : Insufficient Retirement Funds as Immanent Problem of Neoliberal Regime : PseudoScience : Who Rules America : Neoliberalism  : The Iron Law of Oligarchy : Libertarian Philosophy

Quotes

War and Peace : Skeptical Finance : John Kenneth Galbraith :Talleyrand : Oscar Wilde : Otto Von Bismarck : Keynes : George Carlin : Skeptics : Propaganda  : SE quotes : Language Design and Programming Quotes : Random IT-related quotesSomerset Maugham : Marcus Aurelius : Kurt Vonnegut : Eric Hoffer : Winston Churchill : Napoleon Bonaparte : Ambrose BierceBernard Shaw : Mark Twain Quotes

Bulletin:

Vol 25, No.12 (December, 2013) Rational Fools vs. Efficient Crooks The efficient markets hypothesis : Political Skeptic Bulletin, 2013 : Unemployment Bulletin, 2010 :  Vol 23, No.10 (October, 2011) An observation about corporate security departments : Slightly Skeptical Euromaydan Chronicles, June 2014 : Greenspan legacy bulletin, 2008 : Vol 25, No.10 (October, 2013) Cryptolocker Trojan (Win32/Crilock.A) : Vol 25, No.08 (August, 2013) Cloud providers as intelligence collection hubs : Financial Humor Bulletin, 2010 : Inequality Bulletin, 2009 : Financial Humor Bulletin, 2008 : Copyleft Problems Bulletin, 2004 : Financial Humor Bulletin, 2011 : Energy Bulletin, 2010 : Malware Protection Bulletin, 2010 : Vol 26, No.1 (January, 2013) Object-Oriented Cult : Political Skeptic Bulletin, 2011 : Vol 23, No.11 (November, 2011) Softpanorama classification of sysadmin horror stories : Vol 25, No.05 (May, 2013) Corporate bullshit as a communication method  : Vol 25, No.06 (June, 2013) A Note on the Relationship of Brooks Law and Conway Law

History:

Fifty glorious years (1950-2000): the triumph of the US computer engineering : Donald Knuth : TAoCP and its Influence of Computer Science : Richard Stallman : Linus Torvalds  : Larry Wall  : John K. Ousterhout : CTSS : Multix OS Unix History : Unix shell history : VI editor : History of pipes concept : Solaris : MS DOSProgramming Languages History : PL/1 : Simula 67 : C : History of GCC developmentScripting Languages : Perl history   : OS History : Mail : DNS : SSH : CPU Instruction Sets : SPARC systems 1987-2006 : Norton Commander : Norton Utilities : Norton Ghost : Frontpage history : Malware Defense History : GNU Screen : OSS early history

Classic books:

The Peter Principle : Parkinson Law : 1984 : The Mythical Man-MonthHow to Solve It by George Polya : The Art of Computer Programming : The Elements of Programming Style : The Unix Haterís Handbook : The Jargon file : The True Believer : Programming Pearls : The Good Soldier Svejk : The Power Elite

Most popular humor pages:

Manifest of the Softpanorama IT Slacker Society : Ten Commandments of the IT Slackers Society : Computer Humor Collection : BSD Logo Story : The Cuckoo's Egg : IT Slang : C++ Humor : ARE YOU A BBS ADDICT? : The Perl Purity Test : Object oriented programmers of all nations : Financial Humor : Financial Humor Bulletin, 2008 : Financial Humor Bulletin, 2010 : The Most Comprehensive Collection of Editor-related Humor : Programming Language Humor : Goldman Sachs related humor : Greenspan humor : C Humor : Scripting Humor : Real Programmers Humor : Web Humor : GPL-related Humor : OFM Humor : Politically Incorrect Humor : IDS Humor : "Linux Sucks" Humor : Russian Musical Humor : Best Russian Programmer Humor : Microsoft plans to buy Catholic Church : Richard Stallman Related Humor : Admin Humor : Perl-related Humor : Linus Torvalds Related humor : PseudoScience Related Humor : Networking Humor : Shell Humor : Financial Humor Bulletin, 2011 : Financial Humor Bulletin, 2012 : Financial Humor Bulletin, 2013 : Java Humor : Software Engineering Humor : Sun Solaris Related Humor : Education Humor : IBM Humor : Assembler-related Humor : VIM Humor : Computer Viruses Humor : Bright tomorrow is rescheduled to a day after tomorrow : Classic Computer Humor

The Last but not Least


Copyright © 1996-2016 by Dr. Nikolai Bezroukov. www.softpanorama.org was created as a service to the UN Sustainable Development Networking Programme (SDNP) in the author free time. This document is an industrial compilation designed and created exclusively for educational use and is distributed under the Softpanorama Content License.

The site uses AdSense so you need to be aware of Google privacy policy. You you do not want to be tracked by Google please disable Javascript for this site. This site is perfectly usable without Javascript.

Original materials copyright belong to respective owners. Quotes are made for educational purposes only in compliance with the fair use doctrine.

FAIR USE NOTICE This site contains copyrighted material the use of which has not always been specifically authorized by the copyright owner. We are making such material available to advance understanding of computer science, IT technology, economic, scientific, and social issues. We believe this constitutes a 'fair use' of any such copyrighted material as provided by section 107 of the US Copyright Law according to which such material can be distributed without profit exclusively for research and educational purposes.

This is a Spartan WHYFF (We Help You For Free) site written by people for whom English is not a native language. Grammar and spelling errors should be expected. The site contain some broken links as it develops like a living tree...

You can use PayPal to make a contribution, supporting development of this site and speed up access. In case softpanorama.org is down you can use the at softpanorama.info

Disclaimer:

The statements, views and opinions presented on this web page are those of the author (or referenced source) and are not endorsed by, nor do they necessarily reflect, the opinions of the author present and former employers, SDNP or any other organization the author may be associated with. We do not warrant the correctness of the information provided or its fitness for any purpose.

Last modified: October 11, 2015