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Bare metal recovery of Linux systems Relax-and-Recover on RHEL HP Operations Manager Troubleshooting HPOM agents Number of Servers per Sysadmin Tivoli Enterprise Console Tivoli Workload Scheduler
Over 50 and unemployed Surviving a Bad Performance Review Understanding Micromanagers and Control Freaks Bosos or Empty Suits (Aggressive Incompetent Managers) Narcissists Female Sociopaths Bully Managers
Slackerism Information Overload Workaholism and Burnout Unix Sysadmin Tips Sysadmin Horror Stories Admin Humor Sysadmin Health Issues


The KISS rule can be expanded as: Keep It Simple, Sysadmin ;-)

This page is written as a protest against overcomplexity and bizarre data center atmosphere typical in "semi-outsourced" or fully outsourced datacenters ;-). Unix/Linux sysadmins are being killed by overcomplexity of the environment.  Later swats  of Linux knowledge (and many excellent  books)  were  killed with introduction of systemd. Especially for older, most experience members of the team, who have unique set of organization knowledge as well as specifics of their career which allowed them to watch the development of Linux almost from the version 0.92.

System administration is still a unique area were people with the ability to program can display their own creativity with relative ease and can still enjoy "old style" atmosphere of software development, when you yourself put a specification, implement it, test the program and then use it in daily work. This is a very exciting, unique opportunity that no DevOps can ever provide. Then why an increasing number of sysadmins are far from being excited about working in those positions, or outright want to quick the  field (or, at least, work 4 days a week). And that include sysadmins who have tremendous speed and capability to process and learn new information. Even for them "enough is enough".   The answer is different for each individual sysadmins, but usually is some variation of the following themes: 

  1.  Too rapid pace of change with a lot of "change for the sake of the change"  often serving as smokescreen for outsourcing efforts (VMware yesterday, Azure today, Amazon cloud tomorrow, etc)
  2. Job insecurity due to outsourcing/offshoring -- constant pressure to cut headcount in the name of 'efficiency" which in reality is more connected with the size of top brass bonuses then anything related to IT datacenter functioning.   Sysadmin over 50 are especially vulnerable category here and in case the are laid off have almost no chances to get back into the IT workforce at the previous level of salary/benefits. often the only job they can find is job  as Home Depot, or similar retail outlets. 
  3. Back breaking level of overcomplexity and bizarre tech decisions crippling the data center (aka crapification ). Potemkin-style  culture often prevails in evaluation of software in large US corporations. The surface sheen is more important than the substance. The marketing brochures and manuals are no different from mainstream news media in the level of BS they spew. IBM is especially guilty (look how they marketed IBM Watson; ; as Oren Etzioni, CEO of the Allen Institute for AI noted "the only intelligent thing about Watson was IBM PR department [push]").
  4. Bureaucratization/fossilization of the large companies IT environment. That includes using "Performance Reviews" (prevalent in IT variant of waterboarding ;-) for the enforcement of management policies, priorities, whims, etc.   That creates alienation from the company (as it should). One can think of the modern corporate Data Center as an organization where the administration has more tremendously power in the decision-making process and eats up more of the corporate budget while the people who do the actual work are increasingly ignored and their share of the budget shrinks.
  5. "Neoliberal austerity" (which is essentially another name for the "war on labor") -- Drastic cost cutting measures at the expense of workforce such as elimination of external vendor training, crapification of benefits, limitation of business trips and enforcing useless or outright harmful for business "new" products instead of "tried and true" old with  the same function.    They are accompanied by the new cultural obsession with ‘character’ (as in "he/she has a right character" -- which in "Neoliberal speak" means he/she is a toothless conformist ;-), glorification of groupthink,   and the intensification of surveillance.

As Charlie Schluting noted in 2010: (Enterprise Networking Plane, April 7, 2010)

What happened to the old "sysadmin" of just a few years ago? We've split what used to be the sysadmin into application teams, server teams, storage teams, and network teams. There were often at least a few people, the holders of knowledge, who knew how everything worked, and I mean everything. Every application, every piece of network gear, and how every server was configured -- these people could save a business in times of disaster.

Now look at what we've done. Knowledge is so decentralized we must invent new roles to act as liaisons between all the IT groups.

Architects now hold much of the high-level "how it works" knowledge, but without knowing how any one piece actually does work.

In organizations with more than a few hundred IT staff and developers, it becomes nearly impossible for one person to do and know everything. This movement toward specializing in individual areas seems almost natural. That, however, does not provide a free ticket for people to turn a blind eye.

Specialization

You know the story: Company installs new application, nobody understands it yet, so an expert is hired. Often, the person with a certification in using the new application only really knows how to run that application. Perhaps they aren't interested in learning anything else, because their skill is in high demand right now. And besides, everything else in the infrastructure is run by people who specialize in those elements. Everything is taken care of.

Except, how do these teams communicate when changes need to take place? Are the storage administrators teaching the Windows administrators about storage multipathing; or worse logging in and setting it up because it's faster for the storage gurus to do it themselves? A fundamental level of knowledge is often lacking, which makes it very difficult for teams to brainstorm about new ways evolve IT services. The business environment has made it OK for IT staffers to specialize and only learn one thing.

If you hire someone certified in the application, operating system, or network vendor you use, that is precisely what you get. Certifications may be a nice filter to quickly identify who has direct knowledge in the area you're hiring for, but often they indicate specialization or compensation for lack of experience.

Resource Competition

Does your IT department function as a unit? Even 20-person IT shops have turf wars, so the answer is very likely, "no." As teams are split into more and more distinct operating units, grouping occurs. One IT budget gets split between all these groups. Often each group will have a manager who pitches his needs to upper management in hopes they will realize how important the team is.

The "us vs. them" mentality manifests itself at all levels, and it's reinforced by management having to define each team's worth in the form of a budget. One strategy is to illustrate a doomsday scenario. If you paint a bleak enough picture, you may get more funding. Only if you are careful enough to illustrate the failings are due to lack of capital resources, not management or people. A manager of another group may explain that they are not receiving the correct level of service, so they need to duplicate the efforts of another group and just implement something themselves. On and on, the arguments continue.

Most often, I've seen competition between server groups result in horribly inefficient uses of hardware. For example, what happens in your organization when one team needs more server hardware? Assume that another team has five unused servers sitting in a blade chassis. Does the answer change? No, it does not. Even in test environments, sharing doesn't often happen between IT groups.

With virtualization, some aspects of resource competition get better and some remain the same. When first implemented, most groups will be running their own type of virtualization for their platform. The next step, I've most often seen, is for test servers to get virtualized. If a new group is formed to manage the virtualization infrastructure, virtual machines can be allocated to various application and server teams from a central pool and everyone is now sharing. Or, they begin sharing and then demand their own physical hardware to be isolated from others' resource hungry utilization. This is nonetheless a step in the right direction. Auto migration and guaranteed resource policies can go a long way toward making shared infrastructure, even between competing groups, a viable option.

Blamestorming

The most damaging side effect of splitting into too many distinct IT groups is the reinforcement of an "us versus them" mentality. Aside from the notion that specialization creates a lack of knowledge, blamestorming is what this article is really about. When a project is delayed, it is all too easy to blame another group. The SAN people didn't allocate storage on time, so another team was delayed. That is the timeline of the project, so all work halted until that hiccup was restored. Having someone else to blame when things get delayed makes it all too easy to simply stop working for a while.

More related to the initial points at the beginning of this article, perhaps, is the blamestorm that happens after a system outage.

Say an ERP system becomes unresponsive a few times throughout the day. The application team says it's just slowing down, and they don't know why. The network team says everything is fine. The server team says the application is "blocking on IO," which means it's a SAN issue. The SAN team say there is nothing wrong, and other applications on the same devices are fine. You've ran through nearly every team, but without an answer still. The SAN people don't have access to the application servers to help diagnose the problem. The server team doesn't even know how the application runs.

See the problem? Specialized teams are distinct and by nature adversarial. Specialized staffers often relegate themselves into a niche knowing that as long as they continue working at large enough companies, "someone else" will take care of all the other pieces.

I unfortunately don't have an answer to this problem. Maybe rotating employees between departments will help. They gain knowledge and also get to know other people, which should lessen the propensity to view them as outsiders

The tragic part of the current environment is that it is like shifting sands. And it is not only due to the "natural process of crapification of operating systems" in which the OS gradually loses its architectural integrity. The pace of change is just too fast to adapt for mere humans. And most of it represents "change for the  sake of change" not some valuable improvement or extension of capabilities.

If you are a sysadmin, who is writing  his own scripts, you write on the sand, spending a lot of time thinking over and debugging your scripts. Which raise you productivity and diminish the number of possible errors. But the next OS version wipes considerable part of your word and you need to revise your scripts again. The tale of Sisyphus can now be re-interpreted as a prescient warning about the thankless task of sysadmin to learn new staff and maintain their own script library ;-)  Sometimes a lot of work is wiped out because the corporate brass decides to to switch to a different flavor of Linux, or we add "yet another flavor" due to a large acquisition.  Add to this inevitable technological changes and the question arise, can't you get a more respectable profession, in which 66% of knowledge is not replaced in the next ten years.  

Balkanization of linux demonstrated also in the Babylon  Tower of system programming languages (C, C++, Perl, Python, Ruby, Go, Java to name a few) and systems that supposedly should help you but mostly do quite opposite (Puppet, Ansible, Chef, etc). Add to this monitoring infrastructure (say Nagios) and you definitely have an information overload.

Inadequate training just add to the stress. First of all corporations no longer want to pay for it. So you are your own and need to do it mostly on your free time, as the workload is substantial in most organizations. Using free or low cost courses if they are available, or buying your own books and trying to learn new staff using them (which of course is the mark of any good sysadmin, but should not the only source of new knowledge  Days when you can for a week travel to vendor training center and have a chance to communicate with other admins from different organization for a week (which probably was the most valuable part of the whole exercise; although I can tell that training by Sun (Solaris) and IBM (AIX) in late 1990th was really high quality using highly qualified instructors, from which you can learn a lot outside the main topic of the course.  Thos days are long in the past. Unlike "Trump University" Sun courses could probably have been called "Sun University." Most training now is via Web and chances for face-to-face communication disappeared.  Also from learning "why" the stress now is on learning of "how".  Why topic typically are reserved to "advanced" courses.

Also the necessary to relearn staff again and again (and often new technologies/daemons/version of OS) are iether the same, or even inferior to previous, or represent open scam in which training is the way to extract money from lemmings (Agile, most of DevOps hoopla, etc). This is typical neoliberal mentality (" greed is good") implemented in education. There is also tendency to treat virtual machines and cloud infrastructure as separate technologies, which requires separate training and separate set of certifications (ASW, Asure).  This is a kind of infantilization of profession when a person who learned a lot of staff in previous 10 years need to forget it and relearn most of it again and again.

Of course  sysadmins not the only suffered. Computer scientists also now struggle with  the excessive level of complexity and too quickly shifting sand. Look at the tragedy of Donald Knuth with this life long idea to create comprehensive monograph for system programmers (The Art of Computer programming). He was flattened by the shifting sands and probably will not be able to finish even volume 4 (out of seven that were planned) in his lifetime. 

Of course much  depends on the evolution of hardware and changes caused by the evolution of hardware such as mass introduction of large SSDs, multi-core CPUs and large RAM

Nobody is now surprised to see a server with 128GB of RAM, laptop with  16Gb of RAM, or cellphones with  4GB of RAM and 1GHZ CPU (Please not that IBM Pc stated with 1 MBof RAM (of which only 640KB was available for programs) and 4.7 MHz (not GHz) single core CPU without floating arithmetic unit).  Such changes while  painful are inevitable and hardware progress slowed down recently as it reached physical limits of technology (we probably will not see 2 nanometer lithography based CPU and 8GHz CPU clock speed in our lifetimes. .

 The other are changes caused by fashion and the desire to entrench their position by the dominate player are more difficult to accept. It is difficult or even impossible to predict which technology became fashionable tomorrow and how long DevOp will remain in fashion. Typically such thing last around ten years.  After that everything is typically fades in oblivion,  or even is crossed out, and former idols will be shattered. This strange period of re-invention of "glass-walls datacenter" under then banner of DevOps  (and old timers still remember that IBM datacenters were hated with passion, and this hate created additional non-technological incentive for mini-computers and later for IBM PC)  is characterized by the level of hype usually reserved for woman fashion.  Now it sometimes looks to me that the movie The Devil Wears Prada  is a subtle parable on sysadmin work.

Add to this horrible job  market, especially for university graduated and older sysadmins (see Over 50 and unemployed ) and one probably start suspect that the life of modern sysadmin is far from paradise. When you read some job description  on sites like Monster, Dice or  Indeed you just ask yourself, if those people really want to hire anybody, or this is just a smoke screen for H1B candidates job certification.  The level of details often is so precise that it is almost impossible to change your current specialization. They do not care about the level of talent, they do not want to train a suitable candidate. They want a person who fit 100% from day 1.  Also in place like NYC or SF rent and property prices and valuations are growing while income growth has been stagnant.

Vandalism of Unix performed by Red Hat with RHEL 7 makes the current  environment somewhat unhealthy. It is clear that this was done by the whim of Red Hat brass, not in the interest of the community. This is a typical Microsoft-style trick which make dozens of high quality books written by very talented authors instantly semi-obsolete.  And question arise whether it make sense to write any book about RHEL other then for solid advance.  It generated some backlash, but the position  of Red Hat as Microsoft on Linux  allowed it to shove down the throat their inferior technical decisions. In a way it reminds me the way Microsoft dealt with Windows 7 replacing it with Windows 10.  Essentially destroying previous windows interface ecosystem (while preserving binary compatibility)

See also

Here are my notes/reflection of sysadmin problem that often arise if rather strange (and sometimes pretty toxic) IT departments of large corporations:


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"I appreciate Woody Allen's humor because one of my safety valves is an appreciation for life's absurdities. His message is that life isn't a funeral march to the grave. It's a polka."

-- Dennis Kusinich

[Jun 23, 2019] Test with rsync between two partitions

Jun 23, 2019 | www.fsarchiver.org

An important test is done using rsync. It requires two partitions: the original one, and a spare partition where to restore the archive. It allows to know whether or not there are differences between the original and the restored filesystem. rsync is able to compare both the files contents, and files attributes (timestamps, permissions, owner, extended attributes, acl, ), so that's a very good test. The following command can be used to know whether or not files are the same (data and attributes) on two file-systems:

rsync -axHAXnP /mnt/part1/ /mnt/part2/

[Jun 22, 2019] Using SSH and Tmux for screen sharing Enable by Seth Kenlon Tmux

Jun 22, 2019 | www.redhat.com

Tmux is a screen multiplexer, meaning that it provides your terminal with virtual terminals, allowing you to switch from one virtual session to another. Modern terminal emulators feature a tabbed UI, making the use of Tmux seem redundant, but Tmux has a few peculiar features that still prove difficult to match without it.

First of all, you can launch Tmux on a remote machine, start a process running, detach from Tmux, and then log out. In a normal terminal, logging out would end the processes you started. Since those processes were started in Tmux, they persist even after you leave.

Secondly, Tmux can "mirror" its session on multiple screens. If two users log into the same Tmux session, then they both see the same output on their screens in real time.

Tmux is a lightweight, simple, and effective solution in cases where you're training someone remotely, debugging a command that isn't working for them, reviewing text, monitoring services or processes, or just avoiding the ten minutes it sometimes takes to read commands aloud over a phone clearly enough that your user is able to accurately type them.

To try this option out, you must have two computers. Assume one computer is owned by Alice, and the other by Bob. Alice remotely logs into Bob's PC and launches a Tmux session:

alice$ ssh bob.local
alice$ tmux

On his PC, Bob starts Tmux, attaching to the same session:

bob$ tmux attach

When Alice types, Bob sees what she is typing, and when Bob types, Alice sees what he's typing.

It's a simple but effective trick that enables interactive live sessions between computer users, but it is entirely text-based.

Collaboration

With these two applications, you have access to some powerful methods of supporting users. You can use these tools to manage systems remotely, as training tools, or as support tools, and in every case, it sure beats wandering around the office looking for somebody's desk. Get familiar with SSH and Tmux, and start using them today.

[Jun 20, 2019] Exploring run filesystem on Linux by Sandra Henry-Stocker

Jun 20, 2019 | www.networkworld.com

/run is home to a wide assortment of data. For example, if you take a look at /run/user, you will notice a group of directories with numeric names.

$ ls /run/user
1000  1002  121

A long file listing will clarify the significance of these numbers.

$ ls -l
total 0
drwx------ 5 shs  shs  120 Jun 16 12:44 1000
drwx------ 5 dory dory 120 Jun 16 16:14 1002
drwx------ 8 gdm  gdm  220 Jun 14 12:18 121

This allows us to see that each directory is related to a user who is currently logged in or to the display manager, gdm. The numbers represent their UIDs. The content of each of these directories are files that are used by running processes.

The /run/user files represent only a very small portion of what you'll find in /run. There are lots of other files, as well. A handful contain the process IDs for various system processes.

$ ls *.pid
acpid.pid  atopacctd.pid  crond.pid  rsyslogd.pid
atd.pid    atop.pid       gdm3.pid   sshd.pid

As shown below, that sshd.pid file listed above contains the process ID for the ssh daemon (sshd).

[Jun 19, 2019] America s Suicide Epidemic

Highly recommended!
Notable quotes:
"... A suicide occurs in the United States roughly once every 12 minutes . What's more, after decades of decline, the rate of self-inflicted deaths per 100,000 people annually -- the suicide rate -- has been increasing sharply since the late 1990s. Suicides now claim two-and-a-half times as many lives in this country as do homicides , even though the murder rate gets so much more attention. ..."
"... In some states the upsurge was far higher: North Dakota (57.6%), New Hampshire (48.3%), Kansas (45%), Idaho (43%). ..."
"... Since 2008 , suicide has ranked 10th among the causes of death in this country. For Americans between the ages of 10 and 34, however, it comes in second; for those between 35 and 45, fourth. The United States also has the ninth-highest rate in the 38-country Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. Globally , it ranks 27th. ..."
"... The rates in rural counties are almost double those in the most urbanized ones, which is why states like Idaho, Kansas, New Hampshire, and North Dakota sit atop the suicide list. Furthermore, a far higher percentage of people in rural states own guns than in cities and suburbs, leading to a higher rate of suicide involving firearms, the means used in half of all such acts in this country. ..."
"... Education is also a factor. The suicide rate is lowest among individuals with college degrees. Those who, at best, completed high school are, by comparison, twice as likely to kill themselves. Suicide rates also tend to be lower among people in higher-income brackets. ..."
"... Evidence from the United States , Brazil , Japan , and Sweden does indicate that, as income inequality increases, so does the suicide rate. ..."
"... One aspect of the suicide epidemic is puzzling. Though whites have fared far better economically (and in many other ways) than African Americans, their suicide rate is significantly higher . ..."
"... The higher suicide rate among whites as well as among people with only a high school diploma highlights suicide's disproportionate effect on working-class whites. This segment of the population also accounts for a disproportionate share of what economists Anne Case and Angus Deaton have labeled " deaths of despair " -- those caused by suicides plus opioid overdoses and liver diseases linked to alcohol abuse. Though it's hard to offer a complete explanation for this, economic hardship and its ripple effects do appear to matter. ..."
"... Trump has neglected his base on pretty much every issue; this one's no exception. ..."
Jun 19, 2019 | www.nakedcapitalism.com

Yves here. This post describes how the forces driving the US suicide surge started well before the Trump era, but explains how Trump has not only refused to acknowledge the problem, but has made matters worse.

However, it's not as if the Democrats are embracing this issue either.

BY Rajan Menon, the Anne and Bernard Spitzer Professor of International Relations at the Powell School, City College of New York, and Senior Research Fellow at Columbia University's Saltzman Institute of War and Peace Studies. His latest book is The Conceit of Humanitarian Intervention Originally published at TomDispatch .

We hear a lot about suicide when celebrities like Anthony Bourdain and Kate Spade die by their own hand. Otherwise, it seldom makes the headlines. That's odd given the magnitude of the problem.

In 2017, 47,173 Americans killed themselves. In that single year, in other words, the suicide count was nearly seven times greater than the number of American soldiers killed in the Afghanistan and Iraq wars between 2001 and 2018.

A suicide occurs in the United States roughly once every 12 minutes . What's more, after decades of decline, the rate of self-inflicted deaths per 100,000 people annually -- the suicide rate -- has been increasing sharply since the late 1990s. Suicides now claim two-and-a-half times as many lives in this country as do homicides , even though the murder rate gets so much more attention.

In other words, we're talking about a national epidemic of self-inflicted deaths.

Worrisome Numbers

Anyone who has lost a close relative or friend to suicide or has worked on a suicide hotline (as I have) knows that statistics transform the individual, the personal, and indeed the mysterious aspects of that violent act -- Why this person? Why now? Why in this manner? -- into depersonalized abstractions. Still, to grasp how serious the suicide epidemic has become, numbers are a necessity.

According to a 2018 Centers for Disease Control study , between 1999 and 2016, the suicide rate increased in every state in the union except Nevada, which already had a remarkably high rate. In 30 states, it jumped by 25% or more; in 17, by at least a third. Nationally, it increased 33% . In some states the upsurge was far higher: North Dakota (57.6%), New Hampshire (48.3%), Kansas (45%), Idaho (43%).

Alas, the news only gets grimmer.

Since 2008 , suicide has ranked 10th among the causes of death in this country. For Americans between the ages of 10 and 34, however, it comes in second; for those between 35 and 45, fourth. The United States also has the ninth-highest rate in the 38-country Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. Globally , it ranks 27th.

More importantly, the trend in the United States doesn't align with what's happening elsewhere in the developed world. The World Health Organization, for instance, reports that Great Britain, Canada, and China all have notably lower suicide rates than the U.S., as do all but six countries in the European Union. (Japan's is only slightly lower.)

World Bank statistics show that, worldwide, the suicide rate fell from 12.8 per 100,000 in 2000 to 10.6 in 2016. It's been falling in China , Japan (where it has declined steadily for nearly a decade and is at its lowest point in 37 years), most of Europe, and even countries like South Korea and Russia that have a significantly higher suicide rate than the United States. In Russia, for instance, it has dropped by nearly 26% from a high point of 42 per 100,000 in 1994 to 31 in 2019.

We know a fair amount about the patterns of suicide in the United States. In 2017, the rate was highest for men between the ages of 45 and 64 (30 per 100,000) and those 75 and older (39.7 per 100,000).

The rates in rural counties are almost double those in the most urbanized ones, which is why states like Idaho, Kansas, New Hampshire, and North Dakota sit atop the suicide list. Furthermore, a far higher percentage of people in rural states own guns than in cities and suburbs, leading to a higher rate of suicide involving firearms, the means used in half of all such acts in this country.

There are gender-based differences as well. From 1999 to 2017, the rate for men was substantially higher than for women -- almost four-and-a-half times higher in the first of those years, slightly more than three-and-a-half times in the last.

Education is also a factor. The suicide rate is lowest among individuals with college degrees. Those who, at best, completed high school are, by comparison, twice as likely to kill themselves. Suicide rates also tend to be lower among people in higher-income brackets.

The Economics of Stress

This surge in the suicide rate has taken place in years during which the working class has experienced greater economic hardship and psychological stress. Increased competition from abroad and outsourcing, the results of globalization, have contributed to job loss, particularly in economic sectors like manufacturing, steel, and mining that had long been mainstays of employment for such workers. The jobs still available often paid less and provided fewer benefits.

Technological change, including computerization, robotics, and the coming of artificial intelligence, has similarly begun to displace labor in significant ways, leaving Americans without college degrees, especially those 50 and older, in far more difficult straits when it comes to finding new jobs that pay well. The lack of anything resembling an industrial policy of a sort that exists in Europe has made these dislocations even more painful for American workers, while a sharp decline in private-sector union membership -- down from nearly 17% in 1983 to 6.4% today -- has reduced their ability to press for higher wages through collective bargaining.

Furthermore, the inflation-adjusted median wage has barely budged over the last four decades (even as CEO salaries have soared). And a decline in worker productivity doesn't explain it: between 1973 and 2017 productivity increased by 77%, while a worker's average hourly wage only rose by 12.4%. Wage stagnation has made it harder for working-class Americans to get by, let alone have a lifestyle comparable to that of their parents or grandparents.

The gap in earnings between those at the top and bottom of American society has also increased -- a lot. Since 1979, the wages of Americans in the 10th percentile increased by a pitiful 1.2%. Those in the 50th percentile did a bit better, making a gain of 6%. By contrast, those in the 90th percentile increased by 34.3% and those near the peak of the wage pyramid -- the top 1% and especially the rarefied 0.1% -- made far more substantial gains.

And mind you, we're just talking about wages, not other forms of income like large stock dividends, expensive homes, or eyepopping inheritances. The share of net national wealth held by the richest 0.1% increased from 10% in the 1980s to 20% in 2016. By contrast, the share of the bottom 90% shrank in those same decades from about 35% to 20%. As for the top 1%, by 2016 its share had increased to almost 39% .

The precise relationship between economic inequality and suicide rates remains unclear, and suicide certainly can't simply be reduced to wealth disparities or financial stress. Still, strikingly, in contrast to the United States, suicide rates are noticeably lower and have been declining in Western European countries where income inequalities are far less pronounced, publicly funded healthcare is regarded as a right (not demonized as a pathway to serfdom), social safety nets far more extensive, and apprenticeships and worker retraining programs more widespread.

Evidence from the United States , Brazil , Japan , and Sweden does indicate that, as income inequality increases, so does the suicide rate. If so, the good news is that progressive economic policies -- should Democrats ever retake the White House and the Senate -- could make a positive difference. A study based on state-by-state variations in the U.S. found that simply boosting the minimum wage and Earned Income Tax Credit by 10% appreciably reduces the suicide rate among people without college degrees.

The Race Enigma

One aspect of the suicide epidemic is puzzling. Though whites have fared far better economically (and in many other ways) than African Americans, their suicide rate is significantly higher . It increased from 11.3 per 100,000 in 2000 to 15.85 per 100,000 in 2017; for African Americans in those years the rates were 5.52 per 100,000 and 6.61 per 100,000. Black men are 10 times more likely to be homicide victims than white men, but the latter are two-and-half times more likely to kill themselves.

The higher suicide rate among whites as well as among people with only a high school diploma highlights suicide's disproportionate effect on working-class whites. This segment of the population also accounts for a disproportionate share of what economists Anne Case and Angus Deaton have labeled " deaths of despair " -- those caused by suicides plus opioid overdoses and liver diseases linked to alcohol abuse. Though it's hard to offer a complete explanation for this, economic hardship and its ripple effects do appear to matter.

According to a study by the St. Louis Federal Reserve , the white working class accounted for 45% of all income earned in the United States in 1990, but only 27% in 2016. In those same years, its share of national wealth plummeted, from 45% to 22%. And as inflation-adjusted wages have decreased for men without college degrees, many white workers seem to have lost hope of success of any sort. Paradoxically, the sense of failure and the accompanying stress may be greater for white workers precisely because they traditionally were much better off economically than their African American and Hispanic counterparts.

In addition, the fraying of communities knit together by employment in once-robust factories and mines has increased social isolation among them, and the evidence that it -- along with opioid addiction and alcohol abuse -- increases the risk of suicide is strong . On top of that, a significantly higher proportion of whites than blacks and Hispanics own firearms, and suicide rates are markedly higher in states where gun ownership is more widespread.

Trump's Faux Populism

The large increase in suicide within the white working class began a couple of decades before Donald Trump's election. Still, it's reasonable to ask what he's tried to do about it, particularly since votes from these Americans helped propel him to the White House. In 2016, he received 64% of the votes of whites without college degrees; Hillary Clinton, only 28%. Nationwide, he beat Clinton in counties where deaths of despair rose significantly between 2000 and 2015.

White workers will remain crucial to Trump's chances of winning in 2020. Yet while he has spoken about, and initiated steps aimed at reducing, the high suicide rate among veterans , his speeches and tweets have never highlighted the national suicide epidemic or its inordinate impact on white workers. More importantly, to the extent that economic despair contributes to their high suicide rate, his policies will only make matters worse.

The real benefits from the December 2017 Tax Cuts and Jobs Act championed by the president and congressional Republicans flowed to those on the top steps of the economic ladder. By 2027, when the Act's provisions will run out, the wealthiest Americans are expected to have captured 81.8% of the gains. And that's not counting the windfall they received from recent changes in taxes on inheritances. Trump and the GOP doubled the annual amount exempt from estate taxes -- wealth bequeathed to heirs -- through 2025 from $5.6 million per individual to $11.2 million (or $22.4 million per couple). And who benefits most from this act of generosity? Not workers, that's for sure, but every household with an estate worth $22 million or more will.

As for job retraining provided by the Workforce Innovation and Opportunity Act, the president proposed cutting that program by 40% in his 2019 budget, later settling for keeping it at 2017 levels. Future cuts seem in the cards as long as Trump is in the White House. The Congressional Budget Office projects that his tax cuts alone will produce even bigger budget deficits in the years to come. (The shortfall last year was $779 billion and it is expected to reach $1 trillion by 2020.) Inevitably, the president and congressional Republicans will then demand additional reductions in spending for social programs.

This is all the more likely because Trump and those Republicans also slashed corporate taxes from 35% to 21% -- an estimated $1.4 trillion in savings for corporations over the next decade. And unlike the income tax cut, the corporate tax has no end date . The president assured his base that the big bucks those companies had stashed abroad would start flowing home and produce a wave of job creation -- all without adding to the deficit. As it happens, however, most of that repatriated cash has been used for corporate stock buy-backs, which totaled more than $800 billion last year. That, in turn, boosted share prices, but didn't exactly rain money down on workers. No surprise, of course, since the wealthiest 10% of Americans own at least 84% of all stocks and the bottom 60% have less than 2% of them.

And the president's corporate tax cut hasn't produced the tsunami of job-generating investments he predicted either. Indeed, in its aftermath, more than 80% of American companies stated that their plans for investment and hiring hadn't changed. As a result, the monthly increase in jobs has proven unremarkable compared to President Obama's second term, when the economic recovery that Trump largely inherited began. Yes, the economy did grow 2.3% in 2017 and 2.9% in 2018 (though not 3.1% as the president claimed). There wasn't, however, any "unprecedented economic boom -- a boom that has rarely been seen before" as he insisted in this year's State of the Union Address .

Anyway, what matters for workers struggling to get by is growth in real wages, and there's nothing to celebrate on that front: between 2017 and mid-2018 they actually declined by 1.63% for white workers and 2.5% for African Americans, while they rose for Hispanics by a measly 0.37%. And though Trump insists that his beloved tariff hikes are going to help workers, they will actually raise the prices of goods, hurting the working class and other low-income Americans the most .

Then there are the obstacles those susceptible to suicide face in receiving insurance-provided mental-health care. If you're a white worker without medical coverage or have a policy with a deductible and co-payments that are high and your income, while low, is too high to qualify for Medicaid, Trump and the GOP haven't done anything for you. Never mind the president's tweet proclaiming that "the Republican Party Will Become 'The Party of Healthcare!'"

Let me amend that: actually, they have done something. It's just not what you'd call helpful. The percentage of uninsured adults, which fell from 18% in 2013 to 10.9% at the end of 2016, thanks in no small measure to Obamacare , had risen to 13.7% by the end of last year.

The bottom line? On a problem that literally has life-and-death significance for a pivotal portion of his base, Trump has been AWOL. In fact, to the extent that economic strain contributes to the alarming suicide rate among white workers, his policies are only likely to exacerbate what is already a national crisis of epidemic proportions.


Seamus Padraig , June 19, 2019 at 6:46 am

Trump has neglected his base on pretty much every issue; this one's no exception.

DanB , June 19, 2019 at 8:55 am

Trump is running on the claim that he's turned the economy around; addressing suicide undermines this (false) claim. To state the obvious, NC readers know that Trump is incapable of caring about anyone or anything beyond his in-the-moment interpretation of his self-interest.

JCC , June 19, 2019 at 9:25 am

Not just Trump. Most of the Republican Party and much too many Democrats have also abandoned this base, otherwise known as working class Americans.

The economic facts are near staggering and this article has done a nice job of summarizing these numbers that are spread out across a lot of different sites.

I've experienced this rise within my own family and probably because of that fact I'm well aware that Trump is only a symptom of an entire political system that has all but abandoned it's core constituency, the American Working Class.

sparagmite , June 19, 2019 at 10:13 am

Yep It's not just Trump. The author mentions this, but still focuses on him for some reason. Maybe accurately attributing the problems to a failed system makes people feel more hopeless. Current nihilists in Congress make it their duty to destroy once helpful institutions in the name of "fiscal responsibility," i.e., tax cuts for corporate elites.

dcblogger , June 19, 2019 at 12:20 pm

Maybe because Trump is president and bears the greatest responsibility in this particular time. A great piece and appreciate all the documentation.

Svante , June 19, 2019 at 7:00 am

I'd assumed, the "working class" had dissappeared, back during Reagan's Miracle? We'd still see each other, sitting dazed on porches & stoops of rented old places they'd previously; trying to garden, fix their car while smoking, drinking or dazed on something? Those able to morph into "middle class" lives, might've earned substantially less, especially benefits and retirement package wise. But, a couple decades later, it was their turn, as machines and foreigners improved productivity. You could lease a truck to haul imported stuff your kids could sell to each other, or help robots in some warehouse, but those 80s burger flipping, rent-a-cop & repo-man gigs dried up. Your middle class pals unemployable, everybody in PayDay Loan debt (without any pay day in sight?) SHTF Bug-out bags® & EZ Credit Bushmasters began showing up at yard sales, even up North. Opioids became the religion of the proletariat Whites simply had much farther to fall, more equity for our betters to steal. And it was damned near impossible to get the cops to shoot you?

Man, this just ain't turning out as I'd hoped. Need coffee!

Svante , June 19, 2019 at 7:55 am

We especially love the euphemism "Deaths O' Despair." since it works so well on a Chyron, especially supered over obese crackers waddling in crusty MossyOak™ Snuggies®

https://mobile.twitter.com/BernieSanders/status/1140998287933300736
https://m.youtube.com/watch?v=apxZvpzq4Mw

DanB , June 19, 2019 at 9:29 am

This is a very good article, but I have a comment about the section titled, "The Race Enigma." I think the key to understanding why African Americans have a lower suicide rate lies in understanding the sociological notion of community, and the related concept Emil Durkheim called social solidarity. This sense of solidarity and community among African Americans stands in contrast to the "There is no such thing as society" neoliberal zeitgeist that in fact produces feelings of extreme isolation, failure, and self-recriminations. An aside: as a white boy growing up in 1950s-60s Detroit I learned that if you yearned for solidarity and community what you had to do was to hang out with black people.

Amfortas the hippie , June 19, 2019 at 2:18 pm

" if you yearned for solidarity and community what you had to do was to hang out with black people."
amen, to that. in my case rural black people.
and I'll add Hispanics to that.
My wife's extended Familia is so very different from mine.
Solidarity/Belonging is cool.
I recommend it.
on the article we keep the scanner on("local news").we had a 3-4 year rash of suicides and attempted suicides(determined by chisme, or deduction) out here.
all of them were despair related more than half correlated with meth addiction itself a despair related thing.
ours were equally male/female, and across both our color spectrum.
that leaves economics/opportunity/just being able to get by as the likely cause.

David B Harrison , June 19, 2019 at 10:05 am

What's left out here is the vast majority of these suicides are men.

Christy , June 19, 2019 at 1:53 pm

Actually, in the article it states:
"There are gender-based differences as well. From 1999 to 2017, the rate for men was substantially higher than for women -- almost four-and-a-half times higher in the first of those years, slightly more than three-and-a-half times in the last."

jrs , June 19, 2019 at 1:58 pm

which in some sense makes despair the wrong word, as females are actually quite a bit more likely to be depressed for instance, but much less likely to "do the deed". Despair if we mean a certain social context maybe, but not just a psychological state.

Ex-Pralite Monk , June 19, 2019 at 10:10 am

obese cracker

You lay off the racial slur "cracker" and I'll lay off the racial slur "nigger". Deal?

rd , June 19, 2019 at 10:53 am

Suicide deaths are a function of the suicide attempt rate and the efficacy of the method used. A unique aspect of the US is the prevalence of guns in the society and therefore the greatly increased usage of them in suicide attempts compared to other countries. Guns are a very efficient way of committing suicide with a very high "success" rate. As of 2010, half of US suicides were using a gun as opposed to other countries with much lower percentages. So if the US comes even close to other countries in suicide rates then the US will surpass them in deaths. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Suicide_methods#Firearms

Now we can add in opiates, especially fentanyl, that can be quite effective as well.

The economic crisis hitting middle America over the past 30 years has been quite focused on the states and populations that also tend to have high gun ownership rates. So suicide attempts in those populations have a high probability of "success".

Joe Well , June 19, 2019 at 11:32 am

I would just take this opportunity to add that the police end up getting called in to prevent on lot of suicide attempts, and just about every successful one.

In the face of so much blanket demonization of the police, along with justified criticism, it's important to remember that.

B:H , June 19, 2019 at 11:44 am

As someone who works in the mental health treatment system, acute inpatient psychiatry to be specific, I can say that of the 25 inpatients currently here, 11 have been here before, multiple times. And this is because of several issues, in my experience: inadequate inpatient resources, staff burnout, inadequate support once they leave the hospital, and the nature of their illnesses. It's a grim picture here and it's been this way for YEARS. Until MAJOR money is spent on this issue it's not going to get better. This includes opening more facilities for people to live in long term, instead of closing them, which has been the trend I've seen.

B:H , June 19, 2019 at 11:53 am

One last thing the CEO wants "asses in beds", aka census, which is the money maker. There's less profit if people get better and don't return. And I guess I wouldn't have a job either. Hmmmm: sickness generates wealth.

[Jun 18, 2019] Introduction to Bash Shell Parameter Expansions

Jun 18, 2019 | linuxconfig.org

Before proceeding further, let me give you one tip. In the example above the shell tried to expand a non-existing variable, producing a blank result. This can be very dangerous, especially when working with path names, therefore, when writing scripts, it's always recommended to use the nounset option which causes the shell to exit with error whenever a non existing variable is referenced:

$ set -o nounset
$ echo "You are reading this article on $site_!"
bash: site_: unbound variable
Working with indirection

The use of the ${!parameter} syntax, adds a level of indirection to our parameter expansion. What does it mean? The parameter which the shell will try to expand is not parameter ; instead it will try to use the the value of parameter as the name of the variable to be expanded. Let's explain this with an example. We all know the HOME variable expands in the path of the user home directory in the system, right?

$ echo "${HOME}"
/home/egdoc

Very well, if now we assign the string "HOME", to another variable, and use this type of expansion, we obtain:

$ variable_to_inspect="HOME"
$ echo "${!variable_to_inspect}"
/home/egdoc

As you can see in the example above, instead of obtaining "HOME" as a result, as it would have happened if we performed a simple expansion, the shell used the value of variable_to_inspect as the name of the variable to expand, that's why we talk about a level of indirection.

Case modification expansion

This parameter expansion syntax let us change the case of the alphabetic characters inside the string resulting from the expansion of the parameter. Say we have a variable called name ; to capitalize the text returned by the expansion of the variable we would use the ${parameter^} syntax:

$ name="egidio"
$ echo "${name^}"
Egidio

What if we want to uppercase the entire string, instead of capitalize it? Easy! we use the ${parameter^^} syntax:

$ echo "${name^^}"
EGIDIO

Similarly, to lowercase the first character of a string, we use the ${parameter,} expansion syntax:

$ name="EGIDIO"
$ echo "${name,}"
eGIDIO

To lowercase the entire string, instead, we use the ${parameter,,} syntax:

$ name="EGIDIO"
$ echo "${name,,}"
egidio

In all cases a pattern to match a single character can also be provided. When the pattern is provided the operation is applied only to the parts of the original string that matches it:

$ name="EGIDIO"
$ echo "${name,,[DIO]}"
EGidio

me name=


In the example above we enclose the characters in square brackets: this causes anyone of them to be matched as a pattern.

When using the expansions we explained in this paragraph and the parameter is an array subscripted by @ or * , the operation is applied to all the elements contained in it:

$ my_array=(one two three)
$ echo "${my_array[@]^^}"
ONE TWO THREE

When the index of a specific element in the array is referenced, instead, the operation is applied only to it:

$ my_array=(one two three)
$ echo "${my_array[2]^^}"
THREE
Substring removal

The next syntax we will examine allows us to remove a pattern from the beginning or from the end of string resulting from the expansion of a parameter.

Remove matching pattern from the beginning of the string

The next syntax we will examine, ${parameter#pattern} , allows us to remove a pattern from the beginning of the string resulting from the parameter expansion:

$ name="Egidio"
$ echo "${name#Egi}"
dio

A similar result can be obtained by using the "${parameter##pattern}" syntax, but with one important difference: contrary to the one we used in the example above, which removes the shortest matching pattern from the beginning of the string, it removes the longest one. The difference is clearly visible when using the * character in the pattern :

$ name="Egidio Docile"
$ echo "${name#*i}"
dio Docile

In the example above we used * as part of the pattern that should be removed from the string resulting by the expansion of the name variable. This wildcard matches any character, so the pattern itself translates in "'i' character and everything before it". As we already said, when we use the ${parameter#pattern} syntax, the shortest matching pattern is removed, in this case it is "Egi". Let's see what happens when we use the "${parameter##pattern}" syntax instead:

$ name="Egidio Docile"
$ echo "${name##*i}"
le

This time the longest matching pattern is removed ("Egidio Doci"): the longest possible match includes the third 'i' and everything before it. The result of the expansion is just "le".

Remove matching pattern from the end of the string

The syntax we saw above remove the shortest or longest matching pattern from the beginning of the string. If we want the pattern to be removed from the end of the string, instead, we must use the ${parameter%pattern} or ${parameter%%pattern} expansions, to remove, respectively, the shortest and longest match from the end of the string:

$ name="Egidio Docile"
$ echo "${name%i*}"
Egidio Doc

In this example the pattern we provided roughly translates in "'i' character and everything after it starting from the end of the string". The shortest match is "ile", so what is returned is "Egidio Doc". If we try the same example but we use the syntax which removes the longest match we obtain:

$ name="Egidio Docile"
$ echo "${name%%i*}"
Eg

In this case the once the longest match is removed, what is returned is "Eg".

In all the expansions we saw above, if parameter is an array and it is subscripted with * or @ , the removal of the matching pattern is applied to all its elements:

$ my_array=(one two three)
$ echo "${my_array[@]#*o}"
ne three

me name=


Search and replace pattern

We used the previous syntax to remove a matching pattern from the beginning or from the end of the string resulting from the expansion of a parameter. What if we want to replace pattern with something else? We can use the ${parameter/pattern/string} or ${parameter//pattern/string} syntax. The former replaces only the first occurrence of the pattern, the latter all the occurrences:

$ phrase="yellow is the sun and yellow is the
lemon"
$ echo "${phrase/yellow/red}"
red is the sun and yellow is the lemon

The parameter (phrase) is expanded, and the longest match of the pattern (yellow) is matched against it. The match is then replaced by the provided string (red). As you can observe only the first occurrence is replaced, so the lemon remains yellow! If we want to change all the occurrences of the pattern, we must prefix it with the / character:

$ phrase="yellow is the sun and yellow is the
lemon"
$ echo "${phrase//yellow/red}"
red is the sun and red is the lemon

This time all the occurrences of "yellow" has been replaced by "red". As you can see the pattern is matched wherever it is found in the string resulting from the expansion of parameter . If we want to specify that it must be matched only at the beginning or at the end of the string, we must prefix it respectively with the # or % character.

Just like in the previous cases, if parameter is an array subscripted by either * or @ , the substitution happens in each one of its elements:

$ my_array=(one two three)
$ echo "${my_array[@]/o/u}"
une twu three
Substring expansion

The ${parameter:offset} and ${parameter:offset:length} expansions let us expand only a part of the parameter, returning a substring starting at the specified offset and length characters long. If the length is not specified the expansion proceeds until the end of the original string. This type of expansion is called substring expansion :

$ name="Egidio Docile"
$ echo "${name:3}"
dio Docile

In the example above we provided just the offset , without specifying the length , therefore the result of the expansion was the substring obtained by starting at the character specified by the offset (3).

If we specify a length, the substring will start at offset and will be length characters long:

$ echo "${name:3:3}"
dio

If the offset is negative, it is calculated from the end of the string. In this case an additional space must be added after : otherwise the shell will consider it as another type of expansion identified by :- which is used to provide a default value if the parameter to be expanded doesn't exist (we talked about it in the article about managing the expansion of empty or unset bash variables ):

$ echo "${name: -6}"
Docile

If the provided length is negative, instead of being interpreted as the total number of characters the resulting string should be long, it is considered as an offset to be calculated from the end of the string. The result of the expansion will therefore be a substring starting at offset and ending at length characters from the end of the original string:

$ echo "${name:7:-3}"
Doc

When using this expansion and parameter is an indexed array subscribed by * or @ , the offset is relative to the indexes of the array elements. For example:

$ my_array=(one two three)
$ echo "${my_array[@]:0:2}"
one two
$ echo "${my_array[@]: -2}"
two three

[Jun 17, 2019] Accessing remote desktops by Seth Kenlon

Jun 17, 2019 | www.redhat.com

Accessing remote desktops Need to see what's happening on someone else's screen? Here's what you need to know about accessing remote desktops.

Posted June 13, 2019 | by Seth Kenlon (Red Hat) Anyone who's worked a support desk has had the experience: sometimes, no matter how descriptive your instructions, and no matter how concise your commands, it's just easier and quicker for everyone involved to share screens. Likewise, anyone who's ever maintained a server located in a loud and chilly data center -- or across town, or the world -- knows that often a remote viewer is the easiest method for viewing distant screens.

Linux is famously capable of being managed without seeing a GUI, but that doesn't mean you have to manage your box that way. If you need to see the desktop of a computer that you're not physically in front of, there are plenty of tools for the job.

Barriers

Half the battle of successfully screen sharing is getting into the target computer. That's by design, of course. It should be difficult to get into a computer without explicit consent.

Usually, there are up to 3 blockades for accessing a remote machine:

  1. The network firewall
  2. The target computer's firewall
  3. Screen share settings

Specific instruction on how to get past each barrier is impossible. Every network and every computer is configured uniquely, but here are some possible solutions.

Barrier 1: The network firewall

A network firewall is the target computer's LAN entry point, often a part of the router (whether an appliance from an Internet Service Provider or a dedicated server in a rack). In order to pass through the firewall and access a computer remotely, your network firewall must be configured so that the appropriate port for the remote desktop protocol you're using is accessible.

The most common, and most universal, protocol for screen sharing is VNC.

If the network firewall is on a Linux server you can access, you can broadly allow VNC traffic to pass through using firewall-cmd , first by getting your active zone, and then by allowing VNC traffic in that zone:

$ sudo firewall-cmd --get-active-zones
example-zone
  interfaces: enp0s31f6
$ sudo firewall-cmd --add-service=vnc-server --zone=example-zone

If you're not comfortable allowing all VNC traffic into the network, add a rich rule to firewalld in order to let in VNC traffic from only your IP address. For example, using an example IP address of 93.184.216.34, a rule to allow VNC traffic is:

$ sudo firewall-cmd \
--add-rich-rule='rule family="ipv4" source address="93.184.216.34" service name=vnc-server accept'

To ensure the firewall changes were made, reload the rules:

$ sudo firewall-cmd --reload

If network reconfiguration isn't possible, see the section "Screen sharing through a browser."

Barrier 2: The computer's firewall

Most personal computers have built-in firewalls. Users who are mindful of security may actively manage their firewall. Others, though, blissfully trust their default settings. This means that when you're trying to access their computer for screen sharing, their firewall may block incoming remote connection requests without the user even realizing it. Your request to view their screen may successfully pass through the network firewall only to be silently dropped by the target computer's firewall.

Changing zones in Linux.

To remedy this problem, have the user either lower their firewall or, on Fedora and RHEL, place their computer into the trusted zone. Do this only for the duration of the screen sharing session. Alternatively, have them add either one of the rules you added to the network firewall (if your user is on Linux).

A reboot is a simple way to ensure the new firewall setting is instantiated, so that's probably the easiest next step for your user. Power users can instead reload the firewall rules manually :

$ sudo firewall-cmd --reload

If you have a user override their computer's default firewall, remember to close the session by instructing them to re-enable the default firewall zone. Don't leave the door open behind you!

Barrier 3: The computer's screen share settings

To share another computer's screen, the target computer must be running remote desktop software (technically, a remote desktop server , since this software listens to incoming requests). Otherwise, you have nothing to connect to.

Some desktops, like GNOME, provide screen sharing options, which means you don't have to launch a separate screen sharing application. To activate screen sharing in GNOME, open Settings and select Sharing from the left column. In the Sharing panel, click on Screen Sharing and toggle it on:

Remote desktop viewers

There are a number of remote desktop viewers out there. Here are some of the best options.

GNOME Remote Desktop Viewer

The GNOME Remote Desktop Viewer application is codenamed Vinagre . It's a simple application that supports multiple protocols, including VNC, Spice, RDP, and SSH. Vinagre's interface is intuitive, and yet this application offers many options, including whether you want to control the target computer or only view it.

If Vinagre's not already installed, use your distribution's package manager to add it. On Red Hat Enterprise Linux and Fedora , use:

$ sudo dnf install vinagre

In order to open Vinagre, go to the GNOME desktop's Activities menu and launch Remote Desktop Viewer . Once it opens, click the Connect button in the top left corner. In the Connect window that appears, select the VNC protocol. In the Host field, enter the IP address of the computer you're connecting to. If you want to use the computer's hostname instead, you must have a valid DNS service in place, or Avahi , or entries in /etc/hosts . Do not prepend your entry with a username.

Select any additional options you prefer, and then click Connect .

If you use the GNOME Remote Desktop Viewer as a full-screen application, move your mouse to the screen's top center to reveal additional controls. Most importantly, the exit fullscreen button.

If you're connecting to a Linux virtual machine, you can use the Spice protocol instead. Spice is robust, lightweight, and transmits both audio and video, usually with no noticeable lag.

TigerVNC and TightVNC

Sometimes you're not on a Linux machine, so the GNOME Remote Desktop Viewer isn't available. As usual, open source has an answer. In fact, open source has several answers, but two popular ones are TigerVNC and TightVNC , which are both cross-platform VNC viewers. TigerVNC offers separate downloads for each platform, while TightVNC has a universal Java client.

Both of these clients are simple, with additional options included in case you need them. The defaults are generally acceptable. In order for these particular clients to connect, turn off the encryption setting for GNOME's embedded VNC server (codenamed Vino) as follows:

$ gsettings set org.gnome.Vino require-encryption false

This modification must be done on the target computer before you attempt to connect, either in person or over SSH.

Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7 remoted to RHEL 8 with TightVNC

Use the option for an SSH tunnel to ensure that your VNC connection is fully encrypted.

Screen sharing through a browser

If network re-configuration is out of the question, sharing over an online meeting or collaboration platform is yet another option. The best open source platform for this is Nextcloud , which offers screen sharing over plain old HTTPS. With no firewall exceptions and no additional encryption required, Nextcloud's Talk app provides video and audio chat, plus whole-screen sharing using WebRTC technology.

This option requires a Nextcloud installation, but given that it's the best open source groupware package out there, it's probably worth looking at if you're not already running an instance. You can install Nextcloud yourself, or you can purchase hosting from Nextcloud.

To install the Talk app, go to Nextcloud's app store. Choose the Social & Communication category and then select the Talk plugin.

Next, add a user for the target computer's owner. Have them log into Nextcloud, and then click on the Talk app in the top left of the browser window.

When you start a new chat with your user, they'll be prompted by their browser to allow notifications from Nextcloud. Whether they accept or decline, Nextcloud's interface alerts them of the incoming call in the notification area at the top right corner.

Once you're in the call with your remote user, have them click on the Share screen button at the bottom of their chat window.

Remote screens

Screen sharing can be an easy method of support as long as you plan ahead so your network and clients support it from trusted sources. Integrate VNC into your support plan early, and use screen sharing to help your users get better at what they do. Topics: Linux Seth Kenlon Seth Kenlon is a free culture advocate and UNIX geek.

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[Jun 17, 2019] How to use tee command in Linux by Fahmida Yesmin

Several examples. Mostly trivial. But a couple are interesting.
Notable quotes:
"... `tee` command can be used to store the output of any command into more than one files. ..."
"... `tee` command with '-i' option is used in this example to ignore any interrupt at the time of command execution. ..."
Jun 17, 2019 | linuxhint.com

Example-3: Writing the output into multiple files

`tee` command can be used to store the output of any command into more than one files. You have to write the file names with space to do this task. Run the following commands to store the output of `date` command into two files, output1.txt, and output2.txt.

$ date | tee output1.txt output2.txt
$ cat output1.txt output2.txt

... ... ...

Example-4: Ignoring interrupt signal

`tee` command with '-i' option is used in this example to ignore any interrupt at the time of command execution. So, the command will execute properly even the user presses CTRL+C. Run the following commands from the terminal and check the output.

$ wc -l output.txt | tee -i output3.txt
$ cat output.txt
$ cat output3.txt

... ... ...

Example-5: Passing `tee` command output into another command

The output of the `tee` command can be passed to another command by using the pipe. In this example, the first command output is passed to `tee` command and the output of `tee` command is passed to another command. Run the following commands from the terminal.

$ ls | tee output4.txt | wc -lcw
$ ls
$ cat output4.txt

Output:
... ... ...

[Jun 10, 2019] Screen Command Examples To Manage Multiple Terminal Sessions

Jun 10, 2019 | www.ostechnix.com

OSTechNix

Screen Command Examples To Manage Multiple Terminal Sessions

by sk · Published June 6, 2019 · Updated June 7, 2019

Screen Command Examples To Manage Multiple Terminal Sessions GNU Screen is a terminal multiplexer (window manager). As the name says, Screen multiplexes the physical terminal between multiple interactive shells, so we can perform different tasks in each terminal session. All screen sessions run their programs completely independent. So, a program or process running inside a screen session will keep running even if the session is accidentally closed or disconnected. For instance, when upgrading Ubuntu server via SSH, Screen command will keep running the upgrade process just in case your SSH session is terminated for any reason.

The GNU Screen allows us to easily create multiple screen sessions, switch between different sessions, copy text between sessions, attach or detach from a session at any time and so on. It is one of the important command line tool every Linux admins should learn and use wherever necessary. In this brief guide, we will see the basic usage of Screen command with examples in Linux.

Installing GNU Screen

GNU Screen is available in the default repositories of most Linux operating systems.

To install GNU Screen on Arch Linux, run:

$ sudo pacman -S screen

On Debian, Ubuntu, Linux Mint:

$ sudo apt-get install screen

On Fedora:

$ sudo dnf install screen

On RHEL, CentOS:

$ sudo yum install screen

On SUSE/openSUSE:

$ sudo zypper install screen

Let us go ahead and see some screen command examples.

Screen Command Examples To Manage Multiple Terminal Sessions

The default prefix shortcut to all commands in Screen is Ctrl+a . You need to use this shortcut a lot when using Screen. So, just remember this keyboard shortcut.

Create new Screen session

Let us create a new Screen session and attach to it. To do so, type the following command in terminal:

screen

Now, run any program or process inside this session. The running process or program will keep running even if you're disconnected from this session.

Detach from Screen sessions

To detach from inside a screen session, press Ctrl+a and d . You don't have to press the both key combinations at the same time. First press Ctrl+a and then press d . After detaching from a session, you will see an output something like below.

[detached from 29149.pts-0.sk]

Here, 29149 is the screen ID and pts-0.sk is the name of the screen session. You can attach, detach and kill Screen sessions using either screen ID or name of the respective session.

Create a named session

You can also create a screen session with any custom name of your choice other than the default username like below.

screen -S ostechnix

The above command will create a new screen session with name "xxxxx.ostechnix" and attach to it immediately. To detach from the current session, press Ctrl+a followed by d .

Naming screen sessions can be helpful when you want to find which processes are running on which sessions. For example, when a setup LAMP stack inside a session, you can simply name it like below.

screen -S lampstack
Create detached sessions

Sometimes, you might want to create a session, but don't want to attach it automatically. In such cases, run the following command to create detached session named "senthil" :

screen -S senthil -d -m

Or, shortly:

screen -dmS senthil

The above command will create a session called "senthil", but won't attach to it.

List Screen sessions

To list all running sessions (attached or detached), run:

screen -ls

Sample output:

There are screens on:
	29700.senthil	(Detached)
	29415.ostechnix	(Detached)
	29149.pts-0.sk	(Detached)
3 Sockets in /run/screens/S-sk.

As you can see, I have three running sessions and all are detached.

Attach to Screen sessions

If you want to attach to a session at any time, for example 29415.ostechnix , simply run:

screen -r 29415.ostechnix

Or,

screen -r ostechnix

Or, just use the screen ID:

screen -r 29415

To verify if we are attached to the aforementioned session, simply list the open sessions and check.

screen -ls

Sample output:

There are screens on:
        29700.senthil   (Detached)
        29415.ostechnix (Attached)
        29149.pts-0.sk  (Detached)
3 Sockets in /run/screens/S-sk.

As you see in the above output, we are currently attached to 29415.ostechnix session. To exit from the current session, press ctrl+a, d.

Create nested sessions

When we run "screen" command, it will create a single session for us. We can, however, create nested sessions (a session inside a session).

First, create a new session or attach to an opened session. I am going to create a new session named "nested".

screen -S nested

Now, press Ctrl+a and c inside the session to create another session. Just repeat this to create any number of nested Screen sessions. Each session will be assigned with a number. The number will start from 0 .

You can move to the next session by pressing Ctrl+n and move to previous by pressing Ctrl+p .

Here is the list of important Keyboard shortcuts to manage nested sessions.

Lock sessions

Screen has an option to lock a screen session. To do so, press Ctrl+a and x . Enter your Linux password to lock the screen.

Screen used by sk <sk> on ubuntuserver.
Password:
Logging sessions

You might want to log everything when you're in a Screen session. To do so, just press Ctrl+a and H .

Alternatively, you can enable the logging when starting a new session using -L parameter.

screen -L

From now on, all activities you've done inside the session will recorded and stored in a file named screenlog.x in your $HOME directory. Here, x is a number.

You can view the contents of the log file using cat command or any text viewer applications.

Log screen sessions

Log screen sessions


Suggested read:


Kill Screen sessions

If a session is not required anymore, just kill it. To kill a detached session named "senthil":

screen -r senthil -X quit

Or,

screen -X -S senthil quit

Or,

screen -X -S 29415 quit

If there are no open sessions, you will see the following output:

$ screen -ls
No Sockets found in /run/screens/S-sk.

For more details, refer man pages.

$ man screen

There is also a similar command line utility named "Tmux" which does the same job as GNU Screen. To know more about it, refer the following guide.

Resource:

[Jun 06, 2019] For Profit College, Student Loan Default, and the Economic Impact of Student Loans

We should object to the neoliberal complete "instumentalization" of education: education became just a mean to get nicely paid job. And even this hope is mostly an illusion for all but the top 5% of students...
And while students share their own part of responsibility for accumulating the debt the predatory behaviour of neoliberal universities is an important factor that should not be discounted and perpetrators should be held responsible. Especially dirty tricks of ballooning its size and pushing students into "hopeless" specialties, which would be fine, if they were sons or daughters of well to do and parent still support then financially.
Actually neoliberalism justifies predatory behaviour and as such is a doomed social system as without solidarity some members of financial oligarchy that rules the country sooner or later might hand from the lampposts.
Notable quotes:
"... It also never ceases to amaze me the number of anti-educational opinions which flare up when the discussion of student loan default arises. There are always those who will prophesize there is no need to attain a higher level of education as anyone could be something else and be successful and not require a higher level of education. Or they come forth with the explanation on how young 18 year-olds and those already struggling should be able to ascertain the risk of higher debt when the cards are already stacked against them legally. ..."
"... There does not appear to be much movement on the part of Congress to reconcile the issues in favor of students as opposed to the non-profit and for profit institutes. ..."
"... It's easy to explain, really. According to the Department of Education ( https://studentaid.ed.gov/sa/repay-loans/understand/plans ) you're going to be paying off that loan at minimum payments for 25 years. Assuming your average bachelor's degree is about $30k if you go all-loans ( http://collegecost.ed.gov/catc/ ) and the average student loan interest rate is a generous 5% ( http://www.direct.ed.gov/calc.html ), you're going to be paying $175 a month for a sizable chunk of your adult life. ..."
"... Majoring in IT or Computer Science would have a been a great move in the late 1990's; however, if you graduated around 2000, you likely would have found yourself facing a tough job market.. Likewise, majoring in petroleum engineering or petroleum geology would have seemed like a good move a couple of years ago; however, now that oil prices are crashing, it's presumably a much tougher job market. ..."
"... To confuse going to college with vocational education is to commit a major category error. I think bright, ambitious high school graduates– who are looking for upward social mobility– would be far better served by a plumbing or carpentry apprenticeship program. A good plumber can earn enough money to send his or her children to Yale to study Dante, Boccaccio, and Chaucer. ..."
"... A bright working class kid who goes off to New Haven, to study medieval lit, will need tremendous luck to overcome the enormous class prejudice she will face in trying to establish herself as a tenure-track academic. If she really loves medieval literature for its own sake, then to study it deeply will be "worth it" even if she finds herself working as a barista or store-clerk. ..."
"... As a middle-aged doctoral student in the humanities you should not even be thinking much about your loans. Write the most brilliant thesis that you can, get a book or some decent articles published from it– and swim carefully in the shark-infested waters of academia until you reach the beautiful island of tenured full-professorship. If that island turns out to be an ever-receding mirage, sell your soul to our corporate overlords and pay back your loans! Alternatively, tune in, drop out, and use your finely tuned research and rhetorical skills to help us overthrow the kleptocratic regime that oppresses us all!! ..."
"... Genuine education should provide one with profound contentment, grateful for the journey taken, and a deep appreciation of life. ..."
"... Instead many of us are left confused – confusing career training (redundant and excessive, as it turned out, unfortunate for the student, though not necessarily bad for those on the supply side, one must begrudgingly admit – oops, there goes one's serenity) with enlightenment. ..."
"... We all should be against Big Educational-Complex and its certificates-producing factory education that does not put the student's health and happiness up there with co-existing peacefully with Nature. ..."
"... Remember DINKs? Dual Income No Kids. Dual Debt Bad Job No House No Kids doesn't work well for acronyms. Better for an abbreviated hash tag? ..."
"... I graduated law school with $100k+ in debt inclusive of undergrad. I've never missed a loan payment and my credit score is 830. my income has never reached $100k. my payments started out at over $1000 a month and through aggressive payment and refinancing, I've managed to reduce the payments to $500 a month. I come from a lower middle class background and my parents offered what I call 'negative help' throughout college. ..."
"... my unfortunate situation is unique and I wouldn't wish my debt on anyone. it's basically indentured servitude. it's awful, it's affects my life and health in ways no one should have to live, I have all sorts of stress related illnesses. I'm basically 2 months away from default of everything. my savings is negligible and my net worth is still negative 10 years after graduating. ..."
"... My story is very similar to yours, although I haven't had as much success whittling down my loan balances. But yes, it's made me a socialist as well; makes me wonder how many of us, i.e. ppl radicalized by student loans, are out there. Perhaps the elites' grand plan to make us all debt slaves will eventually backfire in more ways than via the obvious economic issues? ..."
Nov 09, 2015 | naked capitalism

It also never ceases to amaze me the number of anti-educational opinions which flare up when the discussion of student loan default arises. There are always those who will prophesize there is no need to attain a higher level of education as anyone could be something else and be successful and not require a higher level of education. Or they come forth with the explanation on how young 18 year-olds and those already struggling should be able to ascertain the risk of higher debt when the cards are already stacked against them legally. In any case during a poor economy, those with more education appear to be employed at a higher rate than those with less education. The issue for those pursuing an education is the ever increasing burden and danger of student loans and associated interest rates which prevent younger people from moving into the economy successfully after graduation, the failure of the government to support higher education and protect students from for-profit fraud, the increased risk of default and becoming indentured to the government, and the increased cost of an education which has surpassed healthcare in rising costs.

There does not appear to be much movement on the part of Congress to reconcile the issues in favor of students as opposed to the non-profit and for profit institutes.

Ranger Rick, November 9, 2015 at 11:34 am

It's easy to explain, really. According to the Department of Education ( https://studentaid.ed.gov/sa/repay-loans/understand/plans ) you're going to be paying off that loan at minimum payments for 25 years. Assuming your average bachelor's degree is about $30k if you go all-loans ( http://collegecost.ed.gov/catc/ ) and the average student loan interest rate is a generous 5% ( http://www.direct.ed.gov/calc.html ), you're going to be paying $175 a month for a sizable chunk of your adult life.

If you're merely hitting the median income of a bachelor's degree after graduation, $55k (http://nces.ed.gov/fastfacts/display.asp?id=77 ), and good luck with that in this economy, you're still paying ~31.5% of that in taxes (http://www.oecd.org/ctp/tax-policy/taxing-wages-20725124.htm ) you're left with $35.5k before any other costs. Out of that, you're going to have to come up with the down payment to buy a house and a car after spending more money than you have left (http://www.bls.gov/cex/csxann13.pdf).

Louis, November 9, 2015 at 12:33 pm

The last paragraph sums it up perfectly, especially the predictable counterarguments. Accurately assessing what job in demand several years down the road is very difficult, if not impossible.

Majoring in IT or Computer Science would have a been a great move in the late 1990's; however, if you graduated around 2000, you likely would have found yourself facing a tough job market.. Likewise, majoring in petroleum engineering or petroleum geology would have seemed like a good move a couple of years ago; however, now that oil prices are crashing, it's presumably a much tougher job market.

Do we blame the computer science majors graduating in 2000 or the graduates struggling to break into the energy industry, now that oil prices have dropped, for majoring in "useless" degrees? It's much easier to create a strawman about useless degrees that accept the fact that there is a element of chance in terms of what the job market will look like upon graduation.

The cost of higher education is absurd and there simply aren't enough good jobs to go around-there are people out there who majored in the "right" fields and have found themselves underemployed or unemployed-so I'm not unsympathetic to the plight of many people in my generation.

At the same time, I do believe in personal responsibility-I'm wary of creating a moral hazard if people can discharge loans in bankruptcy. I've been paying off my student loans (grad school) for a couple of years-I kept the level debt below any realistic starting salary-and will eventually have the loans paid off, though it may be a few more years.

I am really conflicted between believing in personal responsibility but also seeing how this generation has gotten screwed. I really don't know what the right answer is.

Ulysses, November 9, 2015 at 1:47 pm

"The cost of higher education is absurd and there simply aren't enough good jobs to go around-there are people out there who majored in the "right" fields and have found themselves underemployed or unemployed-so I'm not unsympathetic to the plight of many people in my generation."

To confuse going to college with vocational education is to commit a major category error. I think bright, ambitious high school graduates– who are looking for upward social mobility– would be far better served by a plumbing or carpentry apprenticeship program. A good plumber can earn enough money to send his or her children to Yale to study Dante, Boccaccio, and Chaucer.

A bright working class kid who goes off to New Haven, to study medieval lit, will need tremendous luck to overcome the enormous class prejudice she will face in trying to establish herself as a tenure-track academic. If she really loves medieval literature for its own sake, then to study it deeply will be "worth it" even if she finds herself working as a barista or store-clerk.

None of this, of course, excuses the outrageously high tuition charges, administrative salaries, etc. at the "top schools." They are indeed institutions that reinforce class boundaries. My point is that strictly career education is best begun at a less expensive community college. After working in the IT field, for example, a talented associate's degree-holder might well find that her employer will subsidize study at an elite school with an excellent computer science program.

My utopian dream would be a society where all sorts of studies are open to everyone– for free. Everyone would have a basic Job or Income guarantee and could study as little, or as much, as they like!

Ulysses, November 9, 2015 at 2:05 pm

As a middle-aged doctoral student in the humanities you should not even be thinking much about your loans. Write the most brilliant thesis that you can, get a book or some decent articles published from it– and swim carefully in the shark-infested waters of academia until you reach the beautiful island of tenured full-professorship.

If that island turns out to be an ever-receding mirage, sell your soul to our corporate overlords and pay back your loans! Alternatively, tune in, drop out, and use your finely tuned research and rhetorical skills to help us overthrow the kleptocratic regime that oppresses us all!!

subgenius, November 9, 2015 at 3:07 pm

except (in my experience) the corporate overlords want young meat.

I have 2 masters degrees 2 undergraduate degrees and a host of random diplomas – but at 45, I am variously too old, too qualified, or lacking sufficient recent corporate experience in the field to get hired

Trying to get enough cash to get a contractor license seems my best chance at anything other than random day work.

MyLessThanPrimeBeef, November 9, 2015 at 3:41 pm

Genuine education should provide one with profound contentment, grateful for the journey taken, and a deep appreciation of life.

Instead many of us are left confused – confusing career training (redundant and excessive, as it turned out, unfortunate for the student, though not necessarily bad for those on the supply side, one must begrudgingly admit – oops, there goes one's serenity) with enlightenment.

"I would spend another 12 soul-nourishing years pursuing those non-profit degrees' vs 'I can't feed my family with those paper certificates.'

jrs, November 9, 2015 at 2:55 pm

I am anti-education as the solution to our economic woes. We need jobs or a guaranteed income. And we need to stop outsourcing the jobs that exist. And we need a much higher minimum wage. And maybe we need work sharing. I am also against using screwdrivers to pound in a nail. But why are you so anti screwdriver anyway?

And I see calls for more and more education used to make it seem ok to pay people without much education less than a living wage. Because they deserve it for being whatever drop outs. And it's not ok.

I don't actually have anything against the professors (except their overall political cowardice in times demanding radicalism!). Now the administrators, yea I can see the bloat and the waste there. But mostly, I have issues with more and more education being preached as the answer to a jobs and wages crisis.

MyLessThanPrimeBeef -> jrs, November 9, 2015 at 3:50 pm

We all should be against Big Educational-Complex and its certificates-producing factory education that does not put the student's health and happiness up there with co-existing peacefully with Nature.

Kris Alman, November 9, 2015 at 11:11 am

Remember DINKs? Dual Income No Kids. Dual Debt Bad Job No House No Kids doesn't work well for acronyms. Better for an abbreviated hash tag?

debitor serf, November 9, 2015 at 7:17 pm

I graduated law school with $100k+ in debt inclusive of undergrad. I've never missed a loan payment and my credit score is 830. my income has never reached $100k. my payments started out at over $1000 a month and through aggressive payment and refinancing, I've managed to reduce the payments to $500 a month. I come from a lower middle class background and my parents offered what I call 'negative help' throughout college.

my unfortunate situation is unique and I wouldn't wish my debt on anyone. it's basically indentured servitude. it's awful, it's affects my life and health in ways no one should have to live, I have all sorts of stress related illnesses. I'm basically 2 months away from default of everything. my savings is negligible and my net worth is still negative 10 years after graduating.

student loans, combined with a rigged system, turned me into a closeted socialist. I am smart, hard working and resourceful. if I can't make it in this world, heck, then who can? few, because the system is rigged!

I have no problems at all taking all the wealth of the oligarchs and redistributing it. people look at me like I'm crazy. confiscate it all I say, and reset the system from scratch. let them try to make their billions in a system where things are fair and not rigged...

Ramoth, November 9, 2015 at 9:23 pm

My story is very similar to yours, although I haven't had as much success whittling down my loan balances. But yes, it's made me a socialist as well; makes me wonder how many of us, i.e. ppl radicalized by student loans, are out there. Perhaps the elites' grand plan to make us all debt slaves will eventually backfire in more ways than via the obvious economic issues?

[May 24, 2019] Deal with longstanding issues like government favoritism toward local companies

May 24, 2019 | theregister.co.uk

How is it that that can be a point of contention ? Name me one country in this world that doesn't favor local companies.

These people company representatives who are complaining about local favoritism would be howling like wolves if Huawei was given favor in the US over any one of them.

I'm not saying that there are no reasons to be unhappy about business with China, but that is not one of them. 6 0 Reply


A.P. Veening , 1 day

Re: "deal with longstanding issues like government favoritism toward local companies"

Name me one country in this world that doesn't favor local companies.

I'll give you two: Liechtenstein and Vatican City, though admittedly neither has a lot of local companies.

STOP_FORTH , 1 day
Re: "deal with longstanding issues like government favoritism toward local companies"

Doesn't Liechtenstein make most of the dentures in the EU. Try taking a bite out of that market.

Kabukiwookie , 1 day
Re: "deal with longstanding issues like government favoritism toward local companies"

How can you leave Andorra out of that list?

A.P. Veening , 14 hrs
Re: "deal with longstanding issues like government favoritism toward local companies"

While you are at it, how can you leave Monaco and San Marino out of that list?

[May 24, 2019] Huawei equipment can't be trusted? As distinct from Cisco which we already have backdoored :]

May 24, 2019 | theregister.co.uk

" The Trump administration, backed by US cyber defense experts, believes that Huawei equipment can't be trusted " .. as distinct from Cisco which we already have backdoored :]

Sir Runcible Spoon
Re: Huawei equipment can't be trusted?

Didn't someone once say "I don't trust anyone who can't be bribed"?

Not sure why that popped into my head.

[May 24, 2019] The USA isn't annoyed at Huawei spying, they are annoyed that Huawei isn't spying for them

May 24, 2019 | theregister.co.uk

Pick your poison

The USA isn't annoyed at Huawei spying, they are annoyed that Huawei isn't spying for them . If you don't use Huawei who would you use instead? Cisco? Yes, just open up and let the NSA ream your ports. Oooo, filthy.

If you don't know the chip design, can't verify the construction, don't know the code and can't verify the deployment to the hardware; you are already owned.

The only question is, but which state actor; China, USA, Israel, UK.....? Anonymous Coward

[May 24, 2019] This is going to get ugly

May 24, 2019 | theregister.co.uk

..and we're all going to be poorer for it. Americans, Chinese and bystanders.

I was recently watching the WW1 channel on youtube (awesome thing, go Indy and team!) - the delusion, lack of situational understanding and short sightedness underscoring the actions of the main actors that started the Great War can certainly be paralleled to the situation here.

The very idea that you can manage to send China 40 years back in time with no harm on your side is bonkers.

[May 24, 2019] Networks are usually highly segmented and protected via firewalls and proxy. so access to routers from Internet is impossible

You can put backdoor in the router. The problem is that you will never be able to access it. also for improtant deployment countires inpect the source code of firmware. USA is playing dirty games here., no matter whether Chinese are right or wrong.
May 24, 2019 | theregister.co.uk
Re: Technological silos

They're not necessarily silos. If you design a network as a flat space with all interactions peer to peer then you have set yourself the problem of ensuring all nodes on that network are secure and enforcing traffic rules equally on each node. This is impractical -- its not that if couldn't be done but its a huge waste of resources. A more practical strategy is to layer the network, providing choke points where traffic can be monitored and managed. We currently do this with firewalls and demilitarized zones, the goal being normally to prevent unwanted traffic coming in (although it can be used to monitor and control traffic going out). This has nothing to do with incompatible standards.

I'm not sure about the rest of the FUD in this article. Yes, its all very complicated. But just as we have to know how to layer our networks we also know how to manage our information. For example, anyone who as a smartphone that they co-mingle sensitive data and public access on, relying on the integrity of its software to keep everything separate, is just plain asking for trouble. Quite apart from the risk of data leakage between applications its a portable device that can get lost, stolen or confiscated (and duplicated.....). Use common sense. Manage your data.

[May 24, 2019] Internet and phones aren't the issue. Its the chips

Notable quotes:
"... The real issue is the semiconductors - the actual silicon. ..."
"... China has some fabs now, but far too few to handle even just their internal demand - and tech export restrictions have long kept their leading edge capabilities significantly behind the cutting edge. ..."
"... On the flip side: Foxconn, Huawei et al are so ubiquitous in the electronics global supply chain that US retail tech companies - specifically Apple - are going to be severely affected, or at least extremely vulnerable to being pushed forward as a hostage. ..."
May 24, 2019 | theregister.co.uk

Duncan Macdonald

Internet, phones, Android aren't the issue - except if the US is able to push China out of GSM/ITU.

The real issue is the semiconductors - the actual silicon.

The majority of raw silicon wafers as well as the finished chips are created in the US or its most aligned allies: Japan, Taiwan. The dominant manufacturers of semiconductor equipment are also largely US with some Japanese and EU suppliers.

If Fabs can't sell to China, regardless of who actually paid to manufacture the chips, because Applied Materials has been banned from any business related to China, this is pretty severe for 5-10 years until the Chinese can ramp up their capacity.

China has some fabs now, but far too few to handle even just their internal demand - and tech export restrictions have long kept their leading edge capabilities significantly behind the cutting edge.

On the flip side: Foxconn, Huawei et al are so ubiquitous in the electronics global supply chain that US retail tech companies - specifically Apple - are going to be severely affected, or at least extremely vulnerable to being pushed forward as a hostage.

Interesting times...

[May 24, 2019] We shared and the Americans shafted us. And now *they* are bleating about people not respecting Intellectual Property Rights?

Notable quotes:
"... The British aerospace sector (not to be confused with the company of a similar name but more Capital Letters) developed, amongst other things, the all-flying tailplane, successful jet-powered VTOL flight, noise-and drag-reducing rotor blades and the no-tailrotor systems and were promised all sorts of crunchy goodness if we shared it with our wonderful friends across the Atlantic. ..."
"... We shared and the Americans shafted us. Again. And again. And now *they* are bleating about people not respecting Intellectual Property Rights? ..."
May 24, 2019 | theregister.co.uk

Anonymous Coward

Sic semper tyrannis

"Without saying so publicly, they're glad there's finally some effort to deal with longstanding issues like government favoritism toward local companies, intellectual property theft, and forced technology transfers."

The British aerospace sector (not to be confused with the company of a similar name but more Capital Letters) developed, amongst other things, the all-flying tailplane, successful jet-powered VTOL flight, noise-and drag-reducing rotor blades and the no-tailrotor systems and were promised all sorts of crunchy goodness if we shared it with our wonderful friends across the Atlantic.

We shared and the Americans shafted us. Again. And again. And now *they* are bleating about people not respecting Intellectual Property Rights?

And as for moaning about backdoors in Chinese kit, who do Cisco et al report to again? Oh yeah, those nice Three Letter Acronym people loitering in Washington and Langley...

[May 24, 2019] Oh dear. Secret Huawei enterprise router snoop 'backdoor' was Telnet service, sighs Vodafone The Register

May 24, 2019 | theregister.co.uk

A claimed deliberate spying "backdoor" in Huawei routers used in the core of Vodafone Italy's 3G network was, in fact, a Telnet -based remote debug interface.

The Bloomberg financial newswire reported this morning that Vodafone had found "vulnerabilities going back years with equipment supplied by Shenzhen-based Huawei for the carrier's Italian business".

"Europe's biggest phone company identified hidden backdoors in the software that could have given Huawei unauthorized access to the carrier's fixed-line network in Italy," wailed the newswire.

Unfortunately for Bloomberg, Vodafone had a far less alarming explanation for the deliberate secret "backdoor" – a run-of-the-mill LAN-facing diagnostic service, albeit a hardcoded undocumented one.

"The 'backdoor' that Bloomberg refers to is Telnet, which is a protocol that is commonly used by many vendors in the industry for performing diagnostic functions. It would not have been accessible from the internet," said the telco in a statement to The Register , adding: "Bloomberg is incorrect in saying that this 'could have given Huawei unauthorized access to the carrier's fixed-line network in Italy'.

"This was nothing more than a failure to remove a diagnostic function after development."

It added the Telnet service was found during an audit, which means it can't have been that secret or hidden: "The issues were identified by independent security testing, initiated by Vodafone as part of our routine security measures, and fixed at the time by Huawei."

Huawei itself told us: "We were made aware of historical vulnerabilities in 2011 and 2012 and they were addressed at the time. Software vulnerabilities are an industry-wide challenge. Like every ICT vendor we have a well-established public notification and patching process, and when a vulnerability is identified we work closely with our partners to take the appropriate corrective action."

Prior to removing the Telnet server, Huawei was said to have insisted in 2011 on using the diagnostic service to configure and test the network devices. Bloomberg reported, citing a leaked internal memo from then-Vodafone CISO Bryan Littlefair, that the Chinese manufacturer thus refused to completely disable the service at first:

Vodafone said Huawei then refused to fully remove the backdoor, citing a manufacturing requirement. Huawei said it needed the Telnet service to configure device information and conduct tests including on Wi-Fi, and offered to disable the service after taking those steps, according to the document.

El Reg understands that while Huawei indeed resisted removing the Telnet functionality from the affected items – broadband network gateways in the core of Vodafone Italy's 3G network – this was done to the satisfaction of all involved parties by the end of 2011, with another network-level product de-Telnet-ised in 2012.

Broadband network gateways in 3G UMTS mobile networks are described in technical detail in this Cisco (sorry) PDF . The devices are also known as Broadband Remote Access Servers and sit at the edge of a network operator's core.

The issue is separate from Huawei's failure to fully patch consumer-grade routers , as exclusively revealed by The Register in March.

Plenty of other things (cough, cough, Cisco) to panic about

Characterising this sort of Telnet service as a covert backdoor for government spies is a bit like describing your catflap as an access portal that allows multiple species to pass unhindered through a critical home security layer. In other words, massively over-egging the pudding.

Many Reg readers won't need it explaining, but Telnet is a routinely used method of connecting to remote devices for management purposes. When deployed with appropriate security and authentication controls in place, it can be very useful. In Huawei's case, the Telnet service wasn't facing the public internet, and was used to set up and test devices.

Look, it's not great that this was hardcoded into the equipment and undocumented – it was, after all, declared a security risk – and had to be removed after some pressure. However, it's not quite the hidden deliberate espionage backdoor for Beijing that some fear.

Twitter-enabled infoseccer Kevin Beaumont also shared his thoughts on the story, highlighting the number of vulns in equipment from Huawei competitor Cisco, a US firm:

me title=

For example, a pretty bad remote access hole was discovered in some Cisco gear , which the mainstream press didn't seem too fussed about. Ditto hardcoded root logins in Cisco video surveillance boxes. Lots of things unfortunately ship with insecure remote access that ought to be removed; it's not evidence of a secret backdoor for state spies.

Given Bloomberg's previous history of trying to break tech news, when it claimed that tiny spy chips were being secretly planted on Supermicro server motherboards – something that left the rest of the tech world scratching its collective head once the initial dust had settled – it may be best to take this latest revelation with a pinch of salt. Telnet wasn't even mentioned in the latest report from the UK's Huawei Cyber Security Evaluation Centre, which savaged Huawei's pisspoor software development practices.

While there is ample evidence in the public domain that Huawei is doing badly on the basics of secure software development, so far there has been little that tends to show it deliberately implements hidden espionage backdoors. Rhetoric from the US alleging Huawei is a threat to national security seems to be having the opposite effect around the world.

With Bloomberg, an American company, characterising Vodafone's use of Huawei equipment as "defiance" showing "that countries across Europe are willing to risk rankling the US in the name of 5G preparedness," it appears that the US-Euro-China divide on 5G technology suppliers isn't closing up any time soon. ®

Bootnote

This isn't shaping up to be a good week for Bloomberg. Only yesterday High Court judge Mr Justice Nicklin ordered the company to pay up £25k for the way it reported a live and ongoing criminal investigation.

[May 17, 2019] Shareholder Capitalism, the Military, and the Beginning of the End for Boeing

Highly recommended!
Notable quotes:
"... Like many of its Wall Street counterparts, Boeing also used complexity as a mechanism to obfuscate and conceal activity that is incompetent, nefarious and/or harmful to not only the corporation itself but to society as a whole (instead of complexity being a benign byproduct of a move up the technology curve). ..."
"... The economists who built on Friedman's work, along with increasingly aggressive institutional investors, devised solutions to ensure the primacy of enhancing shareholder value, via the advocacy of hostile takeovers, the promotion of massive stock buybacks or repurchases (which increased the stock value), higher dividend payouts and, most importantly, the introduction of stock-based pay for top executives in order to align their interests to those of the shareholders. These ideas were influenced by the idea that corporate efficiency and profitability were impinged upon by archaic regulation and unionization, which, according to the theory, precluded the ability to compete globally. ..."
"... "Return on Net Assets" (RONA) forms a key part of the shareholder capitalism doctrine. ..."
"... If the choice is between putting a million bucks into new factory machinery or returning it to shareholders, say, via dividend payments, the latter is the optimal way to go because in theory it means higher net returns accruing to the shareholders (as the "owners" of the company), implicitly assuming that they can make better use of that money than the company itself can. ..."
"... It is an absurd conceit to believe that a dilettante portfolio manager is in a better position than an aviation engineer to gauge whether corporate investment in fixed assets will generate productivity gains well north of the expected return for the cash distributed to the shareholders. But such is the perverse fantasy embedded in the myth of shareholder capitalism ..."
"... When real engineering clashes with financial engineering, the damage takes the form of a geographically disparate and demoralized workforce: The factory-floor denominator goes down. Workers' wages are depressed, testing and quality assurance are curtailed. ..."
May 17, 2019 | www.nakedcapitalism.com

The fall of the Berlin Wall and the corresponding end of the Soviet Empire gave the fullest impetus imaginable to the forces of globalized capitalism, and correspondingly unfettered access to the world's cheapest labor. What was not to like about that? It afforded multinational corporations vastly expanded opportunities to fatten their profit margins and increase the bottom line with seemingly no risk posed to their business model.

Or so it appeared. In 2000, aerospace engineer L.J. Hart-Smith's remarkable paper, sardonically titled "Out-Sourced Profits – The Cornerstone of Successful Subcontracting," laid out the case against several business practices of Hart-Smith's previous employer, McDonnell Douglas, which had incautiously ridden the wave of outsourcing when it merged with the author's new employer, Boeing. Hart-Smith's intention in telling his story was a cautionary one for the newly combined Boeing, lest it follow its then recent acquisition down the same disastrous path.

Of the manifold points and issues identified by Hart-Smith, there is one that stands out as the most compelling in terms of understanding the current crisis enveloping Boeing: The embrace of the metric "Return on Net Assets" (RONA). When combined with the relentless pursuit of cost reduction (via offshoring), RONA taken to the extreme can undermine overall safety standards.

Related to this problem is the intentional and unnecessary use of complexity as an instrument of propaganda. Like many of its Wall Street counterparts, Boeing also used complexity as a mechanism to obfuscate and conceal activity that is incompetent, nefarious and/or harmful to not only the corporation itself but to society as a whole (instead of complexity being a benign byproduct of a move up the technology curve).

All of these pernicious concepts are branches of the same poisoned tree: " shareholder capitalism ":

[A] notion best epitomized by Milton Friedman that the only social responsibility of a corporation is to increase its profits, laying the groundwork for the idea that shareholders, being the owners and the main risk-bearing participants, ought therefore to receive the biggest rewards. Profits therefore should be generated first and foremost with a view toward maximizing the interests of shareholders, not the executives or managers who (according to the theory) were spending too much of their time, and the shareholders' money, worrying about employees, customers, and the community at large. The economists who built on Friedman's work, along with increasingly aggressive institutional investors, devised solutions to ensure the primacy of enhancing shareholder value, via the advocacy of hostile takeovers, the promotion of massive stock buybacks or repurchases (which increased the stock value), higher dividend payouts and, most importantly, the introduction of stock-based pay for top executives in order to align their interests to those of the shareholders. These ideas were influenced by the idea that corporate efficiency and profitability were impinged upon by archaic regulation and unionization, which, according to the theory, precluded the ability to compete globally.

"Return on Net Assets" (RONA) forms a key part of the shareholder capitalism doctrine. In essence, it means maximizing the returns of those dollars deployed in the operation of the business. Applied to a corporation, it comes down to this: If the choice is between putting a million bucks into new factory machinery or returning it to shareholders, say, via dividend payments, the latter is the optimal way to go because in theory it means higher net returns accruing to the shareholders (as the "owners" of the company), implicitly assuming that they can make better use of that money than the company itself can.

It is an absurd conceit to believe that a dilettante portfolio manager is in a better position than an aviation engineer to gauge whether corporate investment in fixed assets will generate productivity gains well north of the expected return for the cash distributed to the shareholders. But such is the perverse fantasy embedded in the myth of shareholder capitalism.

Engineering reality, however, is far more complicated than what is outlined in university MBA textbooks. For corporations like McDonnell Douglas, for example, RONA was used not as a way to prioritize new investment in the corporation but rather to justify disinvestment in the corporation. This disinvestment ultimately degraded the company's underlying profitability and the quality of its planes (which is one of the reasons the Pentagon helped to broker the merger with Boeing; in another perverse echo of the 2008 financial disaster, it was a politically engineered bailout).

RONA in Practice

When real engineering clashes with financial engineering, the damage takes the form of a geographically disparate and demoralized workforce: The factory-floor denominator goes down. Workers' wages are depressed, testing and quality assurance are curtailed. Productivity is diminished, even as labor-saving technologies are introduced. Precision machinery is sold off and replaced by inferior, but cheaper, machines. Engineering quality deteriorates. And the upshot is that a reliable plane like Boeing's 737, which had been a tried and true money-spinner with an impressive safety record since 1967, becomes a high-tech death trap.

The drive toward efficiency is translated into a drive to do more with less. Get more out of workers while paying them less. Make more parts with fewer machines. Outsourcing is viewed as a way to release capital by transferring investment from skilled domestic human capital to offshore entities not imbued with the same talents, corporate culture and dedication to quality. The benefits to the bottom line are temporary; the long-term pathologies become embedded as the company's market share begins to shrink, as the airlines search for less shoddy alternatives.

You must do one more thing if you are a Boeing director: you must erect barriers to bad news, because there is nothing that bursts a magic bubble faster than reality, particularly if it's bad reality.

The illusion that Boeing sought to perpetuate was that it continued to produce the same thing it had produced for decades: namely, a safe, reliable, quality airplane. But it was doing so with a production apparatus that was stripped, for cost reasons, of many of the means necessary to make good aircraft. So while the wine still came in a bottle signifying Premier Cru quality, and still carried the same price, someone had poured out the contents and replaced them with cheap plonk.

And that has become remarkably easy to do in aviation. Because Boeing is no longer subject to proper independent regulatory scrutiny. This is what happens when you're allowed to " self-certify" your own airplane , as the Washington Post described: "One Boeing engineer would conduct a test of a particular system on the Max 8, while another Boeing engineer would act as the FAA's representative, signing on behalf of the U.S. government that the technology complied with federal safety regulations."

This is a recipe for disaster. Boeing relentlessly cut costs, it outsourced across the globe to workforces that knew nothing about aviation or aviation's safety culture. It sent things everywhere on one criteria and one criteria only: lower the denominator. Make it the same, but cheaper. And then self-certify the plane, so that nobody, including the FAA, was ever the wiser.

Boeing also greased the wheels in Washington to ensure the continuation of this convenient state of regulatory affairs for the company. According to OpenSecrets.org , Boeing and its affiliates spent $15,120,000 in lobbying expenses in 2018, after spending, $16,740,000 in 2017 (along with a further $4,551,078 in 2018 political contributions, which placed the company 82nd out of a total of 19,087 contributors). Looking back at these figures over the past four elections (congressional and presidential) since 2012, these numbers represent fairly typical spending sums for the company.

But clever financial engineering, extensive political lobbying and self-certification can't perpetually hold back the effects of shoddy engineering. One of the sad byproducts of the FAA's acquiescence to "self-certification" is how many things fall through the cracks so easily.

[May 11, 2019] America s Industrial Gold Rush is Over

Notable quotes:
"... I see a lot of people saying, "They should just move to where the jobs are." 1) They would need accurate and defined information about where the jobs are that are looking for their skills 2) They would need some money to get there 3) They would need a place to stay and the rents and mortages are sky high 'where the jobs are' 4) They would have to be welcome. Two previous mass migrations within the USA come to mind: Black Americans out of the South and the dust bowl migrations to California. They were not welcomed with "open arms". ..."
"... I think the author understates the importance of Corporations being Good Citizens and Good Persons. ..."
"... My father was selected to go to Akron for training and if he passed the tests and did well in the training he might get a chance at Managing a Firestone Store. He was gone for weeks at a time for this process and was even required to go to Akron for more training after becoming a store manager. My father was an intelligent person but did not have a college degree. But I can see now that Firestone did an outstanding job training their store managers in all aspects of the job. Just think about that for a while. ..."
"... Corporations today hate themselves because its only about the money. I guess the point I am trying to make is this loss of Corporate Responsibility to the Nation and its Citizens was something that did exist but is now long gone. ..."
"... All across the West you can find old ghost towns. Towns that flourished until the gold or silver ran out of the local hill. The towns then were deserted. The similar thing can happen when a major employer runs out of "gold'. What the article ignores is all of the other reasons towns die. ..."
"... I would much rather rural stay rural and not become urban. There is more to the quality of life than a constant red hot economy. ..."
"... "The schools go to hell, the crime goes way up, liberals get elected and raise taxes, etc." One only needs to look at Kansas to see that this sentence is flawed. It needs to be changed and re-ordered to properly represent cause and effect. "Conservatives cut taxes, the schools go to hell, the crime goes way up, etc." ..."
"... The days of being qualified for good, well paying work without having more than a mediocre high school are in the past. This doesn't necessarily mean college because the trades require more education than ever before. Cutting school funding to pay for tax cuts is a loser's game. Trickle down economics has failed. ..."
May 11, 2019 | www.theamericanconservative.com

I recently read and reviewed Tim Carney's excellent book Alienated America , a sort of combination of the "how we got Trump" genre with the sociological works of researchers like Robert Putnam and Charles Murray. Carney's exploration of the Trump phenomenon, and his grappling with the timeless question of economic security versus personal responsibility in regard to the formation of virtue, family, and community, are among the best you'll find. There is a deeper subtext in his book, however, that is not excavated. But first, a quick recap.

As in most treatments of inequality, geographic immobility, deindustrialization, and related issues, Alienated America features the requisite visits to faded old towns with ghostly main streets, and paeans to the blue-collar jobs that once allowed men with high school educations to comfortably own homes, raise families, and retire with pensions.

Through a long analysis, including a fascinating visit to a fracking camp in North Dakota -- awash in money but utterly lacking in neighborliness and community -- Carney concludes that wealth alone does not produce human flourishing. It is rather community and what social researchers call "civil society" that makes the American Dream possible. Obviously, money helps, but it is not sufficient, nor, in Carney's telling, even necessary.

... ... ...

Indeed, large numbers of human settlements never do, and never have . A one-dimensional, economically undiversified city is essentially a housing tract for a factory or a wharf or whatever industry drives its economy. What is left when that economic engine breaks down? A company town without a company. This is the fate that has befallen many of America's declining places, and it is hard to argue that this economic reality doesn't play a direct role in the decline of the family and of civil society. Is this a "materialist" explanation? Perhaps. But it may also be true.

There are those who admirably hope and work for revival, for restoration in places like Gary, Detroit, or any number of gutted small towns. But many of the buildings in these ghostly, empty blocks, even with their mighty and almost pleasantly timeworn facades, are far beyond the point where renovation is economical. For now, poverty is a sort of preservative. More money, for many hollowed-out cities, would simply mean more demolition.

To urbanist and declinist James Howard Kunstler, it may simply be the case that the national gold rush of petroleum-fueled industrial growth is over . If this is the case, the crisis of declining America is a structural, inexorable economic reality on the order of the Industrial Revolution itself.

... ... ...

The unwinding of rural and post-industrial America is a human tragedy, not to be written off, much less tacitly celebrated. Yet the facts of the post-industrial landscape may not care about remaining working-class feelings. This does not mean that any of these places " deserve to die ." But it may well mean that their collapse is beyond the ability of policy -- or church -- to alter.

Addison Del Mastro is assistant editor of The American Conservative . He tweets at @ad_mastro .

Tim , says: May 9, 2019 at 6:56 pm

Interesting and probably spot on. It doesn't take a degree in economics or history to understand how prosperity came and went; a passing knowledge of the 20th century will suffice. Dating back to the '20s we experienced a classic example of the boom/bust cycle, with the bust of the 30s lasting basically the entire decade. The good times rwith the onset of WWII and continued afterward because we, of all the major combatant nations, actually experienced minimal economic, social, and cultural disruption. The devastation elsewhere was sufficient to provide us a head-start worth a couple decades of strong growth. It wound down around the beginning of the 70s, coincident with the end of the Vietnam War. We retained some strong advantages, though, and they were sufficient to provide more growth – on paper at least – even as today's yawning income-distribution gap began to open up. The the Cold War ended and the days of free-trade saving the world (aka 'Globalism') commenced. It seemed great for awhile but now we're left holding an empty bag and the rest of the world has sidelined our old industrial workforce through off-shoring for the sake of cheaper labor. Nope, there's no turning back.
LarsX , says: May 9, 2019 at 9:30 pm
"Yet the facts of the post-industrial landscape may not care about remaining working-class feelings."

Well, somebody sure as hell better care about working-class feelings or Trump will only be act one.

JonF , says: May 10, 2019 at 6:20 am
Re: The revival of the American Dream requires the re-churching of America.

Maybe, but it also requires jobs paying a living wage that offer a reasonable degree of long-term security (It's the latter is lacking in short-lived fracking boom towns)

LouB , says: May 10, 2019 at 10:37 am
Having lived in the inner Chicago burbs since the mid 1970's I have watched Chicago turn from being an industrial powerhouse to a have and have not economy. If you're working in professional/service sector or part of the management of multinational globalist activity you're doing reasonably well. What's swept under the rug is that Chicago and their ilk hide the vast swaths of decayed blight and human warehousing with pretty downtown / privileged few neighborhoods. Most of our once great second city serves little purpose other than to provide housing for the poverty class. So called "Revitalization" only provides window dressing for the parade of the chosen few.

Prior to living in Chicago, my folks lived in a small city in western IL that was a poster child for the small town decay referred to above that Mr. Williamson thinks should die.

The town was famous for their productivity. Civic pride was evident in most all aspects of community life there. A major steel mill anchored the economy as well as numerous smaller hardware manufacturers. The steel mill went belly up, the hardware manufacturers became distributors of Asian made goods.

The gravy train just dried up. Times aren't so good now for the town that holds so many fond memories for me. Progress. I guess.

Kent , says: May 10, 2019 at 11:08 am
@hooly:

"Americans are the descendants of people who crossed oceans and continents for a better life, why are Americans who live in this dying towns so different? I just don't get it."

Because there is no longer a place with a better life. People left families and homes because life could be dramatically better someplace else.

An unemployed steel-worker used to making $60,000/year in a $100,000 house isn't going to find life somehow better making $8/hour as a barista in San Francisco with a $2000/month rent.

LT , says: May 10, 2019 at 11:31 am
I see a lot of people saying, "They should just move to where the jobs are."
1) They would need accurate and defined information about where the jobs are that are looking for their skills
2) They would need some money to get there
3) They would need a place to stay and the rents and mortages are sky high 'where the jobs are'
4) They would have to be welcome. Two previous mass migrations within the USA come to mind: Black Americans out of the South and the dust bowl migrations to California. They were not welcomed with "open arms".
Tick Tock , says: May 10, 2019 at 12:09 pm
First let me say that I agree with the author almost 90+%. But I think the author understates the importance of Corporations being Good Citizens and Good Persons. That is clearly what has happened to America. As the son of a former Firestone Store Manager, I can attest that Firestone trained all of their store managers in Akron, OH.

My father was selected to go to Akron for training and if he passed the tests and did well in the training he might get a chance at Managing a Firestone Store. He was gone for weeks at a time for this process and was even required to go to Akron for more training after becoming a store manager. My father was an intelligent person but did not have a college degree. But I can see now that Firestone did an outstanding job training their store managers in all aspects of the job. Just think about that for a while.

The Company cared what the Company looked like everywhere, not just in Akron, OH. There was almost no turnover in my father's store of employees. He was finally burnt out from dealing with the public in retail sales but they promoted him to District Manager a job that he kept till he passed away. No employer today gives a crap about any employee or any client. Of course you can't learn to love someone else till you learn to love yourself. Corporations today hate themselves because its only about the money. I guess the point I am trying to make is this loss of Corporate Responsibility to the Nation and its Citizens was something that did exist but is now long gone.

While some will surely say I am crazy, I strongly believe that a very high progressive tax rate on individuals and corporations would help to change this attitude and at least get money into circulation. We also have to remove the corrupt and criminal group that has taken over the US Corporations and with that the Governments both National and Local or the US is doomed.

Steve M , says: May 10, 2019 at 12:53 pm
All across the West you can find old ghost towns. Towns that flourished until the gold or silver ran out of the local hill. The towns then were deserted. The similar thing can happen when a major employer runs out of "gold'. What the article ignores is all of the other reasons towns die.

The schools go to hell, the crime goes way up, liberals get elected and raise taxes, etc. A town can survive with a big company leaving, but if all of the social factors cause the best, brightest and hardest working people to pull up roots and leave, maybe the town didn't die, it committed suicide.

Johann , says: May 10, 2019 at 2:36 pm
Spot on Daniel P. Donnelly!

I would much rather rural stay rural and not become urban. There is more to the quality of life than a constant red hot economy. And really, today, many rural areas are more rural than they were a generation ago. Yes, farms are bigger and so there are fewer people on more land and so many small rural towns have dried up. Personally, I love it. More room to hunt and fish, less hectic, more fresh air, and more freedom.

LFC , says: May 10, 2019 at 2:37 pm
"The schools go to hell, the crime goes way up, liberals get elected and raise taxes, etc." One only needs to look at Kansas to see that this sentence is flawed. It needs to be changed and re-ordered to properly represent cause and effect. "Conservatives cut taxes, the schools go to hell, the crime goes way up, etc."

The days of being qualified for good, well paying work without having more than a mediocre high school are in the past. This doesn't necessarily mean college because the trades require more education than ever before. Cutting school funding to pay for tax cuts is a loser's game. Trickle down economics has failed.

[May 05, 2019] The Left Needs to Stop Crushing on the Generals by Danny Sjursen

Highly recommended!
Pentagon serves Wall Street and is controlled by CIA which is actually can be viewed as a Wall Street arm as well.
Notable quotes:
"... This time, though, the general got to talking about Russia. So I perked up. He made it crystal clear that he saw Moscow as an adversary to be contained, checked, and possibly defeated. There was no nuance, no self-reflection, not even a basic understanding of the general complexity of geopolitics in the 21st century. ..."
"... General It-Doesn't-Matter-His-Name thundered that we need not worry, however, because his tanks and troops could "mop the floor" with the Russians, in a battle that "wouldn't even be close." It was oh-so-typical, another U.S. Army general -- who clearly longs for the Cold War fumes that defined his early career -- overestimating the Russian menace and underestimating Russian military capability . ..."
"... The problem with the vast majority of generals, however, is that they don't think strategically. What they call strategy is really large-scale operations -- deploying massive formations and winning campaigns replete with battles. Many remain mired in the world of tactics, still operating like lieutenants or captains and proving the Peter Principle right, as they get promoted past their respective levels of competence. ..."
"... If America's generals, now and over the last 18 years, really were strategic thinkers, they'd have spoken out about -- and if necessary resigned en masse over -- mission sets that were unwinnable, illegal (in the case of Iraq), and counterproductive . Their oath is to the Constitution, after all, not Emperors Bush, Obama, and Trump. Yet few took that step. It's all symptomatic of the disease of institutionalized intellectual mediocrity. ..."
"... Let's start with Mattis. "Mad Dog" Mattis was so anti-Iran and bellicose in the Persian Gulf that President Barack Obama removed him from command of CENTCOM. ..."
"... Furthermore, the supposedly morally untainted, "intellectual" " warrior monk " chose, when he finally resigned, to do so in response to Trump's altogether reasonable call for a modest troop withdrawal from Afghanistan and Syria. ..."
May 03, 2019 | www.theamericanconservative.com

The two-star army general strode across the stage in his rumpled combat fatigues, almost like George Patton -- all that was missing was the cigar and riding crop. It was 2017 and I was in the audience, just another mid-level major attending yet another mandatory lecture in the auditorium of the Command and General Staff College at Fort Leavenworth, Kansas.

The general then commanded one of the Army's two true armored divisions and had plenty of his tanks forward deployed in Eastern Europe, all along the Russian frontier. Frankly, most CGSC students couldn't stand these talks. Substance always seemed lacking, as each general reminded us to "take care of soldiers" and "put the mission first," before throwing us a few nuggets of conventional wisdom on how to be good staff officers should we get assigned to his vaunted command.

This time, though, the general got to talking about Russia. So I perked up. He made it crystal clear that he saw Moscow as an adversary to be contained, checked, and possibly defeated. There was no nuance, no self-reflection, not even a basic understanding of the general complexity of geopolitics in the 21st century. Generals can be like that -- utterly "in-the-box," "can-do" thinkers. They take pride in how little they discuss policy and politics, even when they command tens of thousands of troops and control entire districts, provinces, or countries. There is some value in this -- we'd hardly want active generals meddling in U.S. domestic affairs. But they nonetheless can take the whole "aw shucks" act a bit too far.

General It-Doesn't-Matter-His-Name thundered that we need not worry, however, because his tanks and troops could "mop the floor" with the Russians, in a battle that "wouldn't even be close." It was oh-so-typical, another U.S. Army general -- who clearly longs for the Cold War fumes that defined his early career -- overestimating the Russian menace and underestimating Russian military capability . Of course, it was all cloaked in the macho bravado so common among generals who think that talking like sergeants will win them street cred with the troops. (That's not their job anymore, mind you.) He said nothing, of course, about the role of mid- and long-range nuclear weapons that could be the catastrophic consequence of an unnecessary war with the Russian Bear.

I got to thinking about that talk recently as I reflected in wonder at how the latest generation of mainstream "liberals" loves to fawn over generals, admirals -- any flag officers, really -- as alternatives to President Donald Trump. The irony of that alliance should not be lost on us. It's built on the standard Democratic fear of looking "soft" on terrorism, communism, or whatever-ism, and their visceral, blinding hatred of Trump. Some of this is understandable. Conservative Republicans masterfully paint liberals as "weak sisters" on foreign policy, and Trump's administration is, well, a wild card in world affairs.

The problem with the vast majority of generals, however, is that they don't think strategically. What they call strategy is really large-scale operations -- deploying massive formations and winning campaigns replete with battles. Many remain mired in the world of tactics, still operating like lieutenants or captains and proving the Peter Principle right, as they get promoted past their respective levels of competence.

If America's generals, now and over the last 18 years, really were strategic thinkers, they'd have spoken out about -- and if necessary resigned en masse over -- mission sets that were unwinnable, illegal (in the case of Iraq), and counterproductive . Their oath is to the Constitution, after all, not Emperors Bush, Obama, and Trump. Yet few took that step. It's all symptomatic of the disease of institutionalized intellectual mediocrity. More of the same is all they know: their careers were built on fighting "terror" anywhere it raised its evil head. Some, though no longer most, still subscribe to the faux intellectualism of General Petraeus and his legion of Coindinistas , who never saw a problem that a little regime change, followed by expert counterinsurgency, couldn't solve. Forget that they've been proven wrong time and again and can count zero victories since 2002. Generals (remember this!) are never held accountable.

Flag officers also rarely seem to recognize that they owe civilian policymakers more than just tactical "how" advice. They ought to be giving "if" advice -- if we invade Iraq, it will take 500,000 troops to occupy the place, and even then we'll ultimately destabilize the country and region, justify al-Qaeda's worldview, kick off a nationalist insurgency, and become immersed in an unwinnable war. Some, like Army Chief General Eric Shinseki and CENTCOM head John Abizaid, seemed to know this deep down. Still, Shinseki quietly retired after standing up to Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld, and Abizaid rode out his tour to retirement.

Trump Scores, Breaks Generals' 50-Year War Record Afghanistan and America's 'Indispensable Nation' Hubris

Generals also love to tell the American people that victory is "just around the corner," or that there's a "light at the end of the tunnel." General William Westmoreland used the very same language when predicting imminent victory in Vietnam. Two months later, the North Vietnamese and Vietcong unleashed the largest uprising of the war, the famed Tet Offensive.

Take Afghanistan as exhibit A: 17 or so generals have now commanded U.S. troops in this, America's longest war. All have commanded within the system and framework of their predecessors. Sure, they made marginal operational and tactical changes -- some preferred surges, others advising, others counterterror -- but all failed to achieve anything close to victory, instead laundering failure into false optimism. None refused to play the same-old game or question the very possibility of victory in landlocked, historically xenophobic Afghanistan. That would have taken real courage, which is in short supply among senior officers.

Exhibit B involves Trump's former cabinet generals -- National Security Advisor H.R. McMaster, Chief of Staff John Kelley, and Defense Secretary Jim Mattis -- whom adoring and desperate liberals took as saviors and canonized as the supposed adults in the room . They were no such thing. The generals' triumvirate consisted ultimately of hawkish conventional thinkers married to the dogma of American exceptionalism and empire. Period.

Let's start with Mattis. "Mad Dog" Mattis was so anti-Iran and bellicose in the Persian Gulf that President Barack Obama removed him from command of CENTCOM.

Furthermore, the supposedly morally untainted, "intellectual" " warrior monk " chose, when he finally resigned, to do so in response to Trump's altogether reasonable call for a modest troop withdrawal from Afghanistan and Syria.

Helping Saudi Arabia terror bomb Yemen and starve 85,000 children to death? Mattis rebuked Congress and supported that. He never considered resigning in opposition to that war crime. No, he fell on his "courageous" sword over downgrading a losing 17-year-old war in Afghanistan. Not to mention he came to Trump's cabinet straight from the board of contracting giant General Dynamics, where he collected hundreds of thousands of military-industrial complex dollars.

Then there was John Kelley, whom Press Secretary Sarah Sanders implied was above media questioning because he was once a four-star marine general. And there's McMaster, another lauded intellectual who once wrote an interesting book and taught history at West Point. Yet he still drew all the wrong conclusions in his famous book on Vietnam -- implying that more troops, more bombing, and a mass invasion of North Vietnam could have won the war. Furthermore, his work with Mattis on Trump's unhinged , imperial National Defense Strategy proved that he was, after all, just another devotee of American hyper-interventionism.

So why reflect on these and other Washington generals? It's simple: liberal veneration for these, and seemingly all, military flag officers is a losing proposition and a formula for more intervention, possible war with other great powers, and the creeping militarization of the entire U.S. government. We know what the generals expect -- and potentially want -- for America's foreign policy future.

Just look at the curriculum at the various war and staff colleges from Kansas to Rhode Island. Ten years ago, they were all running war games focused on counterinsurgency in the Middle East and Africa. Now those same schools are drilling for future "contingencies" in the Baltic, Caucasus, and in the South China Sea. Older officers have always lamented the end of the Cold War "good old days," when men were men and the battlefield was "simple." A return to a state of near-war with Russia and China is the last thing real progressives should be pushing for in 2020.

The bottom line is this: the faint hint that mainstream libs would relish a Six Days in May style military coup is more than a little disturbing, no matter what you think of Trump. Democrats must know the damage such a move would do to our ostensible republic. I say: be a patriot. Insist on civilian control of foreign affairs. Even if that means two more years of The Donald.

Danny Sjursen is a retired U.S. Army Major and regular contributor to Truthdig . His work has also appeared in Harper's, the Los Angeles Times , The Nation , Tom Dispatch , and The Hill . He served combat tours in Iraq and Afghanistan, and later taught history at his alma mater, West Point. He is the author of Ghostriders of Baghdad: Soldiers, Civilians, and the Myth of the Surge . Follow him on Twitter @SkepticalVet .

[ Note: The views expressed in this article are those of the author, expressed in an unofficial capacity, and do not reflect the official policy or position of the Department of the Army, Department of Defense, or the U.S. government.]

[May 05, 2019] Does America Have an Economy or Any Sense of Reality by Paul Craig Roberts

Notable quotes:
"... We are having a propaganda barrage about the great Trump economy. We have been hearing about the great economy for a decade while the labor force participation rate declined, real family incomes stagnated, and debt burdens rose. The economy has been great only for large equity owners whose stock ownership benefited from the trillions of dollars the Fed poured into financial markets and from buy-backs by corporations of their own stocks. ..."
"... Federal Reserve data reports that a large percentage of the younger work force live at home with parents, because the jobs available to them are insufficient to pay for an independent existence. How then can the real estate, home furnishings, and appliance markets be strong? ..."
"... In contrast, Robotics, instead of displacing labor, eliminates it. Unlike jobs offshoring which shifted jobs from the US to China, robotics will cause jobs losses in both countries. If consumer incomes fall, then demand for output also falls, and output will fall. Robotics, then, is a way to shrink gross domestic product. ..."
"... The tech nerds and corporations who cannot wait for robotics to reduce labor cost in their profits calculation are incapable of understanding that when masses of people are without jobs, there is no consumer income with which to purchase the products of robots. The robots themselves do not need housing, food, clothing, entertainment, transportation, and medical care. The mega-rich owners of the robots cannot possibly consume the robotic output. An economy without consumers is a profitless economy. ..."
"... A country incapable of dealing with real problems has no future. ..."
May 02, 2019 | www.unz.com

We are having a propaganda barrage about the great Trump economy. We have been hearing about the great economy for a decade while the labor force participation rate declined, real family incomes stagnated, and debt burdens rose. The economy has been great only for large equity owners whose stock ownership benefited from the trillions of dollars the Fed poured into financial markets and from buy-backs by corporations of their own stocks.

I have pointed out for years that the jobs reports are fabrications and that the jobs that do exist are lowly paid domestic service jobs such as waitresses and bartenders and health care and social assistance. What has kept the American economy going is the expansion of consumer debt, not higher pay from higher productivity. The reported low unemployment rate is obtained by not counting discouraged workers who have given up on finding a job.

Do you remember all the corporate money that the Trump tax cut was supposed to bring back to America for investment? It was all BS. Yesterday I read reports that Apple is losing its trillion dollar market valuation because Apple is using its profits to buy back its own stock. In other words, the demand for Apple's products does not justify more investment. Therefore, the best use of the profit is to repurchase the equity shares, thus shrinking Apple's capitalization. The great economy does not include expanding demand for Apple's products.

I read also of endless store and mall closings, losses falsely attributed to online purchasing, which only accounts for a small percentage of sales.

Federal Reserve data reports that a large percentage of the younger work force live at home with parents, because the jobs available to them are insufficient to pay for an independent existence. How then can the real estate, home furnishings, and appliance markets be strong?

When a couple of decades ago I first wrote of the danger of jobs offshoring to the American middle class, state and local government budgets, and pension funds, idiot critics raised the charge of Luddite.

The Luddites were wrong. Mechanization raised the productivity of labor and real wages, but jobs offshoring shifts jobs from the domestic economy to abroad. Domestic labor is displaced, but overseas labor gets the jobs, thus boosting jobs there. In other words, labor income declines in the country that loses jobs and rises in the country to which the jobs are offshored. This is the way American corporations spurred the economic development of China. It was due to jobs offshoring that China developed far more rapidly than the CIA expected.

In contrast, Robotics, instead of displacing labor, eliminates it. Unlike jobs offshoring which shifted jobs from the US to China, robotics will cause jobs losses in both countries. If consumer incomes fall, then demand for output also falls, and output will fall. Robotics, then, is a way to shrink gross domestic product.

The tech nerds and corporations who cannot wait for robotics to reduce labor cost in their profits calculation are incapable of understanding that when masses of people are without jobs, there is no consumer income with which to purchase the products of robots. The robots themselves do not need housing, food, clothing, entertainment, transportation, and medical care. The mega-rich owners of the robots cannot possibly consume the robotic output. An economy without consumers is a profitless economy.

One would think that there would be a great deal of discussion about the economic effects of robotics before the problems are upon us, just as one would think there would be enormous concern about the high tensions Washington has caused between the US and Russia and China, just as one would think there would be preparations for the adverse economic consequences of global warming, whatever the cause. Instead, the US, a country facing many crises, is focused on whether President Trump obstructed investigation of a crime that the special prosecutor said did not take place.

A country incapable of dealing with real problems has no future.

[May 04, 2019] Someone is getting a raise. It just isn't you

stackoverflow.com

As is usual, the headline economic number is always the rosiest number .

Wages for production and nonsupervisory workers accelerated to a 3.4 percent annual pace, signaling gains for lower-paid employees.

That sounds pretty good. Except for the part where it is a lie.
For starters, it doesn't account for inflation .

Labor Department numbers released Wednesday show that real average hourly earnings, which compare the nominal rise in wages with the cost of living, rose 1.7 percent in January on a year-over-year basis.

1.7% is a lot less than 3.4%.
While the financial news was bullish, the actual professionals took the news differently.

Wage inflation was also muted with average hourly earnings rising six cents, or 0.2% in April after rising by the same margin in March.
Average hourly earnings "were disappointing," said Ian Lyngen, head of U.S. rates strategy at BMO Capital Markets in New York.

Secondly, 1.7% is an average, not a median. For instance, none of this applied to you if you are an older worker .

Weekly earnings for workers aged 55 to 64 were only 0.8% higher in the first quarter of 2019 than they were in the first quarter of 2007, after accounting for inflation, they found. For comparison, earnings rose 4.7% during that same period for workers between the ages of 35 and 54.

On the other hand, if you worked for a bank your wages went up at a rate far above average. This goes double if you are in management.

Among the biggest standouts: commercial banks, which employ an estimated 1.3 million people in the U.S. Since Trump took office in January 2017, they have increased their average hourly wage at an annualized pace of almost 11 percent, compared with just 3.3 percent under Obama.

Finally, there is the reason for this incredibly small wage increase fo regular workers. Hint: it wasn't because of capitalism and all the bullsh*t jobs it creates. The tiny wage increase that the working class has seen is because of what the capitalists said was a terrible idea .

For Americans living in the 21 states where the federal minimum wage is binding, inflation means that the minimum wage has lost 16 percent of its purchasing power.

But elsewhere, many workers and employers are experiencing a minimum wage well above 2009 levels. That's because state capitols and, to an unprecedented degree, city halls have become far more active in setting their own minimum wages.
...
Averaging across all of these federal, state and local minimum wage laws, the effective minimum wage in the United States -- the average minimum wage binding each hour of minimum wage work -- will be $11.80 an hour in 2019. Adjusted for inflation, this is probably the highest minimum wage in American history.
The effective minimum wage has not only outpaced inflation in recent years, but it has also grown faster than typical wages. We can see this from the Kaitz index, which compares the minimum wage with median overall wages.

So if you are waiting for capitalism to trickle down on you, it's never going to happen. span y gjohnsit on Fri, 05/03/2019 - 6:21pm

Carolinas

Teachers need free speech protection

Thousands of South Carolina teachers rallied outside their state capitol Wednesday, demanding pay raises, more planning time, increased school funding -- and, in a twist, more legal protections for their freedom of speech
SC for Ed, the grassroots activist group that organized Wednesday's demonstration, told CNN that many teachers fear protesting or speaking up about education issues, worrying they'll face retaliation at work. Saani Perry, a teacher in Fort Mill, S.C., told CNN that people in his profession are "expected to sit in the classroom and stay quiet and not speak [their] mind."

To address these concerns, SC for Ed is lobbying for the Teachers' Freedom of Speech Act, which was introduced earlier this year in the state House of Representatives. The bill would specify that "a public school district may not willfully transfer, terminate or fail to renew the contract of a teacher because the teacher has publicly or privately supported a public policy decision of any kind." If that happens, teachers would be able to sue for three times their salary.

Teachers across the country are raising similar concerns about retaliation. Such fears aren't unfounded: Lawmakers in some states that saw strikes last year have introduced bills this year that would punish educators for skipping school to protest.

[May 03, 2019] Creating a Redhat package repository

Apr 12, 2016 | linuxconfig.org
Details
Redhat
Introduction

If your Redhat server is not connected to the official RHN repositories, you will need to configure your own private repository which you can later use to install packages. The procedure of creating a Redhat repository is quite simple task. In this article we will show you how to create a local file Redhat repository as well as remote HTTP repository.

Using Official Redhat DVD as repository

After default installation and without registering your server to official RHN repositories your are left without any chance to install new packages from redhat repository as your repository list will show 0 entries:

# yum repolist
Loaded plugins: product-id, refresh-packagekit, security, subscription-manager
This system is not registered to Red Hat Subscription Management. You can use subscription-manager to register.
repolist: 0

At this point the easiest thing to do is to attach your Redhat installation DVD as a local repository. To do that, first make sure that your RHEL DVD is mounted:

# mount | grep iso9660
/dev/sr0 on /media/RHEL_6.4 x86_64 Disc 1 type iso9660 (ro,nosuid,nodev,uhelper=udisks,uid=500,gid=500,iocharset=utf8,mode=0400,dmode=0500)

The directory which most interests us at the moment is " /media/RHEL_6.4 x86_64 Disc 1/repodata " as this is the directory which contains information about all packages found on this particular DVD disc.

Next we need to define our new repository pointing to " /media/RHEL_6.4 x86_64 Disc 1/ " by creating a repository entry in /etc/yum.repos.d/. Create a new file called: /etc/yum.repos.d/RHEL_6.4_Disc.repo using vi editor and insert a following text:

[RHEL_6.4_Disc]
name=RHEL_6.4_x86_64_Disc
baseurl="file:///media/RHEL_6.4 x86_64 Disc 1/"
gpgcheck=0

Once file was created your local Redhat DVD repository should be ready to use:

# yum repolist
Loaded plugins: product-id, refresh-packagekit, security, subscription-manager
This system is not registered to Red Hat Subscription Management. You can use subscription-manager to register.
repo id                                                     repo name                                                           status
RHEL_6.4_Disc                                               RHEL_6.4_x86_64_Disc                                                3,648
repolist: 3,648

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me name=


Creating a local file Redhat repository

Normally having a Redhat DVD repository will be enough to get you started however, the only disadvantage is that you are not able to alter your repository in any way and thus not able to insert new/updated packages into it. The resolve this issue we can create a local file repository sitting somewhere on the filesystem. To aid us with this plan we will use a createrepo utility.

By default createrepo may not be installed on your system:

# yum list installed | grep createrepo
#

No output indicates that this packages is currently not present in your system. If you have followed a previous section on how to attach RHEL official DVD as your system's repository, then to install createrepo package simply execute:

# yum install createrepo

The above command will install createrepo utility along with all prerequisites. In case that you do not have your repository defined yet, you can install createrepo manually:

Using your mounted RedHat DVD first install prerequisites:

# rpm -hiv /media/RHEL_6.4\ x86_64\ Disc\ 1/Packages/deltarpm-*
# rpm -hiv /media/RHEL_6.4\ x86_64\ Disc\ 1/Packages/python-deltarpm-*

followed by the installation of the actual createrepo package:

# rpm -hiv /media/RHEL_6.4\ x86_64\ Disc\ 1/Packages/createrepo-*

If all went well you should be able to see createrepo package installed in your system:

# yum list installed | grep createrepo
createrepo.noarch                        0.9.9-17.el6                          installed

At this stage we are ready to create our own Redhat local file repository. Create a new directory called /rhel_repo:

# mkdir /rhel_repo

Next, copy all packages from your mounted RHEL DVD to your new directory:

# cp /media/RHEL_6.4\ x86_64\ Disc\ 1/Packages/* /rhel_repo/

When copy is finished execute createrepo command with a single argument which is your new local repository directory name:

# createrepo /rhel_repo/
Spawning worker 0 with 3648 pkgs
Workers Finished
Gathering worker results

Saving Primary metadata
Saving file lists metadata
Saving other metadata
Generating sqlite DBs
Sqlite DBs complete

You are also able to create Redhat repository on any debian-like Linux system such as Debian, Ubuntu or mint. The procedure is the same except that installation of createrepo utility will be: # apt-get install createrepo


me name=


As a last step we will create a new yum repository entry:

# vi /etc/yum.repos.d/rhel_repo.repo
[rhel_repo]
name=RHEL_6.4_x86_64_Local
baseurl="file:///rhel_repo/"
gpgcheck=0

Your new repository should now be accessible:

# yum repolist
Loaded plugins: product-id, refresh-packagekit, security, subscription-manager
This system is not registered to Red Hat Subscription Management. You can use subscription-manager to register.
rhel_repo                                                                                                      | 2.9 kB     00:00 ... 
rhel_repo/primary_db                                                                                           | 367 kB     00:00 ... 
repo id                                                     repo name                                                           status
RHEL_6.4_Disc                                               RHEL_6.4_x86_64_Disc                                                3,648
rhel_repo                                                   RHEL_6.4_x86_64_Local                                                 3,648
Creating a remote HTTP Redhat repository

If you have multiple Redhat servers you may want to create a single Redhat repository accessible by all other servers on the network. For this you will need apache web server. Detailed installation and configuration of Apache web server is beyond the scope of this guide therefore, we assume that your httpd daemon ( Apache webserver ) is already configured. In order to make your new repository accessible via http configure your apache with /rhel_repo/ directory created in previous section as document root directory or simply copy entire directory to: /var/www/html/ ( default document root ).

Then create a new yum repository entry on your client system by creating a new repo configuration file:

vi /etc/yum.repos.d/rhel_http_repo.repo

with a following content, where my host is a IP address or hostname of your Redhat repository server:

[rhel_repo_http]
name=RHEL_6.4_x86_64_HTTP
baseurl="http://myhost/rhel_repo/"
gpgcheck=0

Confirm the correctness of your new repository by:

# yum repolist
Loaded plugins: product-id, refresh-packagekit, security, subscription-manager
This system is not registered to Red Hat Subscription Management. You can use subscription-manager to register.
repo id                                                      repo name                                                          status
rhel_repo_http                                               RHEL_6.4_x86_64_HTTP                                               3,648
repolist: 3,648
Conclusion

Creating your own package repository gives you more options on how to manage packages on your Redhat system even without paid RHN subscription. When using a remote HTTP Redhat repository you may also want to configure GPGCHECK as part of your repository to make sure that no packages had been tampered to prior their installation.

[May 02, 2019] If The U.S. Economy Is So Great, Why Are So Many Workers Miserable

May 02, 2019 | www.zerohedge.com

If The U.S. Economy Is So Great, Why Are So Many Workers Miserable?

by Tyler Durden Thu, 05/02/2019 - 17:45 2 SHARES Authored by Mac Slavo via SHTFplan.com,

Millennial and generation Z workers are becoming increasingly miserable with their jobs and careers. Since we are told several times a day by the media that the economy is booming, why are so many young workers so disastrously melancholy all the time?

The mental well being of the American worker hit an all-time low in 2018, according to a report by Barron's . That's a bit shocking considering the economy is booming and wages are rising, right? Well, wages aren't rising that much, and much of the consumer spending is being put on credit cards , creating a vicious cycle of depression and consumerism that will repeat for a lot of folks.

Americans Are Financially And Mentally Unstable: Crippling Debt Is Linked To Chronic Depression

"When you're struggling with your mental health it can be much harder to stay in work or manage your spending, while being in debt can cause huge stress and anxiety – so the two issues feed off each other, creating a vicious cycle which can destroy lives," said Helen Undy the institute's chief executive. "Yet despite how connected these problems are, financial services rarely think about our mental health, and mental health services rarely consider what is happening with our money."

So why are we constantly being told everything is fine? The mainstream media loves to say that the U.S. is nearly ten years into one of the longest economic expansions in history, unemployment is the lowest it's been in almost half a century, and employees have more job choices than they've had in years. But there's just one problem. That's not actual truthful when taking all of the data into consideration. Sure, unemployment is low the way the government calculates it, but there's a reason for that. 102 million Americans are no longer "in the workforce" and therefore, unaccounted for.

Michael Snyder, who owns the Economic Collapse Blog s ays: "Sadly, the truth is that the rosy employment statistics that you are getting from the mainstream media are manufactured using smoke and mirrors."

When a working-age American does not have a job, the federal number crunchers put them into one of two different categories. Either they are categorized as "unemployed" or they are categorized as "not in the labor force".

But you have to add both of those categories together to get the total number of Americans that are not working.

Over the last decade, the number of Americans that are in the "unemployed" category has been steadily going down, but the number of Americans "not in the labor force" has been rapidly going up.

In both cases we are talking about Americans that do not have a job. It is just a matter of how the federal government chooses to categorize those individuals. – Michael Snyder, The Economic Collapse Blog

That could partially explain the misery some are feeling, but those who have jobs aren't happy either. They are often reeling from student loan and credit card debt. Being depressed makes shopping feel like a solution, but when the bill comes, the depression once again sets in making this a difficult cycle to break for so many just trying to scrape by.

Depression and suicide rates are rising sharply and other than putting the blame on superficial issues, researchers are at a loss as to the real reason why. But could it possibly be that as the elite globalists continue to take over the world and enslave mankind, people are realizing that they aren't meant to be controlled or manipulated, but meant to be free?

There's something we are all missing all around the globe. Could it possibly be free will and a life of freedom from theft and violent coercion and force that's missing?


Sick , 31 minutes ago link

Freedom to assemble is gone. That would be the only way for the awake people to make a change. Unfortunately everyone is glued to their electronics

CashMcCall , 57 minutes ago link

When even your own article lies to everyone... so the modern person that does well are those who lie the best and are the best con artists. Trump is an example. Low talent High con.

Example the US unemployment number.

Only the pool of unemployed that is Presently eligible for unemployment benefits is counted in the Unemployment number. That means self employed, commissioned workers, contractors etc are not included in the pool of unemployment even if they are out of work because they are unemployment ineligible.

Thus, over time, as unemployment benefits are lost, the unemployment pool shrinks. This is called a mathematical regression. How far does it shrink? To the point of equilibrium which is roughly 4% in which new persons enter the work force to the same extent of those losing benefits and being removed and become invisible.

Thus, Unemployment is a bogus number grossly understating truthful Unemployment. This method was first used under Obama and persists today under the Orange poser.

Nepotism and Affirmative action

Why would this make people unhappy? Chronic underemployment. Advancement is mostly by nepotism or affirmative action the flip side of the same coin. The incoming Harvard Class this year was 30% legacy student... and 30% affirmative action and the rest be damned. Happy?

Feminism has gripped the workplace.

Men hate working for female bosses. They don't trust them, they don't trust their judgment which often looks political and never logical. Men feel those women were promoted because of gender.

I saw this years ago in a clean room at National Semiconductor. A woman was put in charge of a team of roughly 30 white nerd males. She was at them constantly for not locking doors behind them and other menial infractions. She could not comprehend the complexity of the work or how inspiration operates but she would nag them and bully them.

At another facility there was a genius that would come to work and set up a sleeping bag and go to sleep under his desk. He was a Unix programmer and system engineer. So when something went wrong they would wake him and he would get up, solve the problem and go back to sleep.

Then the overstuffed string of pearls showed up as the new unit boss. She was infuriated that somebody would dare sleep on the clock and so blatantly. So she would harass him and wake him. Then one day she got so mad she started kicking him while he was sleeping. He grabbed his sleeping bag and briefcase and stormed out.

Ultimately the woman's boss took her to task and explained to her that it didn't matter if that employee slept under his desk because when he worked to solve problems only he could solve he saved the company millions. She was fired. As a token stipulation the sleeping genius came back and a sign was posted on his desk. "Kicking this employee is grounds for immediate dismissal."

Usually the nerd walks and just gets replaced by some diversity politician and string of pearls then sets the tone by making the workplace ****. Women simply are not as intelligent as men and pretending they are just wrecks morale of the people who are really intelligent. The rise of the shoulder padded woman string of pearls bully is a scourge to one and all.

bizznatch14 , 2 hours ago link

Simple answer: because people are spineless and terrible negotiators.

Long answer: for years the adage has been "do what you love and you'll never work a day in your life" or "find a good job and never leave" or "work your way to the top" or "be a hard worker, trust your leadership, keep your head down, and don't make waves."

********.

If you do what you love, you'll learn to hate it. Welcome to misery.

Upward mobility doesn't happen unless you leave. If you're a good little productive worker drone, management has no incentive to give you more than 1-3% raises every year to keep you 'loyal.' Once you've wasted 20 or so years being a robot, welcome to misery.

Nobody gets promoted unless you're a useless ***-kisser who fails to be productive and hasn't done anything egregious enough to get canned. Once you've been passed by for that promotion you want enough times, welcome to misery.

The people making the decisions at the top are the useless ***-kissers that can't do what you do but they talk a good game. Most of them are case studies in the Peter Principle. Once you realize that the 'top' consists of nothing but fuckwads, welcome to misery.

The only way to get ahead and get what you want out of a career is to develop the skills you need and market yourself top someone who'll pay you what you're worth.

Develop strong negotiation skills early, know your market value, and don't be afraid of change.

Employer loyalty is a farce; if you think your employer is loyal to you, I've got some oceanfront property in New Mexico to sell you.

Interested_Observer , 2 hours ago link

All the good jobs are being taken over by "imported labor" who are getting paid 1/2 of what Americans are getting paid.

There is no longer upward mobility unless you are part of an Indian Mafia.

Enjoy working for these freaks who treat everyone like crap?

[Apr 29, 2019] When the disaster hit, you need to resolve things quickly and efficiently, with panic being the worst enemy. Amount of training and previous experience become crucial factors in such situations

It is rarely just one thing that causes an “accident”. There are multiple contributors here.
Notable quotes:
"... Panic in my experience stems from a number of things here, but two crucial ones are: ..."
"... not knowing what to do, or learned actions not having any effect ..."
Apr 29, 2019 | www.nakedcapitalism.com

vlade , April 29, 2019 at 11:04 am

...I suspect that for both of those, when they hit, you need to resolve things quickly and efficiently, with panic being the worst enemy.

Panic in my experience stems from a number of things here, but two crucial ones are:
input overload
not knowing what to do, or learned actions not having any effect

Both of them can be, to a very large extent, overcome with training, training, and more training (of actually practising the emergency situation, not just reading about it and filling questionairres).

... ... ...

[Apr 28, 2019] Prisoners of Overwork A Dilemma by Peter Dorman

Highly recommended!
This is true about IT jobs. Probably even more then for lawyers. IT became plantation economy under neoliberalism.
Notable quotes:
"... mandatory overwork in professional jobs. ..."
"... The logical solution is some form of binding regulation. ..."
"... One place to start would be something like France's right-to-disconnect law . ..."
"... "the situation it describes is a classic prisoners dilemma." ..."
Apr 28, 2019 | angrybearblog.com

The New York Times has an illuminating article today summarizing recent research on the gender effects of mandatory overwork in professional jobs. Lawyers, people in finance and other client-centered occupations are increasingly required to be available round-the-clock, with 50-60 or more hours of work per week the norm. Among other costs, the impact on wage inequality between men and women is severe. Since women are largely saddled with primary responsibility for child care, even when couples ostensibly embrace equality on a theoretical level, the workaholic jobs are allocated to men. This shows up in dramatic differences between typical male and female career paths. The article doesn't discuss comparable issues in working class employment, but availability for last-minute changes in work schedules and similar demands are likely to impact men and women differentially as well.

What the article doesn't point out is that the situation it describes is a classic prisoners dilemma.* Consider law firms. They compete for clients, and clients prefer attorneys who are available on call, always prepared and willing to adjust to whatever schedule the client throws at them. Assume that most lawyers want sane, predictable work hours if they are offered without a severe penalty in pay. If law firms care about the well-being of their employees but also about profits, we have all the ingredients to construct a standard PD payoff matrix:

There is a penalty to unilateral cooperation, cutting work hours back to a work-life balance level. If your firm does it and the others don't, you lose clients to them.

There is a benefit to unilateral defection. If everyone else is cutting hours but you don't, you scoop up the lion's share of the clients.

Mutual cooperation is preferred to mutual defection. Law firms, we are assuming, would prefer a world in which overwork was removed from the contest for competitive advantage. They would compete for clients as before, but none would require their staff to put in soul-crushing hours. The alternative equilibrium, in which competition is still on the basis of the quality of work but everyone is on call 24/7 is inferior.

If the game is played once, mutual defection dominates. If it is played repeatedly there is a possibility for mutual cooperation to establish itself, but only under favorable conditions (which apparently don't exist in the world of NY law firms). The logical solution is some form of binding regulation.

The reason for bringing this up is that it strengthens the case for collective action rather than placing all the responsibility on individuals caught in the system, including for that matter individual law firms. Or, the responsibility is political, to demand constraints on the entire industry. One place to start would be something like France's right-to-disconnect law .

*I haven't read the studies by economists and sociologists cited in the article, but I suspect many of them make the same point I'm making here.

Sandwichman said...
"the situation it describes is a classic prisoners dilemma."

Now why didn't I think of that?

https://econospeak.blogspot.com/2016/04/zero-sum-foolery-4-of-4-wage-prisoners.html April 26, 2019 at 6:22 PM

[Apr 28, 2019] AI is software. Software bugs. Software doesn't autocorrect bugs. Men correct bugs. A bugging self-driving car leads its passengers to death. A man driving a car can steer away from death

Apr 28, 2019 | www.unz.com

Vojkan , April 27, 2019 at 7:42 am GMT

The infatuation with AI makes people overlook three AI's built-in glitches. AI is software. Software bugs. Software doesn't autocorrect bugs. Men correct bugs. A bugging self-driving car leads its passengers to death. A man driving a car can steer away from death. Humans love to behave in erratic ways, it is just impossible to program AI to respond to all possible erratic human behaviour. Therefore, instead of adapting AI to humans, humans will be forced to adapt to AI, and relinquish a lot of their liberty as humans. Humans have moral qualms (not everybody is Hillary Clinton), AI being strictly utilitarian, will necessarily be "psychopathic".

In short AI is the promise of communism raised by several orders of magnitude. Welcome to the "Brave New World".

Digital Samizdat , says: April 27, 2019 at 11:42 am GMT

@Vojkan You've raised some interesting objections, Vojkan. But here are a few quibbles:

1) AI is software. Software bugs. Software doesn't autocorrect bugs. Men correct bugs. A bugging self-driving car leads its passengers to death. A man driving a car can steer away from death.

Learn to code! Seriously, until and unless the AI devices acquire actual power over their human masters (as in The Matrix ), this is not as big a problem as you think. You simply test the device over and over and over until the bugs are discovered and worked out -- in other words, we just keep on doing what we've always done with software: alpha, beta, etc.

2) Humans love to behave in erratic ways, it is just impossible to program AI to respond to all possible erratic human behaviour. Therefore, instead of adapting AI to humans, humans will be forced to adapt to AI, and relinquish a lot of their liberty as humans.

There's probably some truth to that. This reminds me of the old Marshall McCluhan saying that "the medium is the message," and that we were all going to adapt our mode of cognition (somewhat) to the TV or the internet, or whatever. Yeah, to some extent that has happened. But to some extent, that probably happened way back when people first began domesticating horses and riding them. Human beings are 'programmed', as it were, to adapt to their environments to some extent, and to condition their reactions on the actions of other things/creatures in their environment.

However, I think you may be underestimating the potential to create interfaces that allow AI to interact with a human in much more complex ways, such as how another human would interact with human: sublte visual cues, pheromones, etc. That, in fact, was the essence of the old Turing Test, which is still the Holy Grail of AI:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Turing_test

3) Humans have moral qualms (not everybody is Hillary Clinton), AI being strictly utilitarian, will necessarily be "psychopathic".

I don't see why AI devices can't have some moral principles -- or at least moral biases -- programmed into them. Isaac Asimov didn't think this was impossible either:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Three_Laws_of_Robotics

reiner Tor , says: April 27, 2019 at 11:47 am GMT
@Digital Samizdat

You simply test the device over and over and over until the bugs are discovered and worked out -- in other words, we just keep on doing what we've always done with software: alpha, beta, etc.

Some bugs stay dormant for decades. I've seen one up close.

Digital Samizdat , says: April 27, 2019 at 11:57 am GMT
@reiner Tor

Well, you fix it whenever you find it!

That's a problem as old as programming; in fact, it's a problem as old as engineering itself. It's nothing new.

reiner Tor , says: April 27, 2019 at 12:11 pm GMT
@Digital Samizdat

What's new with AI is the amount of damage a faulty software multiplied many times over can do. My experience was pretty horrible (I was one of the two humans overseeing the system, but it was a pretty horrifying experience), but if the system was fully autonomous, it'd have driven my employer bankrupt.

Now I'm not against using AI in any form whatsoever; I also think that it's inevitable anyway. I'd support AI driving cars or flying planes, because they are likely safer than humans, though it's of course changing a manageable risk for a very small probability tail risk. But I'm pretty worried about AI in general.

[Apr 13, 2019] For those IT guys who want to change the specalty

Highly recommended!
The neoliberal war on labor in the USA is real. And it is especially real for It folk over 50. No country for the old men, so to speak...
Notable quotes:
"... Obviously you need a financial cushion to not be earning for months and to pay for the training courses. ..."
"... Yeah, people get set in their ways and resistant to make changes. Steve Jobs talked about people developing grooves in their brain and how important it is to force yourself out of these grooves.* ..."
"... Your thoughts construct patterns like scaffolding in your mind. You are really etching chemical patterns. In most cases, people get stuck in those patterns, just like grooves in a record, and they never get out of them. ..."
"... The brain is like a muscle, it needs to be constantly worked to become strong. If you waste it watching football or looking at porn your brain will atrophy like the muscles of a person in a wheelchair. ..."
"... IBEW (licensed electricians) has no upper age limit for apprentices They have lots of American engineers who applied in their 30s after realizing most companies want diverse HI-B engineers. ..."
"... At 40+, I still can learn advanced mathematics as well as I ever did. In fact, I can still compete with the Chinese 20 year olds. The problem is not mental horsepower, it's time and energy. I rarely have time to concentrate these days (wife, kids, pets), which makes it hard to get the solid hours of prime mental time required to really push yourself at a hard pace and learn advanced material. ..."
"... That's a huge key and I discovered it when I was asked to tutor people who were failing chemistry. I quickly discovered that all it took for most of them to "get it" was to keep approaching the problem from different angles until a light came on for them and for me the challenge of finding the right approach was a great motivator. Invariably it was some minor issue and once they overcame that, it became easy for them. I'm still astonished at that to this day. ..."
"... Sorry man, English teaching is huge, and will remain so for some time to come. I'm heavily involved in the area and know plenty of ESL teachers. Spain for me, and the level of English here is still so dreadful and they all need it, the demand is staggering and their schools suck at teaching it themselves. ..."
"... You have to really dislike your circumstances in the US to leave and be willing to find some way to get by overseas. ..."
"... We already saw this in South Africa. Mandela took over, the country went down the tubes, the wealthy whites left and the Boers were left to die in refugee camps. They WANT to leave and a few went to Russia, but most developed countries don't want them. Not with the limited amount of money they have. ..."
"... Americans are mostly ignorant to the fact that they live in a 2nd world country except for blacks and rednecks I have met in the Philippines who were stationed there in the military and have a $1000 a month check. Many of them live in more dangerous and dirty internal third worlds in America than what they can have in Southeast Asia and a good many would be homeless. They are worldly enough to leave. ..."
Apr 13, 2019 | www.unz.com

Anonymous [388] Disclaimer , says: March 12, 2019 at 1:26 pm GMT

@YetAnotherAnon

" He's 28 years old getting too old and soft for the entry-level grunt work in the skilled trades as well. What then?"

I know a UK guy (ex City type) who retrained as an electrician in his early 50s. Competent guy. Obviously no one would take him on as an apprentice, so he wired up all his outbuildings as his project to get his certificate. But he's getting work now, word gets around if you're any good.

Obviously you need a financial cushion to not be earning for months and to pay for the training courses.

Yeah, people get set in their ways and resistant to make changes. Steve Jobs talked about people developing grooves in their brain and how important it is to force yourself out of these grooves.*

I know a Haitian immigrant without a college degree who was working three jobs and then dropped down to two jobs and went to school part time in his late 40's and earned his degree in engineering and is a now an engineer in his early 50's.

*From Steve Jobs by Walter Isaacson (Simon and Schuster, 2011), pp.330-331:

"It's rare that you see an artist in his 30s or 40s able to really contribute something amazing," Jobs said wistfully to the writer David Sheff, who published a long and intimate interview in Playboy the month he turned thirty. "Of course, there are some people who are innately curious, forever little kids in their awe of life, but they're rare." The interview touched on many subjects, but Jobs's most poignant ruminations were about growing old and facing the future:

Your thoughts construct patterns like scaffolding in your mind. You are really etching chemical patterns. In most cases, people get stuck in those patterns, just like grooves in a record, and they never get out of them.

I'll always stay connected with Apple. I hope that throughout my life I'll sort of have the thread of my life and the thread of Apple weave in and out of each other, like a tapestry. There may be a few years when I'm not there, but I'll always come back. . . .

If you want to live your life in a creative way, as an artist, you have to not look back too much. You have to be willing to take whatever you've done and whoever you were and throw them away.

The more the outside world tries to reinforce an image of you, the harder it is to continue to be an artist, which is why a lot of times, artists have to say, "Bye. I have to go. I'm going crazy and I'm getting out of here." And they go and hibernate somewhere. Maybe later they re-emerge a little differently.

anonymous [191] Disclaimer , says: March 12, 2019 at 9:59 pm GMT
@The Anti-Gnostic

"fluid intelligence" starts crystallizing after your 20's". Nonsense, I had a great deal of trouble learning anything from my teen years and 20's because I didn't know how to learn. I went for 30 years and eventually figured out a learning style that worked for me. I have learned more and mastered more skills in the past ten years ages 49-59 than I had in the previous 30.

You can challenge yourself like I did and after a while of doing this (6 months) you will find it a lot easier to learn and comprehend than you did previously. (This is true only if you haven't damaged your brain from years of smoking and drinking). I constantly challenged myself with trying to learn math that I had trouble with in school and eventually mastered it.

The brain is like a muscle, it needs to be constantly worked to become strong. If you waste it watching football or looking at porn your brain will atrophy like the muscles of a person in a wheelchair.

Anon [257] Disclaimer , says: March 15, 2019 at 4:29 am GMT
@YetAnotherAnon

IBEW (licensed electricians) has no upper age limit for apprentices They have lots of American engineers who applied in their 30s after realizing most companies want diverse HI-B engineers.

Upper age limits for almost every occupation disappeared decades ago in America because of age discrimination laws.

I can't see how any 28 year old could possibly be too soft to go into any kind of manual labor job.

jbwilson24 , says: March 15, 2019 at 9:31 am GMT
@anonymous Yeah, there was a recent study showing that 70 year olds can form neural connections as quickly as teenagers.
At 40+, I still can learn advanced mathematics as well as I ever did. In fact, I can still compete with the Chinese 20 year olds. The problem is not mental horsepower, it's time and energy. I rarely have time to concentrate these days (wife, kids, pets), which makes it hard to get the solid hours of prime mental time required to really push yourself at a hard pace and learn advanced material.

This is why the Chinese are basically out of date when they are 30, their companies assume that they have kids and are not able to give 110% anymore.

jacques sheete , says: March 15, 2019 at 11:14 am GMT
@anonymous

eventually figured out a learning style that worked for me.

That's a huge key and I discovered it when I was asked to tutor people who were failing chemistry. I quickly discovered that all it took for most of them to "get it" was to keep approaching the problem from different angles until a light came on for them and for me the challenge of finding the right approach was a great motivator. Invariably it was some minor issue and once they overcame that, it became easy for them. I'm still astonished at that to this day.

The brain is like a muscle, it needs to be constantly worked to become strong. If you waste it watching football or looking at porn your brain will atrophy like the muscles of a person in a wheelchair.

No doubt about it. No embellishment needed there!

s.n , says: March 15, 2019 at 11:42 am GMT
@The Anti-Gnostic

Yeah. He's 28 years old and apparently his chosen skillset is teaching EASL in foreign countries. That sector is shrinking as English becomes the global lingua franca and is taught in elementary schools worldwide. He's really too old and soft for his Plan B (military), and getting too old and soft for the entry-level grunt work in the skilled trades as well. What then?

do you know anything first hand about the teaching- english- as-a- second- language hustle?

Asking sincerely – as I don't know anything about it. However I kinda suspect that 'native speakers' will be in demand in many parts of the globe for some time to come [as an aside – and maybe Linh has written of this and I missed it – but last spring I was in Saigon for a couple of weeks and, hanging out one day at the zoo & museum complex, was startled to see about three groups of Vietnamese primary-school students being led around by americans in their early 20s, narrating everything in american english . Apparently private schools offering entirely english-language curriculum are the big hit with the middle & upper class elite there. Perhaps more of the same elsewhere in the region?]

At any rate the young man in this interview has a lot more in the way of qualifications and skill sets than I had when I left the States 35 years ago, and I've done just fine. I'd advise any prospective expats to get that TEFL certificate as it's one extra thing to have in your back pocket and who knows?

PS: "It really can't be overstated how blessed you are to have American citizenship" – well, yes it can. Everyone knows that the best passport on earth is from Northwest Euroland, one of those places with free university education and free health care and where teenage mothers don't daily keel over dead from heroin overdoses in Dollar Stores .. Also more places visa-free

The Anti-Gnostic , says: Website March 15, 2019 at 2:37 pm GMT
@s.n

When you left the States 35 years ago, the world was 3 billion people smaller. The labor market has gotten a tad more competitive. I don't see any indication of a trade or other refined skillset in this article.

People who teach EASL for a living are like people who drive cars for a living: you don't do it because you're really good at teaching your native language, you do it because you're not marketable at anything else.

jeff stryker , says: March 15, 2019 at 3:20 pm GMT
@jacques sheete JACQUES

I think being Australian is the best citizenry you can have. The country is far from perfect, but any lower middle class American white like myself would prefer to be lower middle class there than in Detroit or Phoenix, where being lower income means life around the unfettered urban underclass that is paranoia inducing.

Being from the US is not as bad as being Bangladeshi, but if you had to be white and urban and poor you'd be better off in Sydney than Flint.

The most patriotic Americans have never been anywhere, so they have no idea whether Australia or Tokyo are better. They have never traveled.

s.n , says: March 15, 2019 at 11:42 am GMT
@The Anti-Gnostic

Yeah. He's 28 years old and apparently his chosen skillset is teaching EASL in foreign countries. That sector is shrinking as English becomes the global lingua franca and is taught in elementary schools worldwide. He's really too old and soft for his Plan B (military), and getting too old and soft for the entry-level grunt work in the skilled trades as well. What then?

do you know anything first hand about the teaching- english- as-a- second- language hustle?

Asking sincerely – as I don't know anything about it. However I kinda suspect that 'native speakers' will be in demand in many parts of the globe for some time to come [as an aside – and maybe Linh has written of this and I missed it – but last spring I was in Saigon for a couple of weeks and, hanging out one day at the zoo & museum complex, was startled to see about three groups of Vietnamese primary-school students being led around by americans in their early 20s, narrating everything in american english .

Apparently private schools offering entirely english-language curriculum are the big hit with the middle & upper class elite there. Perhaps more of the same elsewhere in the region?]

At any rate the young man in this interview has a lot more in the way of qualifications and skill sets than I had when I left the States 35 years ago, and I've done just fine. I'd advise any prospective expats to get that TEFL certificate as it's one extra thing to have in your back pocket and who knows?

ps: "It really can't be overstated how blessed you are to have American citizenship" – well, yes it can. Everyone knows that the best passport on earth is from Northwest Euroland, one of those places with free university education and free health care and where teenage mothers don't daily keel over dead from heroin overdoses in Dollar Stores ..

Also more places visa-free

s.n , says: March 16, 2019 at 7:23 am GMT
@The Anti-Gnostic

People who teach EASL for a living are like people who drive cars for a living: you don't do it because you're really good at teaching your native language, you do it because you're not marketable at anything else.

well that's the beauty of it: you don't have to be good at anything other than just being a native speaker to succeed as an EASL teacher, and thousands more potential customers are born every day. I'd definitely advise any potential expats to become accomplished, and, even better, qualified, in as many trades as possible. But imho the real key to success as a long term expat is your mindset: determination and will-power to survive no matter what. If you really want to break out of the States and see the world, and don't have inherited wealth, you will be forced to rely on your wits and good luck and seize the opportunities that arise, whatever those opportunities may be.

Thedirtysponge , says: March 16, 2019 at 4:01 pm GMT
@The Anti-Gnostic

Sorry man, English teaching is huge, and will remain so for some time to come. I'm heavily involved in the area and know plenty of ESL teachers. Spain for me, and the level of English here is still so dreadful and they all need it, the demand is staggering and their schools suck at teaching it themselves.

You are one of those people who just like to shit on things:) and people make a lot of money out of it, not everyone of course, like any area. But it's perfectly viable and good to go for a long time yet. It's exactly that English is the lingua Franca that people need to be at a high level of it. The Chinese market is still massive. The bag packer esl teachers are the ones that give off this stigma, and 'bag packer' and 'traveller' are by now very much regarded as dirty words in the ESL world.

Mike P , says: March 16, 2019 at 5:52 pm GMT
@Thedirtysponge

ESL teachers. Spain for me

There is a very funny version also with Jack Lemmon in "Irma la Douce", but I can't find that one on youtube.

jeff stryker , says: March 17, 2019 at 7:26 am GMT
@Thedirtysponge S.N. & DIRTY SPONGE

Most Americans lack the initiative to move anywhere. Most will complain but will never leave the street they were born on. Urban whites are used to adaptation being around other cultures anyhow and being somewhat street smart, but the poor rural whites in the exurbs or sticks whose live would really improve if they got the hell out of America will never move anywhere.

You have to really dislike your circumstances in the US to leave and be willing to find some way to get by overseas.

Lots of people will talk about leaving America without having a clue as to how hard this is to actually do. Australia and New Zealand are not crying out for white proles with high school education or GED. It is much more difficult to move overseas and stay overseas than most Americans think.

Except of course for the ruling elite. And that is because five-star hotels look the same everywhere and money is an international language.

We already saw this in South Africa. Mandela took over, the country went down the tubes, the wealthy whites left and the Boers were left to die in refugee camps. They WANT to leave and a few went to Russia, but most developed countries don't want them. Not with the limited amount of money they have.

Australia and NZ would rather have refugees than white people in dire circumstances.

Even immigrating to Canada, a country that I worked in, is much much harder than anyone imagines.

jeff stryker , says: March 17, 2019 at 7:37 am GMT
A LONGTIME EXPAT ON LIVING ABROAD

Americans are mostly ignorant to the fact that they live in a 2nd world country except for blacks and rednecks I have met in the Philippines who were stationed there in the military and have a $1000 a month check. Many of them live in more dangerous and dirty internal third worlds in America than what they can have in Southeast Asia and a good many would be homeless. They are worldly enough to leave.

But most Americans whose lives would be vastly improved overseas think they are living in the greatest country on earth.

[Mar 26, 2019] I wiped out a call center by mistyping the user profile expiration purge parameters in a script before leaving for the day.

Mar 26, 2019 | twitter.com

SwiftOnSecurity ‏ 7:07 PM - 25 Mar 2019

I wiped out a call center by mistyping the user profile expiration purge parameters in a script before leaving for the day.

https:// twitter.com/soniagupta504/ status/1109979183352942592

SwiftOnSecurity ‏ 7:08 PM - 25 Mar 2019

Luckily most of it was backed up with a custom-built user profile roaming system, but still it was down for an hour and a half and degraded for more...

[Mar 25, 2019] How to Monitor Disk IO in Linux Linux Hint

Mar 25, 2019 | linuxhint.com

Monitoring Specific Storage Devices or Partitions with iostat:

By default, iostat monitors all the storage devices of your computer. But, you can monitor specific storage devices (such as sda, sdb etc) or specific partitions (such as sda1, sda2, sdb4 etc) with iostat as well.

For example, to monitor the storage device sda only, run iostat as follows:

$ sudo iostat sda

Or

$ sudo iostat -d 2 sda

As you can see, only the storage device sda is monitored.

You can also monitor multiple storage devices with iostat.

For example, to monitor the storage devices sda and sdb , run iostat as follows:

$ sudo iostat sda sdb

Or

$ sudo iostat -d 2 sda sdb

If you want to monitor specific partitions, then you can do so as well.

For example, let's say, you want to monitor the partitions sda1 and sda2 , then run iostat as follows:

$ sudo iostat sda1 sda2

Or

$ sudo iostat -d 2 sda1 sda2

As you can see, only the partitions sda1 and sda2 are monitored.

Monitoring LVM Devices with iostat:

You can monitor the LVM devices of your computer with the -N option of iostat.

To monitor the LVM devices of your Linux machine as well, run iostat as follows:

$ sudo iostat -N -d 2

You can also monitor specific LVM logical volume as well.

For example, to monitor the LVM logical volume centos-root (let's say), run iostat as follows:

$ sudo iostat -N -d 2 centos-root

Changing the Units of iostat:

By default, iostat generates reports in kilobytes (kB) unit. But there are options that you can use to change the unit.

For example, to change the unit to megabytes (MB), use the -m option of iostat.

You can also change the unit to human readable with the -h option of iostat. Human readable format will automatically pick the right unit depending on the available data.

To change the unit to megabytes, run iostat as follows:

$ sudo iostat -m -d 2 sda

To change the unit to human readable format, run iostat as follows:

$ sudo iostat -h -d 2 sda

I copied as file and as you can see, the unit is now in megabytes (MB).

It changed to kilobytes (kB) as soon as the file copy is over.

Extended Display of iostat:

If you want, you can display a lot more information about disk i/o with iostat. To do that, use the -x option of iostat.

For example, to display extended information about disk i/o, run iostat as follows:

$ sudo iostat -x -d 2 sda

You can find what each of these fields (rrqm/s, %wrqm etc) means in the man page of iostat.

Getting Help:

If you need more information on each of the supported options of iostat and what each of the fields of iostat means, I recommend you take a look at the man page of iostat.

You can access the man page of iostat with the following command:

$ man iostat

So, that's how you use iostat in Linux. Thanks for reading this article.

[Mar 25, 2019] Concatenating Strings with the += Operator

Mar 25, 2019 | linuxize.com

https://acdn.adnxs.com/ib/static/usersync/v3/async_usersync.html

https://bh.contextweb.com/visitormatch

Concatenating Strings with the += Operator

Another way of concatenating strings in bash is by appending variables or literal strings to a variable using the += operator:

VAR1="Hello, "
VAR1+=" World"
echo "$VAR1"
Hello, World

The following example is using the += operator to concatenate strings in bash for loop :

languages.sh
VAR=""
for ELEMENT in 'Hydrogen' 'Helium' 'Lithium' 'Beryllium'; do
  VAR+="${ELEMENT} "
done

echo "$VAR"

[Mar 13, 2019] Getting started with the cat command by Alan Formy-Duval

Mar 13, 2019 | opensource.com

6 comments

Cat can also number a file's lines during output. There are two commands to do this, as shown in the help documentation: -b, --number-nonblank number nonempty output lines, overrides -n
-n, --number number all output lines

If I use the -b command with the hello.world file, the output will be numbered like this:

   $ cat -b hello.world
   1 Hello World !

In the example above, there is an empty line. We can determine why this empty line appears by using the -n argument:

$ cat -n hello.world
   1 Hello World !
   2
   $

Now we see that there is an extra empty line. These two arguments are operating on the final output rather than the file contents, so if we were to use the -n option with both files, numbering will count lines as follows:

   
   $ cat -n hello.world goodbye.world
   1 Hello World !
   2
   3 Good Bye World !
   4
   $

One other option that can be useful is -s for squeeze-blank . This argument tells cat to reduce repeated empty line output down to one line. This is helpful when reviewing files that have a lot of empty lines, because it effectively fits more text on the screen. Suppose I have a file with three lines that are spaced apart by several empty lines, such as in this example, greetings.world :

   $ cat greetings.world
   Greetings World !

   Take me to your Leader !

   We Come in Peace !
   $

Using the -s option saves screen space:

$ cat -s greetings.world

Cat is often used to copy contents of one file to another file. You may be asking, "Why not just use cp ?" Here is how I could create a new file, called both.files , that contains the contents of the hello and goodbye files:

$ cat hello.world goodbye.world > both.files
$ cat both.files
Hello World !
Good Bye World !
$
zcat

There is another variation on the cat command known as zcat . This command is capable of displaying files that have been compressed with Gzip without needing to uncompress the files with the gunzip command. As an aside, this also preserves disk space, which is the entire reason files are compressed!

The zcat command is a bit more exciting because it can be a huge time saver for system administrators who spend a lot of time reviewing system log files. Where can we find compressed log files? Take a look at /var/log on most Linux systems. On my system, /var/log contains several files, such as syslog.2.gz and syslog.3.gz . These files are the result of the log management system, which rotates and compresses log files to save disk space and prevent logs from growing to unmanageable file sizes. Without zcat , I would have to uncompress these files with the gunzip command before viewing them. Thankfully, I can use zcat :

$ cd / var / log
$ ls * .gz
syslog.2.gz syslog.3.gz
$
$ zcat syslog.2.gz | more
Jan 30 00:02: 26 workstation systemd [ 1850 ] : Starting GNOME Terminal Server...
Jan 30 00:02: 26 workstation dbus-daemon [ 1920 ] : [ session uid = 2112 pid = 1920 ] Successful
ly activated service 'org.gnome.Terminal'
Jan 30 00:02: 26 workstation systemd [ 1850 ] : Started GNOME Terminal Server.
Jan 30 00:02: 26 workstation org.gnome.Terminal.desktop [ 2059 ] : # watch_fast: "/org/gno
me / terminal / legacy / " (establishing: 0, active: 0)
Jan 30 00:02:26 workstation org.gnome.Terminal.desktop[2059]: # unwatch_fast: " / org / g
nome / terminal / legacy / " (active: 0, establishing: 1)
Jan 30 00:02:26 workstation org.gnome.Terminal.desktop[2059]: # watch_established: " /
org / gnome / terminal / legacy / " (establishing: 0)
--More--

We can also pass both files to zcat if we want to review both of them uninterrupted. Due to how log rotation works, you need to pass the filenames in reverse order to preserve the chronological order of the log contents:

$ ls -l * .gz
-rw-r----- 1 syslog adm 196383 Jan 31 00:00 syslog.2.gz
-rw-r----- 1 syslog adm 1137176 Jan 30 00:00 syslog.3.gz
$ zcat syslog.3.gz syslog.2.gz | more

The cat command seems simple but is very useful. I use it regularly. You also don't need to feed or pet it like a real cat. As always, I suggest you review the man pages ( man cat ) for the cat and zcat commands to learn more about how it can be used. You can also use the --help argument for a quick synopsis of command line arguments.

Victorhck on 13 Feb 2019 Permalink

and there's also a "tac" command, that is just a "cat" upside down!
Following your example:

~~~~~

tac both.files
Good Bye World!
Hello World!
~~~~
Happy hacking! :)
Johan Godfried on 26 Feb 2019 Permalink

Interesting article but please don't misuse cat to pipe to more......

I am trying to teach people to use less pipes and here you go abusing cat to pipe to other commands. IMHO, 99.9% of the time this is not necessary!

In stead of "cat file | command" most of the time, you can use "command file" (yes, I am an old dinosaur from a time where memory was very expensive and forking multiple commands could fill it all up)

Uri Ran on 03 Mar 2019 Permalink

Run cat then press keys to see the codes your shortcut send. (Press Ctrl+C to kill the cat when you're done.)

For example, on my Mac, the key combination option-leftarrow is ^[^[[D and command-downarrow is ^[[B.

I learned it from https://stackoverflow.com/users/787216/lolesque in his answer to https://stackoverflow.com/questions/12382499/looking-for-altleftarrowkey...

Geordie on 04 Mar 2019 Permalink

cat is also useful to make (or append to) text files without an editor:

$ cat >> foo << "EOF"
> Hello World
> Another Line
> EOF
$

[Mar 13, 2019] Pilots Complained About Boeing 737 Max 8 For Months Before Second Deadly Crash

Mar 13, 2019 | www.zerohedge.com

Several Pilots repeatedly warned federal authorities of safety concerns over the now-grounded Boeing 737 Max 8 for months leading up to the second deadly disaster involving the plane, according to an investigation by the Dallas Morning News . One captain even called the Max 8's flight manual " inadequate and almost criminally insufficient ," according to the report.

" The fact that this airplane requires such jury-rigging to fly is a red flag. Now we know the systems employed are error-prone -- even if the pilots aren't sure what those systems are, what redundancies are in place and failure modes. I am left to wonder: what else don't I know?" wrote the captain.

At least five complaints about the Boeing jet were found in a federal database which pilots routinely use to report aviation incidents without fear of repercussions.

The complaints are about the safety mechanism cited in preliminary reports for an October plane crash in Indonesia that killed 189.

The disclosures found by The News reference problems during flights of Boeing 737 Max 8s with an autopilot system during takeoff and nose-down situations while trying to gain altitude. While records show these flights occurred during October and November, information regarding which airlines the pilots were flying for at the time is redacted from the database. - Dallas Morning News

One captain who flies the Max 8 said in November that it was "unconscionable" that Boeing and federal authorities have allowed pilots to fly the plane without adequate training - including a failure to fully disclose how its systems were distinctly different from other planes.

An FAA spokesman said the reporting system is directly filed to NASA, which serves as an neutral third party in the reporting of grievances.

"The FAA analyzes these reports along with other safety data gathered through programs the FAA administers directly, including the Aviation Safety Action Program, which includes all of the major airlines including Southwest and American," said FAA southwest regional spokesman Lynn Lunsford.

Meanwhile, despite several airlines and foreign countries grounding the Max 8, US regulators have so far declined to follow suit. They have, however, mandated that Boeing upgrade the plane's software by April.

Sen. Ted Cruz (R-TX), who chairs a Senate subcommittee overseeing aviation, called for the grounding of the Max 8 in a Thursday statement.

"Further investigation may reveal that mechanical issues were not the cause, but until that time, our first priority must be the safety of the flying public," said Cruz.

At least 18 carriers -- including American Airlines and Southwest Airlines, the two largest U.S. carriers flying the 737 Max 8 -- have also declined to ground planes , saying they are confident in the safety and "airworthiness" of their fleets. American and Southwest have 24 and 34 of the aircraft in their fleets, respectively. - Dallas Morning News

The United States should be leading the world in aviation safety," said Transport Workers Union president John Samuelsen. " And yet, because of the lust for profit in the American aviation, we're still flying planes that dozens of other countries and airlines have now said need to grounded ." Tags Disaster Accident

[Mar 13, 2019] Boeing's automatic trim for the 737 MAX was not disclosed to the Pilots by Bjorn Fehrm

The background to Boeing's 737 MAX automatic trim
Mar 13, 2019 | leehamnews.com

The automatic trim we described last week has a name, MCAS, or Maneuvering Characteristics Automation System.

It's unique to the MAX because the 737 MAX no longer has the docile pitch characteristics of the 737NG at high Angles Of Attack (AOA). This is caused by the larger engine nacelles covering the higher bypass LEAP-1B engines.

The nacelles for the MAX are larger and placed higher and further forward of the wing, Figure 1.

Figure 1. Boeing 737NG (left) and MAX (right) nacelles compared. Source: Boeing 737 MAX brochure.

By placing the nacelle further forward of the wing, it could be placed higher. Combined with a higher nose landing gear, which raises the nacelle further, the same ground clearance could be achieved for the nacelle as for the 737NG.

The drawback of a larger nacelle, placed further forward, is it destabilizes the aircraft in pitch. All objects on an aircraft placed ahead of the Center of Gravity (the line in Figure 2, around which the aircraft moves in pitch) will contribute to destabilize the aircraft in pitch.

... ... ...

The 737 is a classical flight control aircraft. It relies on a naturally stable base aircraft for its flight control design, augmented in selected areas. Once such area is the artificial yaw damping, present on virtually all larger aircraft (to stop passengers getting sick from the aircraft's natural tendency to Dutch Roll = Wagging its tail).

Until the MAX, there was no need for artificial aids in pitch. Once the aircraft entered a stall, there were several actions described last week which assisted the pilot to exit the stall. But not in normal flight.

The larger nacelles, called for by the higher bypass LEAP-1B engines, changed this. When flying at normal angles of attack (3° at cruise and say 5° in a turn) the destabilizing effect of the larger engines are not felt.

The nacelles are designed to not generate lift in normal flight. It would generate unnecessary drag as the aspect ratio of an engine nacelle is lousy. The aircraft designer focuses the lift to the high aspect ratio wings.

But if the pilot for whatever reason manoeuvres the aircraft hard, generating an angle of attack close to the stall angle of around 14°, the previously neutral engine nacelle generates lift. A lift which is felt by the aircraft as a pitch up moment (as its ahead of the CG line), now stronger than on the 737NG. This destabilizes the MAX in pitch at higher Angles Of Attack (AOA). The most difficult situation is when the maneuver has a high pitch ratio. The aircraft's inertia can then provoke an over-swing into stall AOA.

To counter the MAX's lower stability margins at high AOA, Boeing introduced MCAS. Dependent on AOA value and rate, altitude (air density) and Mach (changed flow conditions) the MCAS, which is a software loop in the Flight Control computer, initiates a nose down trim above a threshold AOA.

It can be stopped by the Pilot counter-trimming on the Yoke or by him hitting the CUTOUT switches on the center pedestal. It's not stopped by the Pilot pulling the Yoke, which for normal trim from the autopilot or runaway manual trim triggers trim hold sensors. This would negate why MCAS was implemented, the Pilot pulling so hard on the Yoke that the aircraft is flying close to stall.

It's probably this counterintuitive characteristic, which goes against what has been trained many times in the simulator for unwanted autopilot trim or manual trim runaway, which has confused the pilots of JT610. They learned that holding against the trim stopped the nose down, and then they could take action, like counter-trimming or outright CUTOUT the trim servo. But it didn't. After a 10 second trim to a 2.5° nose down stabilizer position, the trimming started again despite the Pilots pulling against it. The faulty high AOA signal was still present.

How should they know that pulling on the Yoke didn't stop the trim? It was described nowhere; neither in the aircraft's manual, the AFM, nor in the Pilot's manual, the FCOM. This has created strong reactions from airlines with the 737 MAX on the flight line and their Pilots. They have learned the NG and the MAX flies the same. They fly them interchangeably during the week.

They do fly the same as long as no fault appears. Then there are differences, and the Pilots should have been informed about the differences.

  1. Bruce Levitt
    November 14, 2018
    In figure 2 it shows the same center of gravity for the NG as the Max. I find this a bit surprising as I would have expected that mounting heavy engines further forward would have cause a shift forward in the center of gravity that would not have been offset by the longer tailcone, which I'm assuming is relatively light even with APU installed.

    Based on what is coming out about the automatic trim, Boeing must be counting its lucky stars that this incident happened to Lion Air and not to an American aircraft. If this had happened in the US, I'm pretty sure the fleet would have been grounded by the FAA and the class action lawyers would be lined up outside the door to get their many pounds of flesh.

    This is quite the wake-up call for Boeing.

    • OV-099
      November 14, 2018
      If the FAA is not going to comprehensively review the certification for the 737 MAX, I would not be surprised if EASA would start taking a closer look at the aircraft and why the FAA seemingly missed the seemingly inadequate testing of the automatic trim when they decided to certified the 737 MAX 8. Reply
      • Doubting Thomas
        November 16, 2018
        One wonders if there are any OTHER goodies in the new/improved/yet identical handling latest iteration of this old bird that Boeing did not disclose so that pilots need not be retrained.
        EASA & FAA likely already are asking some pointed questions and will want to verify any statements made by the manufacturer.
        Depending on the answers pilot training requirements are likely to change materially.
    • jbeeko
      November 14, 2018
      CG will vary based on loading. I'd guess the line is the rear-most allowed CG.
    • ahmed
      November 18, 2018
      hi dears
      I think that even the pilot didnt knew about the MCAS ; this case can be corrected by only applying the boeing check list (QRH) stabilizer runaway.
      the pilot when they noticed that stabilizer are trimming without a knewn input ( from pilot or from Auto pilot ) ; shout put the cut out sw in the off position according to QRH. Reply
      • TransWorld
        November 19, 2018
        Please note that the first actions pulling back on the yoke to stop it.

        Also keep in mind the aircraft is screaming stall and the stick shaker is activated.

        Pulling back on the yoke in that case is the WRONG thing to do if you are stalled.

        The Pilot has to then determine which system is lading.

        At the same time its chaning its behavior from previous training, every 5 seconds, it does it again.

        There also was another issue taking place at the same time.

        So now you have two systems lying to you, one that is actively trying to kill you.

        If the Pitot static system is broken, you also have several key instruments feeding you bad data (VSI, altitude and speed)

    • TransWorld
      November 14, 2018
      Grubbie: I can partly answer that.

      Pilots are trained to immediately deal with emergency issues (engine loss etc)

      Then there is a follow up detailed instructions for follow on actions (if any).

      Simulators are wonderful things because you can train lethal scenes without lethal results.

      In this case, with NO pilot training let alone in the manuals, pilots have to either be really quick in the situation or you get the result you do. Some are better at it than others (Sullenbergers along with other aspects elected to turn on his APU even though it was not part of the engine out checklist)

      The other one was to ditch, too many pilots try to turn back even though we are trained not to.

      What I can tell you from personal expereince is having got myself into a spin without any training, I was locked up logic wise (panic) as suddenly nothing was working the way it should.

      I was lucky I was high enough and my brain kicked back into cold logic mode and I knew the counter to a spin from reading)

      Another 500 feet and I would not be here to post.

      While I did parts of the spin recovery wrong, fortunately in that aircraft it did not care, right rudder was enough to stop it.

      Reply
  1. OV-099
    November 14, 2018
    It's starting to look as if Boeing will not be able to just pay victims' relatives in the form of "condolence money", without admitting liability. Reply
    • Dukeofurl
      November 14, 2018
      Im pretty sure, even though its an Indonesian Airline, any whiff of fault with the plane itself will have lawyers taking Boeing on in US courts.
  1. Tech-guru
    November 14, 2018
    Astonishing to say the least. It is quite unlike Boeing. They are normally very good in the documentation and training. It makes everyone wonder how such vital change on the MAX aircraft was omitted from books as weel as in crew training.
    Your explanation is very good as to why you need this damn MCAS. But can you also tell us how just one faulty sensor can trigger this MCAS. In all other Boeing models like B777, the two AOA sensor signals are compared with a calculated AOA and choose the mid value within the ADIRU. It eliminates a drastic mistake of following a wrong sensor input.
    • Bjorn Fehrm
      November 14, 2018
      Hi Tech-Gury,

      it's not sure it's a one sensor fault. One sensor was changed amid information there was a 20 degree diff between the two sides. But then it happened again. I think we might be informed something else is at the root of this, which could also trip such a plausibility check you mention. We just don't know. What we know is the MCAS function was triggered without the aircraft being close to stall.

      Reply
      • Matthew
        November 14, 2018
        If it's certain that the MCAS was doing unhelpful things, that coupled with the fact that no one was telling pilots anything about it suggests to me that this is already effectively an open-and-shut case so far as liability, regulatory remedies are concerned.

        The tecnical root cause is also important, but probably irrelevant so far as estbalishing the ultimate reason behind the crash.

        Reply

[Mar 13, 2019] Boeing Crapification Second 737 Max Plane Within Five Months Crashes Just After Takeoff

Notable quotes:
"... The key point I want to pick up on from that earlier post is this: the Boeing 737 Max includes a new "safety" feature about which the company failed to inform the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). ..."
"... Boeing Co. withheld information about potential hazards associated with a new flight-control feature suspected of playing a role in last month's fatal Lion Air jet crash, according to safety experts involved in the investigation, as well as midlevel FAA officials and airline pilots. ..."
"... Notice that phrase: "under unusual conditions". Seems now that the pilots of two of these jets may have encountered such unusual conditions since October. ..."
"... Why did Boeing neglect to tell the FAA – or, for that matter, other airlines or regulatory authorities – about the changes to the 737 Max? Well, the airline marketed the new jet as not needing pilots to undergo any additional training in order to fly it. ..."
"... In addition to considerable potential huge legal liability, from both the Lion Air and Ethiopian Airlines crashes, Boeing also faces the commercial consequences of grounding some if not all 737 Max 8 'planes currently in service – temporarily? indefinitely? -and loss or at minimum delay of all future sales of this aircraft model. ..."
"... If this tragedy had happened on an aircraft of another manufacturer other than big Boeing, the fleet would already have been grounded by the FAA. The arrogance of engineers both at Airbus and Boeing, who refuse to give the pilots easy means to regain immediate and full authority over the plane (pitch and power) is just appalling. ..."
"... Boeing has made significant inroads in China with its 737 MAX family. A dozen Chinese airlines have ordered 180 of the planes, and 76 of them have been delivered, according Boeing. About 85% of Boeing's unfilled Chinese airline orders are for 737 MAX planes. ..."
"... "It's pretty asinine for them to put a system on an airplane and not tell the pilots who are operating the airplane, especially when it deals with flight controls," Captain Mike Michaelis, chairman of the safety committee for the Allied Pilots Association, told the Wall Street Journal. ..."
"... The aircraft company concealed the new system and minimized the differences between the MAX and other versions of the 737 to boost sales. On the Boeing website, the company claims that airlines can save "millions of dollars" by purchasing the new plane "because of its commonality" with previous versions of the plane. ..."
"... "Years of experience representing hundreds of victims has revealed a common thread through most air disaster cases," said Charles Herrmann the principle of Herrmann Law. "Generating profit in a fiercely competitive market too often involves cutting safety measures. In this case, Boeing cut training and completely eliminated instructions and warnings on a new system. Pilots didn't even know it existed. I can't blame so many pilots for being mad as hell." ..."
"... The Air France Airbus disaster was jumped on – Boeing's traditional hydraulic links between the sticks for the two pilots ensuring they move in tandem; the supposed comments by Captain Sully that the Airbus software didn't allow him to hit the water at the optimal angle he wanted, causing the rear rupture in the fuselage both showed the inferiority of fly-by-wire until Boeing started using it too. (Sully has taken issue with the book making the above point and concludes fly-by-wire is a "mixed blessing".) ..."
"... Money over people. ..."
Mar 13, 2019 | www.nakedcapitalism.com

Posted on March 11, 2019 by Jerri-Lynn Scofield By Jerri-Lynn Scofield, who has worked as a securities lawyer and a derivatives trader. She is currently writing a book about textile artisans.

Yesterday, an Ethiopian Airlines flight crashed minutes after takeoff, killing all 157 passengers on board.

The crash occurred less than five months after a Lion Air jet crashed near Jakarta, Indonesia, also shortly after takeoff, and killed all 189 passengers.

Both jets were Boeing's latest 737 Max 8 model.

The Wall Street Journal reports in Ethiopian Crash Carries High Stakes for Boeing, Growing African Airline :

The state-owned airline is among the early operators of Boeing's new 737 MAX single-aisle workhorse aircraft, which has been delivered to carriers around the world since 2017. The 737 MAX represents about two-thirds of Boeing's future deliveries and an estimated 40% of its profits, according to analysts.

Having delivered 350 of the 737 MAX planes as of January, Boeing has booked orders for about 5,000 more, many to airlines in fast-growing emerging markets around the world.

The voice and data recorders for the doomed flight have already been recovered, the New York Times reported in Ethiopian Airline Crash Updates: Data and Voice Recorders Recovered . Investigators will soon be able to determine whether the same factors that caused the Lion Air crash also caused the latest Ethiopian Airlines tragedy.

Boeing, Crapification, Two 737 Max Crashes Within Five Months

Yves wrote a post in November, Boeing, Crapification, and the Lion Air Crash , analyzing a devastating Wall Street Journal report on that earlier crash. I will not repeat the details of her post here, but instead encourage interested readers to read it iin full.

The key point I want to pick up on from that earlier post is this: the Boeing 737 Max includes a new "safety" feature about which the company failed to inform the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). As Yves wrote:

The short version of the story is that Boeing had implemented a new "safety" feature that operated even when its plane was being flown manually, that if it went into a stall, it would lower the nose suddenly to pick airspeed and fly normally again. However, Boeing didn't tell its buyers or even the FAA about this new goodie. It wasn't in pilot training or even the manuals. But even worse, this new control could force the nose down so far that it would be impossible not to crash the plane. And no, I am not making this up. From the Wall Street Journal:

Boeing Co. withheld information about potential hazards associated with a new flight-control feature suspected of playing a role in last month's fatal Lion Air jet crash, according to safety experts involved in the investigation, as well as midlevel FAA officials and airline pilots.

The automated stall-prevention system on Boeing 737 MAX 8 and MAX 9 models -- intended to help cockpit crews avoid mistakenly raising a plane's nose dangerously high -- under unusual conditions can push it down unexpectedly and so strongly that flight crews can't pull it back up. Such a scenario, Boeing told airlines in a world-wide safety bulletin roughly a week after the accident, can result in a steep dive or crash -- even if pilots are manually flying the jetliner and don't expect flight-control computers to kick in.

Notice that phrase: "under unusual conditions". Seems now that the pilots of two of these jets may have encountered such unusual conditions since October.

Why did Boeing neglect to tell the FAA – or, for that matter, other airlines or regulatory authorities – about the changes to the 737 Max? Well, the airline marketed the new jet as not needing pilots to undergo any additional training in order to fly it.

I see. Why Were 737 Max Jets Still in Service? Today, Boeing executives no doubt rue not pulling all 737 Max 8 jets out of service after the October Lion Air crash, to allow their engineers and engineering safety regulators to make necessary changes in the 'plane's design or to develop new training protocols.

In addition to considerable potential huge legal liability, from both the Lion Air and Ethiopian Airlines crashes, Boeing also faces the commercial consequences of grounding some if not all 737 Max 8 'planes currently in service – temporarily? indefinitely? -and loss or at minimum delay of all future sales of this aircraft model.

Over to Yves again, who in her November post cut to the crux:

And why haven't the planes been taken out of service? As one Wall Street Journal reader put it:

If this tragedy had happened on an aircraft of another manufacturer other than big Boeing, the fleet would already have been grounded by the FAA. The arrogance of engineers both at Airbus and Boeing, who refuse to give the pilots easy means to regain immediate and full authority over the plane (pitch and power) is just appalling.

Accident and incident records abound where the automation has been a major contributing factor or precursor. Knowing our friends at Boeing, it is highly probable that they will steer the investigation towards maintenance deficiencies as primary cause of the accident

In the wake of the Ethiopian Airlines crash, other countries have not waited for the FAA to act. China and Indonesia, as well as Ethiopian Airlines and Cayman Airways, have grounded flights of all Boeing 737 Max 8 aircraft, the Guardian reported in Ethiopian Airlines crash: Boeing faces safety questions over 737 Max 8 jets . The FT has called the Chinese and Indonesian actions an "unparalleled flight ban" (see China and Indonesia ground Boeing 737 Max 8 jets after latest crash ). India's air regulator has also issued new rules covering flights of the 737 Max aircraft, requiring pilots to have a minimum of 1,000 hours experience to fly these 'planes, according to a report in the Economic Times, DGCA issues additional safety instructions for flying B737 MAX planes.

Future of Boeing?

The commercial consequences of grounding the 737 Max in China alone are significant, according to this CNN account, Why grounding 737 MAX jets is a big deal for Boeing . The 737 Max is Boeing's most important plane; China is also the company's major market:

"A suspension in China is very significant, as this is a major market for Boeing," said Greg Waldron, Asia managing editor at aviation research firm FlightGlobal.

Boeing has predicted that China will soon become the world's first trillion-dollar market for jets. By 2037, Boeing estimates China will need 7,690 commercial jets to meet its travel demands.

Airbus (EADSF) and Commercial Aircraft Corporation of China, or Comac, are vying with Boeing for the vast and rapidly growing Chinese market.

Comac's first plane, designed to compete with the single-aisle Boeing 737 MAX and Airbus A320, made its first test flight in 2017. It is not yet ready for commercial service, but Boeing can't afford any missteps.

Boeing has made significant inroads in China with its 737 MAX family. A dozen Chinese airlines have ordered 180 of the planes, and 76 of them have been delivered, according Boeing. About 85% of Boeing's unfilled Chinese airline orders are for 737 MAX planes.

The 737 has been Boeing's bestselling product for decades. The company's future depends on the success the 737 MAX, the newest version of the jet. Boeing has 4,700 unfilled orders for 737s, representing 80% of Boeing's orders backlog. Virtually all 737 orders are for MAX versions.

As of the time of posting, US airlines have yet to ground their 737 Max 8 fleets. American Airlines, Alaska Air, Southwest Airlines, and United Airlines have ordered a combined 548 of the new 737 jets, of which 65 have been delivered, according to CNN.

Legal Liability?

Prior to Sunday's Ethiopian Airlines crash, Boeing already faced considerable potential legal liability for the October Lion Air crash. Just last Thursday, the Hermann Law Group of personal injury lawyers filed suit against Boeing on behalf of the families of 17 Indonesian passengers who died in that crash.

The Families of Lion Air Crash File Lawsuit Against Boeing – News Release did not mince words;

"It's pretty asinine for them to put a system on an airplane and not tell the pilots who are operating the airplane, especially when it deals with flight controls," Captain Mike Michaelis, chairman of the safety committee for the Allied Pilots Association, told the Wall Street Journal.

The president of the pilots union at Southwest Airlines, Jon Weaks, said, "We're pissed that Boeing didn't tell the companies, and the pilots didn't get notice."

The aircraft company concealed the new system and minimized the differences between the MAX and other versions of the 737 to boost sales. On the Boeing website, the company claims that airlines can save "millions of dollars" by purchasing the new plane "because of its commonality" with previous versions of the plane.

"Years of experience representing hundreds of victims has revealed a common thread through most air disaster cases," said Charles Herrmann the principle of Herrmann Law. "Generating profit in a fiercely competitive market too often involves cutting safety measures. In this case, Boeing cut training and completely eliminated instructions and warnings on a new system. Pilots didn't even know it existed. I can't blame so many pilots for being mad as hell."

Additionally, the complaint alleges the United States Federal Aviation Administration is partially culpable for negligently certifying Boeing's Air Flight Manual without requiring adequate instruction and training on the new system. Canadian and Brazilian authorities did require additional training.

What's Next?

The consequences for Boeing could be serious and will depend on what the flight and voice data recorders reveal. I also am curious as to what additional flight training or instructions, if any, the Ethiopian Airlines pilots received, either before or after the Lion Air crash, whether from Boeing, an air safety regulator, or any other source.


el_tel , March 11, 2019 at 5:04 pm

Of course we shouldn't engage in speculation, but we will anyway 'cause we're human. If fly-by-wire and the ability of software to over-ride pilots are indeed implicated in the 737 Max 8 then you can bet the Airbus cheer-leaders on YouTube videos will engage in huge Schaudenfreude.

I really shouldn't even look at comments to YouTube videos – it's bad for my blood pressure. But I occasionally dip into the swamp on ones in areas like airlines. Of course – as you'd expect – you get a large amount of "flag waving" between Europeans and Americans. But the level of hatred and suspiciously similar comments by the "if it ain't Boeing I ain't going" brigade struck me as in a whole new league long before the "SJW" troll wars regarding things like Captain Marvel etc of today.

The Air France Airbus disaster was jumped on – Boeing's traditional hydraulic links between the sticks for the two pilots ensuring they move in tandem; the supposed comments by Captain Sully that the Airbus software didn't allow him to hit the water at the optimal angle he wanted, causing the rear rupture in the fuselage both showed the inferiority of fly-by-wire until Boeing started using it too. (Sully has taken issue with the book making the above point and concludes fly-by-wire is a "mixed blessing".)

I'm going to try to steer clear of my YouTube channels on airlines. Hopefully NC will continue to provide the real evidence as it emerges as to what's been going on here.

Monty , March 11, 2019 at 7:14 pm

Re SJW troll wars.

It is really disheartening how an idea as reasonable as "a just society" has been so thoroughly discredited among a large swath of the population.

No wonder there is such a wide interest in primitive construction and technology on YouTube. This society is very sick and it is nice to pretend there is a way to opt out.

none , March 11, 2019 at 8:17 pm

The version I heard (today, on Reddit) was "if it's Boeing, I'm not going". Hadn't seen the opposite version to just now.

Octopii , March 12, 2019 at 5:19 pm

Nobody is going to provide real evidence but the NTSB.

albert , March 12, 2019 at 6:44 pm

Indeed. The NTSB usually works with local investigation teams (as well as a manufacturers rep) if the manufacturer is located in the US, or if specifically requested by the local authorities. I'd like to see their report. I don't care what the FAA or Boeing says about it.
. .. . .. -- .

d , March 12, 2019 at 5:58 pm

fly by wire has been around the 90s, its not new

notabanker , March 11, 2019 at 6:37 pm

Contains a link to a Seattle Times report as a "comprehensive wrap":
Speaking before China's announcement, Cox, who previously served as the top safety official for the Air Line Pilots Association, said it's premature to think of grounding the 737 MAX fleet.

"We don't know anything yet. We don't have close to sufficient information to consider grounding the planes," he said. "That would create economic pressure on a number of the airlines that's unjustified at this point.

China has grounded them . US? Must not create undue economic pressure on the airlines. Right there in black and white. Money over people.

Joey , March 11, 2019 at 11:13 pm

I just emailed southwest about an upcoming flight asking about my choices for refusal to board MAX 8/9 planes based on this "feature". I expect pro forma policy recitation, but customer pressure could trump too big to fail sweeping the dirt under the carpet. I hope.

Thuto , March 12, 2019 at 3:35 am

We got the "safety of our customers is our top priority and we are remaining vigilant and are in touch with Boeing and the Civial Aviation Authority on this matter but will not be grounding the aircraft model until further information on the crash becomes available" speech from a local airline here in South Africa. It didn't take half a day for customer pressure to effect a swift reversal of that blatant disregard for their "top priority", the model is grounded so yeah, customer muscle flexing will do it

Jessica , March 12, 2019 at 5:26 am

On PPRUNE.ORG (where a lot of pilots hang out), they reported that after the Lion Air crash, Southwest added an extra display (to indicate when the two angle of attack sensors were disagreeing with each other) that the folks on PPRUNE thought was an extremely good idea and effective.
Of course, if the Ethiopian crash was due to something different from the Lion Air crash, that extra display on the Southwest planes may not make any difference.

JerryDenim , March 12, 2019 at 2:09 pm

"On PPRUNE.ORG (where a lot of pilots hang out)"

Take those comments with a large dose of salt. Not to say everyone commenting on PPRUNE and sites like PPRUNE are posers, but PPRUNE.org is where a lot of wanna-be pilots and guys that spend a lot of time in basements playing flight simulator games hang out. The "real pilots" on PPRUNE are more frequently of the aspiring airline pilot type that fly smaller, piston-powered planes.

Altandmain , March 11, 2019 at 5:31 pm

We will have to wait and see what the final investigation reveals. However this does not look good for Boeing at all.

The Maneuvering Characteristics Augmentation System (MCAS) system was implicated in the Lion Air crash. There have been a lot of complaints about the system on many of the pilot forums, suggesting at least anecdotally that there are issues. It is highly suspected that the MCAS system is responsible for this crash too.

Keep in mind that Ethiopian Airlines is a pretty well-known and regarded airline. This is not a cut rate airline we are talking about.

At this point, all we can do is to wait for the investigation results.

d , March 12, 2019 at 6:01 pm

one other minor thing. you remember that shut down? seems that would have delayed any updates from Boeing. seems thats one of the things the pilots pointed out when it shutdown was in progress

WestcoastDeplorable , March 11, 2019 at 5:33 pm

What really is the icing on this cake is the fact the new, larger engines on the "Max" changed the center of gravity of the plane and made it unstable. From what I've read on aviation blogs, this is highly unusual for a commercial passenger jet. Boeing then created the new "safety" feature which makes the plane fly nose down to avoid a stall. But of course garbage in, garbage out on sensors (remember AF447 which stalled right into the S. Atlantic?).
It's all politics anyway .if Boeing had been forthcoming about the "Max" it would have required additional pilot training to certify pilots to fly the airliner. They didn't and now another 189 passengers are D.O.A.
I wouldn't fly on one and wouldn't let family do so either.

Carey , March 11, 2019 at 5:40 pm

If I have read correctly, the MCAS system (not known of by pilots until after the Lion Air crash) is reliant on a single Angle of Attack sensor, without redundancy (!). It's too early
to say if MCAS was an issue in the crashes, I guess, but this does not look good.

Jessica , March 12, 2019 at 5:42 am

If it was some other issue with the plane, that will be almost worse for Boeing. Two crash-causing flaws would require grounding all of the planes, suspending production, then doing some kind of severe testing or other to make sure that there isn't a third flaw waiting to show up.

vomkammer , March 12, 2019 at 3:19 pm

If MCAS relies only on one Angle of Attack (AoA) sensor, then it might have been an error in the system design an the safety assessment, from which Boeing may be liable.

It appears that a failure of the AoA can produce an unannuntiated erroneous pitch trim:
a) If the pilots had proper traning and awareness, this event would "only" increase their workload,
b) But for an unaware or untrained pilot, the event would impair its ability to fly and introduce excessive workload.

The difference is important, because according to standard civil aviation safety assessment (see for instance EASA AMC 25.1309 Ch. 7), the case a) should be classified as "Major" failure, whereas b) should be classified as "Hazardous". "Hazardous" failures are required to have much lower probability, which means MCAS needs two AoA sensors.

In summary: a safe MCAS would need either a second AoA or pilot training. It seems that it had neither.

drumlin woodchuckles , March 12, 2019 at 1:01 am

What are the ways an ignorant lay air traveler can find out about whether a particular airline has these new-type Boeing 737 MAXes in its fleet? What are the ways an ignorant air traveler can find out which airlines do not have ANY of these airplanes in their fleet?

What are the ways an ignorant air traveler can find out ahead of time, when still planning herm's trip, which flights use a 737 MAX as against some other kind of plane?

The only way the flying public could possibly torture the airlines into grounding these planes until it is safe to de-ground them is a total all-encompassing "fearcott" against this airplane all around the world. Only if the airlines in the "go ahead and fly it" countries sell zero seats, without exception, on every single 737 MAX plane that flies, will the airlines themselves take them out of service till the issues are resolved.

Hence my asking how people who wish to save their own lives from future accidents can tell when and where they might be exposed to the risk of boarding a Boeing 737 MAX plane.

Carey , March 12, 2019 at 2:13 am

Should be in your flight info, if not, contact the airline. I'm not getting on a 737 MAX.

pau llauter , March 12, 2019 at 10:57 am

Look up the flight on Seatguru. Generally tells type of aircraft. Of course, airlines do change them, too.

Old Jake , March 12, 2019 at 2:57 pm

Stop flying. Your employer requires it? Tell'em where to get off. There are alternatives. The alternatives are less polluting and have lower climate impact also. Yes, this is a hard pill to swallow. No, I don't travel for employment any more, I telecommute. I used to enjoy flying, but I avoid it like plague any more. Crapification.

Darius , March 12, 2019 at 5:09 pm

Additional training won't do. If they wanted larger engines, they needed a different plane. Changing to an unstable center of gravity and compensating for it with new software sounds like a joke except for the hundreds of victims. I'm not getting on that plane.

Joe Well , March 11, 2019 at 5:35 pm

Has there been any study of crapification as a broad social phenomenon? When I Google the word I only get links to NC and sites that reference NC. And yet, this seems like one of the guiding concepts to understand our present world (the crapification of UK media and civil service go a long way towards understanding Brexit, for instance).

I mean, my first thought is, why would Boeing commit corporate self-harm for the sake of a single bullet in sales materials (requires no pilot retraining!). And the answer, of course, is crapification: the people calling the shots don't know what they're doing.

none , March 11, 2019 at 11:56 pm

"Market for lemons" maybe? Anyway the phenomenon is well known.

Alfred , March 12, 2019 at 1:01 am

Google Books finds the word "crapification" quoted (from a 2004) in a work of literary criticism published in 2008 (Literature, Science and a New Humanities, by J. Gottschall). From 2013 it finds the following in a book by Edward Keenan, Some Great Idea: "Policy-wise, it represented a shift in momentum, a slowing down of the childish, intentional crapification of the city ." So there the word appears clearly in the sense understood by regular readers here (along with an admission that crapfication can be intentional and not just inadvertent). To illustrate that sense, Google Books finds the word used in Misfit Toymakers, by Keith T. Jenkins (2014): "We had been to the restaurant and we had water to drink, because after the takeover's, all of the soda makers were brought to ruination by the total crapification of their product, by government management." But almost twenty years earlier the word "crapification" had occurred in a comic strip published in New York Magazine (29 January 1996, p. 100): "Instant crapification! It's the perfect metaphor for the mirror on the soul of America!" The word has been used on television. On 5 January 2010 a sketch subtitled "Night of Terror – The Crapification of the American Pant-scape" ran on The Colbert Report per: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_The_Colbert_Report_episodes_(2010) . Searching the internet, Google results do indeed show many instances of the word "crapification" on NC, or quoted elsewhere from NC posts. But the same results show it used on many blogs since ca. 2010. Here, at http://nyceducator.com/2018/09/the-crapification-factor.html , is a recent example that comments on the word's popularization: "I stole that word, "crapification," from my friend Michael Fiorillo, but I'm fairly certain he stole it from someone else. In any case, I think it applies to our new online attendance system." A comment here, https://angrybearblog.com/2017/09/open-thread-sept-26-2017.html , recognizes NC to have been a vector of the word's increasing usage. Googling shows that there have been numerous instances of the verb "crapify" used in computer-programming contexts, from at least as early as 2006. Google Books finds the word "crapified" used in a novel, Sonic Butler, by James Greve (2004). The derivation, "de-crapify," is also attested. "Crapify" was suggested to Merriam-Webster in 2007 per: http://nws.merriam-webster.com/opendictionary/newword_display_alpha.php?letter=Cr&last=40 . At that time the suggested definition was, "To make situations/things bad." The verb was posted to Urban Dictionary in 2003: https://www.urbandictionary.com/define.php?term=crapify . The earliest serious discussion I could quickly find on crapificatjon as a phenomenon was from 2009 at https://www.cryptogon.com/?p=10611 . I have found only two attempts to elucidate the causes of crapification: http://malepatternboldness.blogspot.com/2017/03/my-jockey-journey-or-crapification-of.html (an essay on undershirts) and https://twilightstarsong.blogspot.com/2017/04/complaints.html (a comment on refrigerators). This essay deals with the mechanics of job crapification: http://asserttrue.blogspot.com/2015/10/how-job-crapification-works.html (relating it to de-skilling). An apparent Americanism, "crapification" has recently been 'translated' into French: "Mon bled est en pleine urbanisation, comprends : en pleine emmerdisation" [somewhat literally -- My hole in the road is in the midst of development, meaning: in the midst of crapification]: https://twitter.com/entre2passions/status/1085567796703096832 Interestingly, perhaps, a comprehensive search of amazon.com yields "No results for crapification."

Joe Well , March 12, 2019 at 12:27 pm

You deserve a medal! That's amazing research!

drumlin woodchuckles , March 12, 2019 at 1:08 am

This seems more like a specific bussiness conspiracy than like general crapification. This isn't " they just don't make them like they used to". This is like Ford deliberately selling the Crash and Burn Pinto with its special explode-on-impact gas-tank feature

Maybe some Trump-style insults should be crafted for this plane so they can get memed-up and travel faster than Boeing's ability to manage the story. Epithets like " the new Boeing crash-a-matic dive-liner
with nose-to-the-ground pilot-override autocrash built into every plane." It seems unfair, but life and safety should come before fairness, and that will only happen if a world wide wave of fear MAKES it happen.

pretzelattack , March 12, 2019 at 2:17 am

yeah first thing i thought of was the ford pinto.

The Rev Kev , March 12, 2019 at 4:19 am

Now there is a car tailor made to modern suicidal Jihadists. You wouldn't even have to load it up with explosives but just a full fuel tank-

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lgOxWPGsJNY

drumlin woodchuckles , March 12, 2019 at 3:27 pm

" Instant car bomb. Just add gas."

EoH , March 12, 2019 at 8:47 am

Good time to reread Yves' recent, Is a Harvard MBA Bad For You? :

The underlying problem is increasingly mercenary values in society.

JerryDenim , March 12, 2019 at 2:49 pm

I think crapification is the end result of a self-serving belief in the unfailing goodness and superiority of Ivy faux-meritocracy and the promotion/exaltation of the do-nothing, know-nothing, corporate, revolving-door MBA's and Psych-major HR types over people with many years of both company and industry experience who also have excellent professional track records. The latter group was the group in charge of major corporations and big decisions in the 'good old days', now it's the former. These morally bankrupt people and their vapid, self-righteous culture of PR first, management science second, and what-the-hell-else-matters anyway, are the prime drivers of crapification. Read the bio of an old-school celebrated CEO like Gordon Bethune (Continental CEO with corporate experience at Boeing) who skipped college altogether and joined the Navy at 17, and ask yourself how many people like that are in corporate board rooms today? I'm not saying going back to a 'Good Ole Boy's Club' is the best model of corporate governnace either but at least people like Bethune didn't think they were too good to mix with their fellow employees, understood leadership, the consequences of bullshit, and what 'The buck stops here' thing was really about. Corporate types today sadly believe their own propaganda, and when their fraudulent schemes, can-kicking, and head-in-the sand strategies inevitably blow up in their faces, they accept no blame and fail upwards to another posh corporate job or a nice golden parachute. The wrong people are in charge almost everywhere these days, hence crapification. Bad incentives, zero white collar crime enforcement, self-replicating board rooms, group-think, begets toxic corporate culture, which equals crapification.

Jeff Zink , March 12, 2019 at 5:46 pm

Also try "built in obsolescence"

VietnamVet , March 11, 2019 at 5:40 pm

As a son of a deceased former Boeing aeronautic engineer, this is tragic. It highlights the problem of financialization, neoliberalism, and lack of corporate responsibility pointed out daily here on NC. The crapification was signaled by the move of the headquarters from Seattle to Chicago and spending billions to build a second 787 line in South Carolina to bust their Unions. Boeing is now an unregulated multinational corporation superior to sovereign nations. However, if the 737 Max crashes have the same cause, this will be hard to whitewash. The design failure of windows on the de Havilland Comet killed the British passenger aircraft business. The EU will keep a discrete silence since manufacturing major airline passenger planes is a duopoly with Airbus. However, China hasn't (due to the trade war with the USA) even though Boeing is building a new assembly line there. Boeing escaped any blame for the loss of two Malaysian Airline's 777s. This may be an existential crisis for American aviation. Like a President who denies calling Tim Cook, Tim Apple, or the soft coup ongoing in DC against him, what is really happening globally is not factually reported by corporate media.

Jerry B , March 11, 2019 at 6:28 pm

===Boeing is now an unregulated multinational corporation superior to sovereign nations===

Susan Strange 101.

Or more recently Quinn Slobodian's Globalists: The End of Empire and the Birth of Neoliberalism.

And the beat goes on.

Synoia , March 11, 2019 at 6:49 pm

The design failure of windows on the de Havilland Comet killed the British passenger aircraft business.

Yes, a misunderstanding the the effect of square windows and 3 dimensional stress cracking.

Gary Gray , March 11, 2019 at 7:54 pm

Sorry, but 'sovereign' nations were always a scam. Nothing than a excuse to build capital markets, which are the underpinning of capitalism. Capital Markets are what control countries and have since the 1700's. Maybe you should blame the monarchies for selling out to the bankers in the late middle ages. Sovereign nations are just economic units for the bankers, their businesses they finance and nothing more. I guess they figured out after the Great Depression, they would throw a bunch of goodies at "Indo Europeans" face in western europe ,make them decadent and jaded via debt expansion. This goes back to my point about the yellow vests ..me me me me me. You reek of it. This stuff with Boeing is all profit based. It could have happened in 2000, 1960 or 1920. It could happen even under state control. Did you love Hitler's Voltswagon?

As for the soft coup .lol you mean Trumps soft coup for his allies in Russia and the Middle East viva la Saudi King!!!!!? Posts like these represent the problem with this board. The materialist over the spiritualist. Its like people who still don't get some of the biggest supporters of a "GND" are racialists and being somebody who has long run the environmentalist rally game, they are hugely in the game. Yet Progressives completely seem blind to it. The media ignores them for con men like David Duke(who's ancestry is not clean, no its not) and "Unite the Right"(or as one friend on the environmental circuit told me, Unite the Yahweh apologists) as whats "white". There is a reason they do this.

You need to wake up and stop the self-gratification crap. The planet is dying due to mishandlement. Over urbanization, over population, constant need for me over ecosystem. It can only last so long. That is why I like Zombie movies, its Gaia Theory in a nutshell. Good for you Earth .or Midgard. Which ever you prefer.

Carey , March 11, 2019 at 8:05 pm

Your job seems to be to muddy the waters, and I'm sure we'll be seeing much more of the same; much more.

Thanks!

pebird , March 11, 2019 at 10:24 pm

Hitler had an electric car?

JerryDenim , March 12, 2019 at 3:05 pm

Hee-hee. I noticed that one too.

TimR , March 12, 2019 at 9:41 am

Interesting but I'm unclear on some of it.. GND supporters are racialist?

JerryDenim , March 12, 2019 at 3:02 pm

Spot on comment VietnamVet, a lot of chickens can be seen coming home to roost in this latest Boeing disaster. Remarkable how not many years ago the government could regulate the aviation industry without fear of killing it, since there was more than one aerospace company, not anymore! The scourge of monsopany/monopoly power rears its head and bites in unexpected places.

Ptb , March 11, 2019 at 5:56 pm

More detail on the "MCAS" system responsible for the previous Lion Air crash here (theaircurrent.com)

It says the bigger and repositioned engine, which give the new model its fuel efficiency, and wing angle tweaks needed to fit the engine vs landing gear and clearance,
change the amount of pitch trim it needs in turns to remain level.

The auto system was added top neutralize the pitch trim during turns, too make it handle like the old model.

There is another pitch trim control besides the main "stick". To deactivate the auto system, this other trim control has to be used, the main controls do not deactivate it (perhaps to prevent it from being unintentionally deactivated, which would be equally bad). If the sensor driving the correction system gives a false reading and the pilot were unaware, there would be seesawing and panic

Actually, if this all happened again I would be very surprised. Nobody flying a 737 would not know after the previous crash. Curious what they find.

Ptb , March 11, 2019 at 6:38 pm

Ok typo fixes didn't register gobbledygook.

EoH , March 12, 2019 at 8:38 am

While logical, If your last comment were correct, it should have prevented this most recent crash. It appears that the "seesawing and panic" continue.

I assume it has now gone beyond the cockpit, and beyond the design, and sales teams and reached the Boeing board room. From there, it is likely to travel to the board rooms of every airline flying this aircraft or thinking of buying one, to their banks and creditors, and to those who buy or recommend their stock. But it may not reach the FAA for some time.

marku52 , March 12, 2019 at 2:47 pm

Full technical discussion of why this was needed at:

https://leehamnews.com/2018/11/14/boeings-automatic-trim-for-the-737-max-was-not-disclosed-to-the-pilots/

Ptb , March 12, 2019 at 5:32 pm

Excellent link, thanks!

Kimac , March 11, 2019 at 6:20 pm

As to what's next?

Think, Too Big To Fail.

Any number of ways will be found to put lipstick on this pig once we recognize the context.

allan , March 11, 2019 at 6:38 pm

"Canadian and Brazilian authorities did require additional training" from the quote at the bottom is not
something I've seen before. What did they know and when did they know it?

rd , March 11, 2019 at 8:31 pm

They probably just assumed that the changes in the plane from previous 737s were big enough to warrant treating it like a major change requiring training.

Both countries fly into remote areas with highly variable weather conditions and some rugged terrain.

dcrane , March 11, 2019 at 7:25 pm

Re: withholding information from the FAA

For what it's worth, the quoted section says that Boeing withheld info about the MCAS from "midlevel FAA officials", while Jerri-Lynn refers to the FAA as a whole.

This makes me wonder if top-level FAA people certified the system.

Carey , March 11, 2019 at 7:37 pm

See under "regulatory capture"

Corps run the show, regulators are window-dressing.

IMO, of course. Of course

allan , March 11, 2019 at 8:04 pm

It wasn't always this way. From 1979:

DC-10 Type Certificate Lifted [Aviation Week]

FAA action follows finding of new cracks in pylon aft bulkhead forward flange; crash investigation continues

Suspension of the McDonnell Douglas DC-10's type certificate last week followed a separate grounding order from a federal court as government investigators were narrowing the scope of their investigation of the American Airlines DC-10 crash May 25 in Chicago.

The American DC-10-10, registration No. N110AA, crashed shortly after takeoff from Chicago's O'Hare International Airport, killing 259 passengers, 13 crewmembers and three persons on the ground. The 275 fatalities make the crash the worst in U.S. history.

The controversies surrounding the grounding of the entire U.S. DC-10 fleet and, by extension, many of the DC-10s operated by foreign carriers, by Federal Aviation Administrator Langhorne Bond on the morning of June 6 to revolve around several issues.

Carey , March 11, 2019 at 8:39 pm

Yes, I remember back when the FAA would revoke a type certificate if a plane was a danger to public safety. It wasn't even that long ago. Now their concern is any threat to Boeing™. There's a name for that

Joey , March 11, 2019 at 11:22 pm

'Worst' disaster in Chicago would still ground planes. Lucky for Boeing its brown and browner.

Max Peck , March 11, 2019 at 7:30 pm

It's not correct to claim the MCAS was concealed. It's right in the January 2017 rev of the NG/MAX differences manual.

Carey , March 11, 2019 at 7:48 pm

Mmm. Why do the dudes and dudettes *who fly the things* say they knew nothing
about MCAS? Their training is quite rigorous.

Max Peck , March 11, 2019 at 10:00 pm

See a post below for link. I'd have provided it in my original post but was on a phone in an inconvenient place for editing.

Carey , March 12, 2019 at 1:51 am

'Boeing's automatic trim for the 737 MAX was not disclosed to the Pilots':

https://leehamnews.com/2018/11/14/boeings-automatic-trim-for-the-737-max-was-not-disclosed-to-the-pilots/

marku52 , March 12, 2019 at 2:39 pm

Leeham news is the best site for info on this. For those of you interested in the tech details got to Bjorns Corner, where he writes about aeronautic design issues.

I was somewhat horrified to find that modern aircraft flying at near mach speeds have a lot of somewhat pasted on pilot assistances. All of them. None of them fly with nothing but good old stick-and-rudder. Not Airbus (which is actually fully Fly By wire-all pilot inputs got through a computer) and not Boeing, which is somewhat less so.

This latest "solution came about becuse the larger engines (and nacelles) fitted on the Max increased lift ahead of the center of gravity in a pitchup situation, which was destabilizing. The MCAS uses inputs from air speed and angle of attack sensors to put a pitch down input to the horizonatal stablisizer.

A faluty AofA sensor lead to Lion Air's Max pushing the nose down against the pilots efforts all the way into the sea.

This is the best backgrounder

https://leehamnews.com/2018/11/14/boeings-automatic-trim-for-the-737-max-was-not-disclosed-to-the-pilots/

The Rev Kev , March 11, 2019 at 7:48 pm

One guy said last night on TV that Boeing had eight years of back orders for this aircraft so you had better believe that this crash will be studied furiously. Saw a picture of the crash site and it looks like it augured in almost straight down. There seems to be a large hole and the wreckage is not strew over that much area. I understand that they were digging out the cockpit as it was underground. Strange that.

Carey , March 11, 2019 at 7:55 pm

It's said that the Flight Data Recorders have been found, FWIW.

EoH , March 12, 2019 at 9:28 am

Suggestive of a high-speed, nose-first impact. Not the angle of attack a pilot would ordinarily choose.

Max Peck , March 11, 2019 at 9:57 pm

It's not true that Boeing hid the existence of the MCAS. They documented it in the January 2017 rev of the NG/MAX differences manual and probably earlier than that. One can argue whether the description was adequate, but the system was in no way hidden.

Carey , March 11, 2019 at 10:50 pm

Looks like, for now, we're stuck between your "in no way hidden", and numerous 737 pilots' claims on various online aviation boards that they knew nothing about MCAS. Lots of money involved, so very cloudy weather expected. For now I'll stick with the pilots.

Alex V , March 12, 2019 at 2:27 am

To the best of my understanding and reading on the subject, the system was well documented in the Boeing technical manuals, but not in the pilots' manuals, where it was only briefly mentioned, at best, and not by all airlines. I'm not an airline pilot, but from what I've read, airlines often write their own additional operators manuals for aircraft models they fly, so it was up to them to decide the depth of documentation. These are in theory sufficient to safely operate the plane, but do not detail every aircraft system exhaustively, as a modern aircraft is too complex to fully understand. Other technical manuals detail how the systems work, and how to maintain them, but a pilot is unlikely to read them as they are used by maintenance personnel or instructors. The problem with these cases (if investigations come to the same conclusions) is that insufficient information was included in the pilots manual explaining the MCAS, even though the information was communicated via other technical manuals.

vlade , March 12, 2019 at 11:50 am

This is correct.

A friend of mine is a commercial pilot who's just doing a 'training' exercise having moved airlines.

He's been flying the planes in question most of his life, but the airline is asking him to re-do it all according to their manuals and their rules. If the airline manual does not bring it up, then the pilots will not read it – few of them have time to go after the actual technical manuals and read those in addition to what the airline wants. [oh, and it does not matter that he has tens of thousands of hours on the airplane in question, if he does not do something in accordance with his new airline manual, he'd get kicked out, even if he was right and the airline manual wrong]

I believe (but would have to check with him) that some countries regulators do their own testing over and above the airlines, but again, it depends on what they put in.

Alex V , March 12, 2019 at 11:58 am

Good to head my understanding was correct. My take on the whole situation was that Boeing was negligent in communicating the significance of the change, given human psychology and current pilot training. The reason was to enable easier aircraft sales. The purpose of the MCAS system is however quite legitimate – it enables a more fuel efficient plane while compensating for a corner case of the flight envelope.

Max Peck , March 12, 2019 at 8:01 am

The link is to the actual manual. If that doesn't make you reconsider, nothing will. Maybe some pilots aren't expected to read the manuals, I don't know.

Furthermore, the post stated that Boeing failed to inform the FAA about the MCAS. Surely the FAA has time to read all of the manuals.

Darius , March 12, 2019 at 6:18 pm

Nobody reads instruction manuals. They're for reference. Boeing needed to yell at the pilots to be careful to read new pages 1,576 through 1,629 closely. They're a lulu.

Also, what's with screwing with the geometry of a stable plane so that it will fall out of the sky without constant adjustments by computer software? It's like having a car designed to explode but don't worry. We've loaded software to prevent that. Except when there's an error. But don't worry. We've included reboot instructions. It takes 15 minutes but it'll be OK. And you can do it with one hand and drive with the other. No thanks. I want the car not designed to explode.

The Rev Kev , March 11, 2019 at 10:06 pm

The FAA is already leaping to the defense of the Boeing 737 Max 8 even before they have a chance to open up the black boxes. Hope that nothing "happens" to those recordings.

https://www.bbc.com/news/world-africa-47533052

Milton , March 11, 2019 at 11:04 pm

I don't know, crapification, at least for me, refers to products, services, or infrastructure that has declined to the point that it has become a nuisance rather than a benefit it once was. This case with Boeing borders on criminal negligence.

pretzelattack , March 12, 2019 at 8:20 am

i came across a word that was new to me "crapitalism", goes well with crapification.

TG , March 12, 2019 at 12:50 am

1. It's really kind of amazing that we can fly to the other side of the world in a few hours – a journey that in my grandfather's time would have taken months and been pretty unpleasant and risky – and we expect perfect safety.

2. Of course the best-selling jet will see these issues. It's the law of large numbers.

3. I am not a fan of Boeing's corporate management, but still, compared to Wall Street and Defense Contractors and big education etc. they still produce an actual technical useful artifact that mostly works, and at levels of performance that in other fields would be considered superhuman.

4. Even for Boeing, one wonders when the rot will set in. Building commercial airliners is hard! So many technical details, nowhere to hide if you make even one mistake so easy to just abandon the business entirely. Do what the (ex) US auto industry did, contract out to foreign manufacturers and just slap a "USA" label on it and double down on marketing. Milk the cost-plus cash cow of the defense market. Or just financialize the entire thing and become too big to fail and walk away with all the profits before the whole edifice crumbles. Greed is good, right?

marku52 , March 12, 2019 at 2:45 pm

"Of course the best-selling jet will see these issues. It's the law of large numbers."

2 crashes of a new model in vary similar circumstances is very unusual. And FAA admits they are requiring a FW upgrade sometime in April. Pilots need to be hyperaware of what this MCAS system is doing. And they currently aren't.

Prairie Bear , March 12, 2019 at 2:42 am

if it went into a stall, it would lower the nose suddenly to pick airspeed and fly normally again.

A while before I read this post, I listened to a news clip that reported that the plane was observed "porpoising" after takeoff. I know only enough about planes and aviation to be a more or less competent passenger, but it does seem like that is something that might happen if the plane had such a feature and the pilot was not familiar with it and was trying to fight it? The below link is not to the story I saw I don't think, but another one I just found.

if it went into a stall, it would lower the nose suddenly to pick airspeed and fly normally again.

https://www.yahoo.com/gma/know-boeing-737-max-8-crashed-ethiopia-221411537.html

none , March 12, 2019 at 5:33 am

https://www.reuters.com/article/us-ethiopia-airplane-witnesses/ethiopian-plane-smoked-and-shuddered-before-deadly-plunge-idUSKBN1QS1LJ

Reuters reports people saw smoke and debris coming out of the plane before the crash.

Jessica , March 12, 2019 at 6:06 am

At PPRUNE.ORG, many of the commentators are skeptical of what witnesses of airplane crashes say they see, but more trusting of what they say they hear.
The folks at PPRUNE.ORG who looked at the record of the flight from FlightRadar24, which only covers part of the flight because FlightRadar24's coverage in that area is not so good and the terrain is hilly, see a plane flying fast in a straight line very unusually low.

EoH , March 12, 2019 at 8:16 am

The dodge about making important changes that affect aircraft handling but not disclosing them – so as to avoid mandatory pilot training, which would discourage airlines from buying the modified aircraft – is an obvious business-over-safety choice by an ethics and safety challenged corporation.

But why does even a company of that description, many of whose top managers, designers, and engineers live and breathe flight, allow its s/w engineers to prevent the pilots from overriding a supposed "safety" feature while actually flying the aircraft? Was it because it would have taken a little longer to write and test the additional s/w or because completing the circle through creating a pilot override would have mandated disclosure and additional pilot training?

Capt. "Sully" Sullenberger and his passengers and crew would have ended up in pieces at the bottom of the Hudson if the s/w on his aircraft had prohibited out of the ordinary flight maneuvers that contradicted its programming.

Alan Carr , March 12, 2019 at 9:13 am

If you carefully review the over all airframe of the 737 it has not hardly changed over the past 20 years or so, for the most part Boeing 737 specifications . What I believe the real issue here is the Avionics upgrades over the years has changed dramatically. More and more precision avionics are installed with less and less pilot input and ultimately no control of the aircraft. Though Boeing will get the brunt of the lawsuits, the avionics company will be the real culprit. I believe the avionics on the Boeing 737 is made by Rockwell Collins, which you guessed it, is owned by Boeing.

Max Peck , March 12, 2019 at 9:38 am

Rockwell Collins has never been owned by Boeing.

Also, to correct some upthread assertions, MCAS has an off switch.

WobblyTelomeres , March 12, 2019 at 10:02 am

United Technologies, UTX, I believe. If I knew how to short, I'd probably short this 'cause if they aren't partly liable, they'll still be hurt if Boeing has to slow (or, horror, halt) production.

Alan Carr , March 12, 2019 at 11:47 am

You are right Max I mis spoke. Rockwell Collins is owned by United Technologies Corporation

Darius , March 12, 2019 at 6:24 pm

Which astronaut are you? Heh.

EoH , March 12, 2019 at 9:40 am

Using routine risk management protocols, the American FAA should need continuing "data" on an aircraft for it to maintain its airworthiness certificate. Its current press materials on the Boeing 737 Max 8 suggest it needs data to yank it or to ground the aircraft pending review. Has it had any other commercial aircraft suffer two apparently similar catastrophic losses this close together within two years of the aircraft's launch?

Synoia , March 12, 2019 at 11:37 am

I am raising an issue with "crapification" as a meme. Crapification is a symptom of a specific behaviour.

GREED.

Please could you reconsider your writing to invlude this very old, tremendously venal, and "worst" sin?

US incentiveness of inventing a new word, "crapification" implies that some error cuould be corrected. If a deliberate sin, it requires atonement and forgiveness, and a sacrifice of wolrdy assets, for any chance of forgiveness and redemption.

Alan Carr , March 12, 2019 at 11:51 am

Something else that will be interesting to this thread is that Boeing doesn't seem to mind letting the Boeing 737 Max aircraft remain for sale on the open market

vlade , March 12, 2019 at 11:55 am

the EU suspends MAX 8s too

Craig H. , March 12, 2019 at 2:29 pm

The moderators in reddit.com/r/aviation are fantastic.

They have corralled everything into one mega-thread which is worth review:

https://www.reddit.com/r/aviation/comments/azzp0r/ethiopian_airlines_et302_and_boeing_737_max_8/

allan , March 12, 2019 at 3:00 pm

Thanks. That's a great link with what seem to be some very knowledgeable comments.

John Beech , March 12, 2019 at 2:30 pm

Experienced private pilot here. Lots of commercial pilot friends. First, the EU suspending the MAX 8 is politics. Second, the FAA mandated changes were already in the pipeline. Three, this won't stop the ignorant from staking out a position on this, and speculating about it on the internet, of course. Fourth, I'd hop a flight in a MAX 8 without concern – especially with a US pilot on board. Why? In part because the Lion Air event a few months back led to pointed discussion about the thrust line of the MAX 8 vs. the rest of the 737 fleet and the way the plane has software to help during strong pitch up events (MAX 8 and 9 have really powerful engines).

Basically, pilots have been made keenly aware of the issue and trained in what to do. Another reason I'd hop a flight in one right now is because there have been more than 31,000 trouble free flights in the USA in this new aircraft to date. My point is, if there were a systemic issue we'd already know about it. Note, the PIC in the recent crash had +8000 hours but the FO had about 200 hours and there is speculation he was flying. Speculation.

Anyway, US commercial fleet pilots are very well trained to deal with runaway trim or uncommanded flight excursions. How? Simple, by switching the breaker off. It's right near your fingers. Note, my airplane has an autopilot also. In the event the autopilot does something unexpected, just like the commercial pilot flying the MAX 8, I'm trained in what to do (the very same thing, switch the thing off).

Moreover, I speak form experience because I've had it happen twice in 15 years – once an issue with a servo causing the plane to slowly drift right wing low, and once a connection came loose leaving the plane trimmed right wing low (coincidence). My reaction is/was about the same as that of a experienced typist automatically hitting backspace on the keyboard upon realizing they mistyped a word, e.g. not reflex but nearly so. In my case, it was to throw the breaker to power off the autopilot as I leveled the plane. No big deal.

Finally, as of yet there been no analysis from the black boxes. I advise holding off on the speculation until they do. They've been found and we'll learn something soon. The yammering and near hysteria by non-pilots – especially with this thread – reminds me of the old saw about now knowing how smart or ignorant someone is until they open their mouth.

notabanker , March 12, 2019 at 5:29 pm

So let me get this straight.

While Boeing is designing a new 787, Airbus redesigns the A320. Boeing cannot compete with it, so instead of redesigning the 737 properly, they put larger engines on it further forward, which is never intended in the original design. So to compensate they use software with two sensors, not three, making it mathematically impossible to know if you have a faulty sensor which one it would be, to automatically adjust the pitch to prevent a stall, and this is the only true way to prevent a stall. But since you can kill the breaker and disable it if you have a bad sensor and can't possibly know which one, everything is ok. And now that the pilots can disable a feature required for certification, we should all feel good about these brand new planes, that for the first time in history, crashed within 5 months.

And the FAA, which hasn't had a Director in 14 months, knows better than the UK, Europe, China, Australia, Singapore, India, Indonesia, Africa and basically every other country in the world except Canada. And the reason every country in the world except Canada has grounded the fleet is political? Singapore put Silk Air out of business because of politics?

How many people need to be rammed into the ground at 500 mph from 8000 feet before yammering and hysteria are justified here? 400 obviously isn't enough.

VietnamVet , March 12, 2019 at 5:26 pm

Overnight since my first post above, the 737 Max 8 crash has become political. The black boxes haven't been officially read yet. Still airlines and aviation authorities have grounded the airplane in Europe, India, China, Mexico, Brazil, Australia and S.E. Asia in opposition to FAA's "Continued Airworthiness Notification to the International Community" issued yesterday.

I was wrong. There will be no whitewash. I thought they would remain silent. My guess this is a result of an abundance of caution plus greed (Europeans couldn't help gutting Airbus's competitor Boeing). This will not be discussed but it is also a manifestation of Trump Derangement Syndrome (TDS). Since the President has started dissing Atlantic Alliance partners, extorting defense money, fighting trade wars, and calling 3rd world countries s***-holes; there is no sympathy for the collapsing hegemon. Boeing stock is paying the price. If the cause is the faulty design of the flight position sensors and fly by wire software control system, it will take a long while to design and get approval of a new safe redundant control system and refit the airplanes to fly again overseas. A real disaster for America's last manufacturing industry.

[Mar 13, 2019] Boing might not survive the third crash

Too much automation and too complex flight control computer engager life of pilots and passengers...
Notable quotes:
"... When systems (like those used to fly giant aircraft) become too automatic while remaining essentially stupid or limited by the feedback systems, they endanger the airplane and passengers. These two "accidents" are painful warnings for air passengers and voters. ..."
"... This sort of problem is not new. Search the web for pitot/static port blockage, erroneous stall / overspeed indications. Pilots used to be trained to handle such emergencies before the desk-jockey suits decided computers always know best. ..."
"... @Sky Pilot, under normal circumstances, yes. but there are numerous reports that Boeing did not sufficiently test the MCAS with unreliable or incomplete signals from the sensors to even comply to its own quality regulations. ..."
"... Boeing did cut corners when designing the B737 MAX by just replacing the engines but not by designing a new wing which would have been required for the new engine. ..."
"... I accept that it should be easier for pilots to assume manual control of the aircraft in such situations but I wouldn't rush to condemn the programmers before we get all the facts. ..."
Mar 13, 2019 | www.nytimes.com

Shirley OK March 11

I want to know if Boeing 767s, as well as the new 737s, now has the Max 8 flight control computer installed with pilots maybe not being trained to use it or it being uncontrollable.

A 3rd Boeing - not a passenger plane but a big 767 cargo plane flying a bunch of stuff for Amazon crashed near Houston (where it was to land) on 2-23-19. The 2 pilots were killed. Apparently there was no call for help (at least not mentioned in the AP article about it I read).

'If' the new Max 8 system had been installed, had either Boeing or the owner of the cargo plane business been informed of problems with Max 8 equipment that had caused a crash and many deaths in a passenger plane (this would have been after the Indonesian crash)? Was that info given to the 2 pilots who died if Max 8 is also being used in some 767s? Did Boeing get the black box from that plane and, if so, what did they find out?

Those 2 pilots' lives matter also - particularly since the Indonesian 737 crash with Max 8 equipment had already happened. Boeing hasn't said anything (yet, that I've seen) about whether or not the Max 8 new configuration computer and the extra steps to get manual control is on other of their planes.

I want to know about the cause of that 3rd Boeing plane crashing and if there have been crashes/deaths in other of Boeing's big cargo planes. What's the total of all Boeing crashes/fatalies in the last few months and how many of those planes had Max 8?

Rufus SF March 11

Gentle readers: In the aftermath of the Lion Air crash, do you think it possible that all 737Max pilots have not received mandatory training review in how to quickly disconnect the MCAS system and fly the plane manually?

Do you think it possible that every 737Max pilot does not have a "disconnect review" as part of his personal checklist? Do you think it possible that at the first hint of pitch instability, the pilot does not first think of the MCAS system and whether to disable it?

Harold Orlando March 11

Compare the altitude fluctuations with those from Lion Air in NYTimes excellent coverage( https://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2018/11/16/world/asia/lion-air-crash-cockpit.html ), and they don't really suggest to me a pilot struggling to maintain proper pitch. Maybe the graph isn't detailed enough, but it looks more like a major, single event rather than a number of smaller corrections. I could be wrong.

Reports of smoke and fire are interesting; there is nothing in the modification that (we assume) caused Lion Air's crash that would explain smoke and fire. So I would hesitate to zero in on the modification at this point. Smoke and fire coming from the luggage bay suggest a runaway Li battery someone put in their suitcase. This is a larger issue because that can happen on any aircraft, Boeing, Airbus, or other.

mrpisces Loui March 11

Is is a shame that Boeing will not ground this aircraft knowing they introduced the MCAS component to automate the stall recovery of the 737 MAX and is behind these accidents in my opinion. Stall recovery has always been a step all pilots handled when the stick shaker and other audible warnings were activated to alert the pilots.

Now, Boeing invented MCAS as a "selling and marketing point" to a problem that didn't exist. MCAS kicks in when the aircraft is about to enter the stall phase and places the aircraft in a nose dive to regain speed. This only works when the air speed sensors are working properly. Now imagine when the air speed sensors have a malfunction and the plane is wrongly put into a nose dive.

The pilots are going to pull back on the stick to level the plane. The MCAS which is still getting incorrect air speed data is going to place the airplane back into a nose dive. The pilots are going to pull back on the stick to level the aircraft. This repeats itself till the airplane impacts the ground which is exactly what happened.

Add the fact that Boeing did not disclose the existence of the MCAS and its role to pilots. At this point only money is keeping the 737 MAX in the air. When Boeing talks about safety, they are not referring to passenger safety but profit safety.

Tony San Diego March 11

1. The procedure to allow a pilot to take complete control of the aircraft from auto-pilot mode should have been a standard eg pull back on the control column. It is not reasonable to expect a pilot to follow some checklist to determine and then turn off a misbehaving module especially in emergency situations. Even if that procedure is written in fine print in a manual. (The number of modules to disable may keep increasing if this is allowed).

2. How are US airlines confident of the safety of the 737 MAX right now when nothing much is known about the cause of the 2nd crash? What is known if that both the crashed aircraft were brand new, and we should be seeing news articles on how the plane's brand-new advanced technology saved the day from the pilot and not the other way round

3. In the first crash, the plane's advanced technology could not even recognize that either the flight path was abnormal and/or the airspeed readings were too erroneous and mandate the pilot to therefore take complete control immediately!

John✔️✔️Brews Tucson, AZ March 11

It's straightforward to design for standard operation under normal circumstances. But when bizarre operation occurs resulting in extreme circumstances a lot more comes into play. Not just more variables interacting more rapidly, testing system response times, but much happening quickly, testing pilot response times and experience. It is doubtful that the FAA can assess exactly what happened in these crashes. It is a result of a complex and rapid succession of man-machine-software-instrumentation interactions, and the number of permutations is huge. Boeing didn't imagine all of them, and didn't test all those it did think of.

The FAA is even less likely to do so. Boeing eventually will fix some of the identified problems, and make pilot intervention more effective. Maybe all that effort to make the new cockpit look as familiar as the old one will be scrapped? Pilot retraining will be done? Redundant sensors will be added? Additional instrumentation? Software re-written?

That'll increase costs, of course. Future deliveries will cost more. Looks likely there will be some downtime. Whether the fixes will cover sufficient eventualities, time will tell. Whether Boeing will be more scrupulous in future designs, less willing to cut corners without evaluating them? Will heads roll? Well, we'll see...

Ron SC March 11

Boeing has been in trouble technologically since its merger with McDonnell Douglas, which some industry analysts called a takeover, though it isn't clear who took over whom since MD got Boeing's name while Boeing took the MD logo and moved their headquarters from Seattle to Chicago.

In addition to problems with the 737 Max, Boeing is charging NASA considerably more than the small startup, SpaceX, for a capsule designed to ferry astronauts to the space station. Boeing's Starliner looks like an Apollo-era craft and is launched via a 1960's-like ATLAS booster.

Despite using what appears to be old technology, the Starliner is well behind schedule and over budget while the SpaceX capsule has already docked with the space station using state-of-art reusable rocket boosters at a much lower cost. It seems Boeing is in trouble, technologically.

BSmith San Francisco March 11

When you read that this model of the Boeing 737 Max was more fuel efficient, and view the horrifying graphs (the passengers spent their last minutes in sheer terror) of the vertical jerking up and down of both air crafts, and learn both crashes occurred minutes after take off, you are 90% sure that the problem is with design, or design not compatible with pilot training. Pilots in both planes had received permission to return to the airports. The likely culprit. to a trained designer, is the control system for injecting the huge amounts of fuel necessary to lift the plane to cruising altitude. Pilots knew it was happening and did not know how to override the fuel injection system.

These two crashes foretell what will happen if airlines, purely in the name of saving money, elmininate human control of aircraft. There will be many more crashes.

These ultra-complicated machines which defy gravity and lift thousands of pounds of dead weight into the stratesphere to reduce friction with air, are immensely complex and common. Thousands of flight paths cover the globe each day. Human pilots must ultimately be in charge - for our own peace of mind, and for their ability to deal with unimaginable, unforeseen hazards.

When systems (like those used to fly giant aircraft) become too automatic while remaining essentially stupid or limited by the feedback systems, they endanger the airplane and passengers. These two "accidents" are painful warnings for air passengers and voters.

Brez Spring Hill, TN March 11

1. Ground the Max 737.

2. Deactivate the ability of the automated system to override pilot inputs, which it apparently can do even with the autopilot disengaged.

3. Make sure that the autopilot disengage button on the yoke (pickle switch) disconnects ALL non-manual control inputs.

4. I do not know if this version of the 737 has direct input ("rope start") gyroscope, airspeed and vertical speed inticators for emergencies such as failure of the electronic wonder-stuff. If not, install them. Train pilots to use them.

5. This will cost money, a lot of money, so we can expect more self-serving excuses until the FAA forces Boeing to do the right thing.

6. This sort of problem is not new. Search the web for pitot/static port blockage, erroneous stall / overspeed indications. Pilots used to be trained to handle such emergencies before the desk-jockey suits decided computers always know best.

Harper Arkansas March 11

I flew big jets for 34 years, mostly Boeing's. Boeing added new logic to the trim system and was allowed to not make it known to pilots. However it was in maintenance manuals. Not great, but these airplanes are now so complex there are many systems that pilots don't know all of the intimate details.

NOT IDEAL, BUT NOT OVERLY SIGNIFICANT. Boeing changed one of the ways to stop a runaway trim system by eliminating the control column trim brake, ie airplane nose goes up, push down (which is instinct) and it stops the trim from running out of control.

BIG DEAL BOIENG AND FAA, NOT TELLING PILOTS. Boeing produces checklists for almost any conceivable malfunction. We pilots are trained to accomplish the obvious then go immediately to the checklist. Some items on the checklist are so important they are called "Memory Items" or "Red Box Items".

These would include things like in an explosive depressurization to put on your o2 mask, check to see that the passenger masks have dropped automatically and start a descent.

Another has always been STAB TRIM SWITCHES ...... CUTOUT which is surrounded by a RED BOX.

For very good reasons these two guarded switches are very conveniently located on the pedestal right between the pilots.

So if the nose is pitching incorrectly, STAB TRIM SWITCHES ..... CUTOUT!!! Ask questions later, go to the checklist. THAT IS THE PILOTS AND TRAINING DEPARTMENTS RESPONSIBILITY. At this point it is not important as to the cause.

David Rubien New York March 11

If these crashes turn out to result from a Boeing flaw, how can that company continue to stay in business? It should be put into receivership and its executives prosecuted. How many deaths are persmissable?

Osama Portland OR March 11

The emphasis on software is misplaced. The software intervention is triggered by readings from something called an Angle of Attack sensor. This sensor is relatively new on airplanes. A delicate blade protrudes from the fuselage and is deflected by airflow. The direction of the airflow determines the reading. A false reading from this instrument is the "garbage in" input to the software that takes over the trim function and directs the nose of the airplane down. The software seems to be working fine. The AOA sensor? Not so much.

experience Michiigan March 11

The basic problem seems to be that the 737 Max 8 was not designed for the larger engines and so there are flight characteristics that could be dangerous. To compensate for the flaw, computer software was used to control the aircraft when the situation was encountered. The software failed to prevent the situation from becoming a fatal crash.

A work around that may be the big mistake of not redesigning the aircraft properly for the larger engines in the first place. The aircraft may need to be modified at a cost that would be not realistic and therefore abandoned and a entirely new aircraft design be implemented. That sounds very drastic but the only other solution would be to go back to the original engines. The Boeing Company is at a crossroad that could be their demise if the wrong decision is made.

Sky Pilot NY March 11

It may be a training issue in that the 737 Max has several systems changes from previous 737 models that may not be covered adequately in differences training, checklists, etc. In the Lyon Air crash, a sticky angle-of-attack vane caused the auto-trim to force the nose down in order to prevent a stall. This is a worthwhile safety feature of the Max, but the crew was slow (or unable) to troubleshoot and isolate the problem. It need not have caused a crash. I suspect the same thing happened with Ethiopian Airlines. The circumstances are temptingly similar.

Thomas Singapore March 11

@Sky Pilot, under normal circumstances, yes. but there are numerous reports that Boeing did not sufficiently test the MCAS with unreliable or incomplete signals from the sensors to even comply to its own quality regulations. And that is just one of the many quality issues with the B737 MAX that have been in the news for a long time and have been of concern to some of the operators while at the same time being covered up by the FAA.

Just look at the difference in training requirements between the FAA and the Brazilian aviation authority.

Brazilian pilots need to fully understand the MCAS and how to handle it in emergency situations while FAA does not even require pilots to know about it.

Thomas Singapore March 11

This is yet another beautiful example of the difference in approach between Europeans and US Americans. While Europeans usually test their before they deliver the product thoroughly in order to avoid any potential failures of the product in their customers hands, the US approach is different: It is "make it work somehow and fix the problems when the client has them".

Which is what happened here as well. Boeing did cut corners when designing the B737 MAX by just replacing the engines but not by designing a new wing which would have been required for the new engine.

So the aircraft became unstable to fly at low speedy and tight turns which required a fix by implementing the MCAS which then was kept from recertification procedures for clients for reasons competitive sales arguments. And of course, the FAA played along and provided a cover for this cutting of corners as this was a product of a US company.

Then the proverbial brown stuff hit the fan, not once but twice. So Boeing sent its "thoughts and prayers" and started to hope for the storm to blow over and for finding a fix that would not be very expensive and not eat the share holder value away.

Sorry, but that is not the way to design and maintain aircraft. If you do it, do it right the first time and not fix it after more than 300 people died in accidents. There is a reason why China has copied the Airbus A-320 and not the Boeing B737 when building its COMAC C919. The Airbus is not a cheap fix, still tested by customers.

Rafael USA March 11

@Thomas And how do you know that Boeing do not test the aircrafts before delivery? It is a requirement by FAA for all complete product, systems, parts and sub-parts to be tested before delivery. However it seems Boeing has not approached the problem (or maybe they do not know the real issue).

As for the design, are you an engineer that can say whatever the design and use of new engines without a complete re-design is wrong? Have you seen the design drawings of the airplane? I do work in an industry in which our products are use for testing different parts of aircratfs and Boeing is one of our customers.

Our products are use during manufacturing and maintenance of airplanes. My guess is that Boeing has no idea what is going on. Your biased opinion against any US product is evident. There are regulations in the USA (and not in other Asia countries) that companies have to follow. This is not a case of untested product, it is a case of unknown problem and Boeing is really in the dark of what is going on...

Sam Europe March 11

Boeing and Regulators continue to exhibit criminal behaviour in this case. Ethical responsibility expects that when the first brand new MAX 8 fell for potentially issues with its design, the fleet should have been grounded. Instead, money was a priority; and unfortunately still is. They are even now flying. Disgraceful and criminal behaviour.

Imperato NYC March 11

@Sam no...too soon to come anywhere near that conclusion.

YW New York, NY March 11

A terrible tragedy for Ethiopia and all of the families affected by this disaster. The fact that two 737 Max jets have crashed in one year is indeed suspicious, especially as it has long been safer to travel in a Boeing plane than a car or school bus. That said, it is way too early to speculate on the causes of the two crashes being identical. Eyewitness accounts of debris coming off the plane in mid-air, as has been widely reported, would not seem to square with the idea that software is again at fault. Let's hope this puzzle can be solved quickly.

Wayne Brooklyn, New York March 11

@Singh the difference is consumer electronic products usually have a smaller number of components and wiring compared to commercial aircraft with miles of wiring and multitude of sensors and thousands of components. From what I know they usually have a preliminary report that comes out in a short time. But the detailed reported that takes into account analysis will take over one year to be written.

John A San Diego March 11

The engineers and management at Boeing need a crash course in ethics. After the crash in Indonesia, Boeing was trying to pass the blame rather than admit responsibility. The planes should all have been grounded then. Now the chickens have come to roost. Boeing is in serious trouble and it will take a long time to recover the reputation. Large multinationals never learn.

Imperato NYC March 11

@John A the previous pilot flying the Lion jet faced the same problem but dealt with it successfully. The pilot on the ill fated flight was less experienced and unfortunately failed.

BSmith San Francisco March 11

@Imperato Solving a repeat problem on an airplane type must not solely depend upon a pilot undertaking an emergency response! That is nonsense even to a non-pilot! This implies that Boeing allows a plane to keep flying which it knows has a fatal flaw! Shouldn't it be grounding all these planes until it identifies and solves the same problem?

Jimi DC March 11

NYT recently did an excellent job explaining how pilots were kept in the dark, by Boeing, during software update for 737 Max: https://www.nytimes.com/2019/02/03/world/asia/lion-air-plane-crash-pilots.html#click=https://t.co/MRgpKKhsly

Steve Charlotte, NC March 11

Something is wrong with those two graphs of altitude and vertical speed. For example, both are flat at the end, even though the vertical speed graph indicates that the plane was climbing rapidly. So what is the source of those numbers? Is it ground-based radar, or telemetry from onboard instruments? If the latter, it might be a clue to the problem.

Imperato NYC March 11

@Steve Addis Ababa is almost at 8000ft.

George North Carolina March 11

I wonder if, somewhere, there is a a report from some engineers saying that the system pushed by administrative-types to get the plane on the market quickly, will results in serious problems down the line.

Rebecca Michigan March 11

If we don't know why the first two 737 Max Jets crashed, then we don't know how long it will be before another one has a catastrophic failure. All the planes need to be grounded until the problem can be duplicated and eliminated.

Shirley OK March 11

@Rebecca And if it is something about the plane itself - and maybe an interaction with the new software - then someone has to be ready to volunteer to die to replicate what's happened.....

Rebecca Michigan March 12

@Shirley Heavens no. When investigating failures, duplicating the problem helps develop the solution. If you can't recreate the problem, then there is nothing to solve. Duplicating the problem generally is done through analysis and simulations, not with actual planes and passengers.

Sisifo Carrboro, NC March 11

Computer geeks can be deadly. This is clearly a software problem. The more software goes into a plane, the more likely it is for a software failure to bring down a plane. And computer geeks are always happy to try "new things" not caring what the effects are in the real world. My PC has a feature that controls what gets typed depending on the speed and repetitiveness of what I type. The darn thing is a constant source of annoyance as I sit at my desk, and there is absolutely no way to neutralize it because a computer geek so decided. Up in an airliner cockpit, this same software idiocy is killing people like flies.

Pooja MA March 11

@Sisifo Software that goes into critical systems like aircraft have a lot more constraints. Comparing it to the user interface on your PC doesn't make any sense. It's insulting to assume programmers are happy to "try new things" at the expense of lives. If you'd read about the Lion Air crash carefully you'd remember that there were faulty sensors involved. The software was doing what it was designed to do but the input it was getting was incorrect. I accept that it should be easier for pilots to assume manual control of the aircraft in such situations but I wouldn't rush to condemn the programmers before we get all the facts.

BSmith San Francisco March 11

@Pooja Mistakes happen. If humans on board can't respond to terrible situations then there is something wrong with the aircraft and its computer systems. By definition.

Patriot NJ March 11

Airbus had its own experiences with pilot "mode confusion" in the 1990's with at least 3 fatal crashes in the A320, but was able to control the media narrative until they resolved the automation issues. Look up Air Inter 148 in Wikipedia to learn the similarities.

Opinioned! NYC -- currently wintering in the Pacific March 11

"Commands issued by the plane's flight control computer that bypasses the pilots." What could possibly go wrong? Now let's see whether Boeing's spin doctors can sell this as a feature, not a bug.

Chris Hartnett Minneapolis March 11

It is telling that the Chinese government grounded their fleet of 737 Max 8 aircraft before the US government. The world truly has turned upside down when it potentially is safer to fly in China than the US. Oh, the times we live in. Chris Hartnett Datchet, UK (formerly Minneapolis)

Hollis Barcelona March 11

As a passenger who likes his captains with a head full of white hair, even if the plane is nosediving to instrument failure, does not every pilot who buckles a seat belt worldwide know how to switch off automatic flight controls and fly the airplane manually?

Even if this were 1000% Boeing's fault pilots should be able to override electronics and fly the plane safely back to the airport. I'm sure it's not that black and white in the air and I know it's speculation at this point but can any pilots add perspective regarding human responsibility?

Karl Rollings Sydney, Australia March 11

@Hollis I'm not a pilot nor an expert, but my understanding is that planes these days are "fly by wire", meaning the control surfaces are operated electronically, with no mechanical connection between the pilot's stick and the wings. So if the computer goes down, the ability to control the plane goes with it.

William Philadelphia March 11

@Hollis The NYT's excellent reporting on the Lion Air crash indicated that in nearly all other commercial aircraft, manual control of the pilot's yoke would be sufficient to override the malfunctioning system (which was controlling the tail wings in response to erroneous sensor data). Your white haired captain's years of training would have ingrained that impulse.

Unfortunately, on the Max 8 that would not sufficiently override the tail wings until the pilots flicked a switch near the bottom of the yoke. It's unclear whether individual airlines made pilots aware of this. That procedure existed in older planes but may not have been standard practice because the yoke WOULD sufficiently override the tail wings. Boeing's position has been that had pilots followed the procedure, a crash would not have occurred.

Nat Netherlands March 11

@Hollis No, that is the entire crux of this problem; switching from auto-pilot to manual does NOT solve it. Hence the danger of this whole system. T

his new Boeing 737-Max series are having the engines placed a bit further away than before and I don't know why they did this, but the result is that there can be some imbalance in air, which they then tried to correct with this strange auto-pilot technical adjustment.

Problem is that it stalls the plane (by pushing its nose down and even flipping out small wings sometimes) even when it shouldn't, and even when they switch to manual this system OVERRULES the pilot and switches back to auto-pilot, continuing to try to 'stabilize' (nose dive) the plane. That's what makes it so dangerous.

It was designed to keep the plane stable but basically turned out to function more or less like a glitch once you are taking off and need the ascend. I don't know why it only happens now and then, as this plane had made many other take-offs prior, but when it hits, it can be deadly. So far Boeings 'solution' is sparsely sending out a HUGE manual for pilots about how to fight with this computer problem.

Which are complicated to follow in a situation of stress with a plane computer constantly pushing the nose of your plane down. Max' mechanism is wrong and instead of correcting it properly, pilots need special training. Or a new technical update may help... which has been delayed and still hasn't been provided.

Mark Lebow Milwaukee, WI March 11

Is it the inability of the two airlines to maintain one of the plane's fly-by-wire systems that is at fault, not the plane itself? Or are both crashes due to pilot error, not knowing how to operate the system and then overreacting when it engages? Is the aircraft merely too advanced for its own good? None of these questions seems to have been answered yet.

Shane Marin County, CA March 11 Times Pick

This is such a devastating thing for Ethiopian Airlines, which has been doing critical work in connecting Africa internally and to the world at large. This is devastating for the nation of Ethiopia and for all the family members of those killed. May the memory of every passenger be a blessing. We should all hope a thorough investigation provides answers to why this make and model of airplane keep crashing so no other people have to go through this horror again.

Mal T KS March 11

A possible small piece of a big puzzle: Bishoftu is a city of 170,000 that is home to the main Ethiopian air force base, which has a long runway. Perhaps the pilot of Flight 302 was seeking to land there rather than returning to Bole Airport in Addis Ababa, a much larger and more densely populated city than Bishoftu. The pilot apparently requested return to Bole, but may have sought the Bishoftu runway when he experienced further control problems. Detailed analysis of radar data, conversations between pilot and control tower, flight path, and other flight-related information will be needed to establish the cause(s) of this tragedy.

Nan Socolow West Palm Beach, FL March 11

The business of building and selling airplanes is brutally competitive. Malfunctions in the systems of any kind on jet airplanes ("workhorses" for moving vast quantities of people around the earth) lead to disaster and loss of life. Boeing's much ballyhooed and vaunted MAX 8 737 jet planes must be grounded until whatever computer glitches brought down Ethiopian Air and LION Air planes -- with hundreds of passenger deaths -- are explained and fixed.

In 1946, Arthur Miller's play, "All My Sons", brought to life guilt by the airplane industry leading to deaths of WWII pilots in planes with defective parts. Arthur Miller was brought before the House UnAmerican Activities Committee because of his criticism of the American Dream. His other seminal American play, "Death of a Salesman", was about an everyman to whom attention must be paid. Attention must be paid to our aircraft industry. The American dream must be repaired.

Rachel Brooklyn, NY March 11

This story makes me very afraid of driverless cars.

Chuck W. Seattle, WA March 11

Meanwhile, human drivers killed 40,000 and injured 4.5 million people in 2018... For comparison, 58,200 American troops died in the entire Vietnam war. Computers do not fall asleep, get drunk, drive angry, or get distracted. As far as I am concerned, we cannot get unreliable humans out from behind the wheel fast enough.

jcgrim Knoxville, TN March 11

@Chuck W. Humans write the algorithms of driverless cars. Algorithms are not 100% fail-safe. Particularly when humans can't seem to write snap judgements or quick inferences into an algorithm. An algorithm can make driverless cars safe in predictable situations but that doesn't mean driveless cars will work in unpredictable events. Also, I don't trust the hype from Uber or the tech industry. https://www.nytimes.com/2017/02/24/technology/anthony-levandowski-waymo-uber-google-lawsuit.html?mtrref=t.co&gwh=D6880521C2C06930788921147F4506C8&gwt=pay

John NYC March 11

The irony here seems to be that in attempting to make the aircraft as safe as possible (with systems updates and such) Boeing may very well have made their product less safe. Since the crashes, to date, have been limited to the one product that product should be grounded until a viable determination has been made. John~ American Net'Zen

cosmos Washington March 11

Knowing quite a few Boeing employees and retirees, people who have shared numerous stories of concerns about Boeing operations -- I personally avoid flying. As for the assertion: "The business of building and selling jets is brutally competitive" -- it is monopolistic competition, as there are only two players. That means consumers (in this case airlines) do not end up with the best and widest array of airplanes. The more monopolistic a market, the more it needs to be regulated in the public interest -- yet I seriously doubt the FAA or any governmental agency has peeked into all the cost cutting measures Boeing has implemented in recent years

drdeanster tinseltown March 11

@cosmos Patently ridiculous. Your odds are greater of dying from a lightning strike, or in a car accident. Or even from food poisoning. Do you avoid driving? Eating? Something about these major disasters makes people itching to abandon all sense of probability and statistics.

Bob Milan March 11

When the past year was the dealiest one in decades, and when there are two disasters involved the same plane within that year, how can anyone not draw an inference that there are something wrong with the plane? In statistical studies of a pattern, this is a very very strong basis for a logical reasoning that something is wrong with the plane. When the number involves human lives, we must take very seriously the possibility of design flaws. The MAX planes should be all grounded for now. Period.

65 Recommend
mak pakistan March 11

@Bob couldn't agree more - however the basic design and engineering of the 737 is proven to be dependable over the past ~ 6 decades......not saying that there haven't been accidents - but these probably lie well within the industry / type averages. the problems seems to have arisen with the introduction of systems which have purportedly been introduced to take a part of the work-load off the pilots & pass it onto a central compuertised system.

Maybe the 'automated anti-stalling ' programme installed into the 737 Max, due to some erroneous inputs from the sensors, provide inaccurate data to the flight management controls leading to stalling of the aircraft. It seems that the manufacturer did not provide sufficent technical data about the upgraded software, & incase of malfunction, the corrective procedures to be followed to mitigate such diasters happening - before delivery of the planes to customers.

The procedure for the pilot to take full control of the aircraft by disengaging the central computer should be simple and fast to execute. Please we don't want Tesla driverless vehicles high up in the sky !

James Conner Northwestern Montana March 11

All we know at the moment is that a 737 Max crashed in Africa a few minutes after taking off from a high elevation airport. Some see similarities with the crash of Lion Air's 737 Max last fall -- but drawing a line between the only two dots that exist does not begin to present a useful picture of the situation.

Human nature seeks an explanation for an event, and may lead some to make assumptions that are without merit in order to provide closure. That tendency is why following a dramatic event, when facts are few, and the few that exist may be misleading, there is so much cocksure speculation masquerading as solid, reasoned, analysis. At this point, it's best to keep an open mind and resist connecting dots.

Peter Sweden March 11

@James Conner 2 deadly crashes after the introduction of a new airplane has no precedence in recent aviation history. And the time it has happened (with Comet), it was due to a faulty aircraft design. There is, of course, some chance that there is no connection between the two accidents, but if there is, the consequences are huge. Especially because the two events happened with very similar fashion (right after takeoff, with wild altitude changes), so there is more similarities than just the type of the plane. So there is literally no reason to keep this model in the air until the investigation is concluded. Oh well, there is: money. Over human lives.

svenbi NY March 11

It might be a wrong analogy, but if Toyota/Lexus recall over 1.5 million vehicles due to at least over 20 fatalities in relations to potentially fawlty airbags, Boeing should -- after over 300 deaths in just about 6 months -- pull their product of the market voluntarily until it is sorted out once and for all.

This tragic situation recalls the early days of the de Havilland Comet, operated by BOAC, which kept plunging from the skies within its first years of operation until the fault was found to be in the rectangular windows, which did not withstand the pressure due its jet speed and the subsequent cracks in body ripped the planes apart in midflight.

Thore Eilertsen Oslo March 11

A third crash may have the potential to take the aircraft manufacturer out of business, it is therefore unbelievable that the reasons for the Lion Air crash haven't been properly established yet. With more than a 100 Boeing 737 Max already grounded, I would expect crash investigations now to be severely fast tracked.

And the entire fleet should be grounded on the principle of "better safe than sorry". But then again, that would cost Boeing money, suggesting that the company's assessment of the risks involved favours continued operations above the absolute safety of passengers.

Londoner London March 11

@Thore Eilertsen This is also not a case for a secretive and extended crash investigation process. As soon as the cockpit voice recording is extracted - which might be later today - it should be made public. We also need to hear the communications between the controllers and the aircraft and to know about the position regarding the special training the pilots received after the Lion Air crash.

Trevor Canada March 11

@Thore Eilertsen I would imagine that Boeing will be the first to propose grounding these planes if they believe with a high degree of probability that it's their issue. They have the most to lose. Let logic and patience prevail.

Marvin McConoughey oregon March 11

It is very clear, even in these early moments, that aircraft makers need far more comprehensive information on everything pertinent that is going on in cockpits when pilots encounter problems. That information should be continually transmitted to ground facilities in real time to permit possible ground technical support.

[Mar 11, 2019] The university professors, who teach but do not learn: neoliberal shill DeJong tries to prolong the life of neoliberalism in the USA

Highly recommended!
DeJong is more dangerous them Malkin... It poisons students with neoliberalism more effectively.
Mar 11, 2019 | www.nakedcapitalism.com

Kurtismayfield , , March 10, 2019 at 10:52 am

Re:Wall Street Democrats

They know, however, that they've been conned, played, and they're absolute fools in the game.

Thank you Mr. Black for the laugh this morning. They know exactly what they have been doing. Whether it was deregulating so that Hedge funds and vulture capitalism can thrive, or making sure us peons cannot discharge debts, or making everything about financalization. This was all done on purpose, without care for "winning the political game". Politics is economics, and the Wall Street Democrats have been winning.

notabanker , , March 10, 2019 at 12:26 pm

For sure. I'm quite concerned at the behavior of the DNC leadership and pundits. They are doubling down on blatant corporatist agendas. They are acting like they have this in the bag when objective evidence says they do not and are in trouble. Assuming they are out of touch is naive to me. I would assume the opposite, they know a whole lot more than what they are letting on.

urblintz , , March 10, 2019 at 12:49 pm

I think the notion that the DNC and the Democrat's ruling class would rather lose to a like-minded Republican corporatist than win with someone who stands for genuine progressive values offering "concrete material benefits." I held my nose and read comments at the kos straw polls (where Sanders consistently wins by a large margin) and it's clear to me that the Clintonista's will do everything in their power to derail Bernie.

polecat , , March 10, 2019 at 1:00 pm

"It's the Externalities, stupid economists !" *should be the new rallying cry ..

rd , , March 10, 2019 at 3:26 pm

Keynes' "animal spirits" and the "tragedy of the commons" (Lloyd, 1833 and Hardin, 1968) both implied that economics was messier than Samuelson and Friedman would have us believe because there are actual people with different short- and long-term interests.

The behavioral folks (Kahnemann, Tversky, Thaler etc.) have all shown that people are even messier than we would have thought. So most macro-economic stuff over the past half-century has been largely BS in justifying trickle-down economics, deregulation etc.

There needs to be some inequality as that provides incentives via capitalism but unfettered it turns into France 1989 or the Great Depression. It is not coincidence that the major experiment in this in the late 90s and early 2000s required massive government intervention to keep the ship from sinking less than a decade after the great unregulated creative forces were unleashed.

MMT is likely to be similar where productive uses of deficits can be beneficial, but if the money is wasted on stupid stuff like unnecessary wars, then the loss of credibility means that the fiat currency won't be quite as fiat anymore. Britain was unbelievably economically powerfully in the late 1800s but in half a century went to being an economic afterthought hamstrung by deficits after two major wars and a depression.

So it is good that people like Brad DeLong are coming to understand that the pretty economic theories have some truths but are utter BS (and dangerous) when extrapolated without accounting for how people and societies actually behave.

Chris Cosmos , , March 10, 2019 at 6:43 pm

I never understood the incentive to make more money -- that only works if money = true value and that is the implication of living in a capitalist society (not economy)–everything then becomes a commodity and alienation results and all the depression, fear, anxiety that I see around me. Whereas human happiness actually comes from helping others and finding meaning in life not money or dominating others. That's what social science seems to be telling us.

Oregoncharles , , March 10, 2019 at 2:46 pm

Quoting DeLong:

" He says we are discredited. Our policies have failed. And they've failed because we've been conned by the Republicans."

That's welcome, but it's still making excuses. Neoliberal policies have failed because the economics were wrong, not because "we've been conned by the Republicans." Furthermore, this may be important – if it isn't acknowledged, those policies are quite likely to come sneaking back, especially if Democrats are more in the ascendant., as they will be, given the seesaw built into the 2-Party.

The Rev Kev , , March 10, 2019 at 7:33 pm

Might be right there. Groups like the neocons were originally attached the the left side of politics but when the winds changed, detached themselves and went over to the Republican right. The winds are changing again so those who want power may be going over to what is called the left now to keep their grip on power. But what you say is quite true. It is not really the policies that failed but the economics themselves that were wrong and which, in an honest debate, does not make sense either.

marku52 , , March 10, 2019 at 3:39 pm

"And they've failed because we've been conned by the Republicans.""

Not at all. What about the "free trade" hokum that DeJong and his pal Krugman have been peddling since forever? History and every empirical test in the modern era shows that it fails in developing countries and only exacerbates inequality in richer ones.

That's just a failed policy.

I'm still waiting for an apology for all those years that those two insulted anyone who questioned their dogma as just "too ignorant to understand."

Glen , , March 10, 2019 at 4:47 pm

Thank you!

He created FAILED policies. He pushed policies which have harmed America, harmed Americans, and destroyed the American dream.

Kevin Carhart , , March 10, 2019 at 4:29 pm

It's intriguing, but two other voices come to mind. One is Never Let a Serious Crisis Go To Waste by Mirowski and the other is Generation Like by Doug Rushkoff.

Neoliberalism is partially entrepreneurial self-conceptions which took a long time to promote. Rushkoff's Frontline shows the Youtube culture. There is a girl with a "leaderboard" on the wall of her suburban room, keeping track of her metrics.

There's a devastating VPRO Backlight film on the same topic. Internet-platform neoliberalism does not have much to do with the GOP.

It's going to be an odd hybrid at best – you could have deep-red communism but enacted for and by people whose self-conception is influenced by decades of Becker and Hayek? One place this question leads is to ask what's the relationship between the set of ideas and material conditions-centric philosophies? If new policies pass that create a different possibility materially, will the vise grip of the entrepreneurial self loosen?

Partially yeah, maybe, a Job Guarantee if it passes and actually works, would be an anti-neoliberal approach to jobs, which might partially loosen the regime of neoliberal advice for job candidates delivered with a smug attitude that There Is No Alternative. (Described by Gershon). We take it seriously because of a sense of dread that it might actually be powerful enough to lock us out if we don't, and an uncertainty of whether it is or not.

There has been deep damage which is now a very broad and resilient base. It is one of the prongs of why 2008 did not have the kind of discrediting effect that 1929 did. At least that's what I took away from _Never Let_.

Brad DeLong handing the baton might mean something but it is not going to ameliorate the sense-of-life that young people get from managing their channels and metrics.

Take the new 1099 platforms as another focal point. Suppose there were political measures that splice in on the platforms and take the edge off materially, such as underwritten healthcare not tied to your job. The platforms still use star ratings, make star ratings seem normal, and continually push a self-conception as a small business. If you have overt DSA plus covert Becker it is, again, a strange hybrid,

Jeremy Grimm , , March 10, 2019 at 5:13 pm

Your comment is very insightful. Neoliberalism embeds its mindset into the very fabric of our culture and self-concepts. It strangely twists many of our core myths and beliefs.

Raulb , , March 10, 2019 at 6:36 pm

This is nothing but a Trojan horse to 'co-opt' and 'subvert'. Neoliberals sense a risk to their neo feudal project and are simply attempting to infiltrate and hollow out any threats from within.

There are the same folks who have let entire economics departments becomes mouthpieces for corporate propaganda and worked with thousands of think tanks and international organizations to mislead, misinform and cause pain to millions of people.

They have seeded decontextualized words like 'wealth creators' and 'job creators' to create a halo narrative for corporate interests and undermine society, citizenship, the social good, the environment that make 'wealth creation' even possible. So all those take a backseat to 'wealth creator' interests. Since you can't create wealth without society this is some achievement.

Its because of them that we live in a world where the most important economic idea is protecting people like Kochs business and personal interests and making sure government is not 'impinging on their freedom'. And the corollary a fundamental anti-human narrative where ordinary people and workers are held in contempt for even expecting living wages and conditions and their access to basics like education, health care and living conditions is hollowed out out to promote privatization and become 'entitlements'.

Neoliberalism has left us with a decontextualized highly unstable world that exists in a collective but is forcefully detached into a context less individual existence. These are not mistakes of otherwise 'well meaning' individuals, there are the results of hard core ideologues and high priests of power.

Dan , , March 10, 2019 at 7:31 pm

Two thumbs up. This has been an ongoing agenda for decades and it has succeeded in permeating every aspect of society, which is why the United States is such a vacuous, superficial place. And it's exporting that superficiality to the rest of the world.

VietnamVet , , March 10, 2019 at 7:17 pm

I read Brad DeLong's and Paul Krugman's blogs until their contradictions became too great. If anything, we need more people seeing the truth. The Global War on Terror is into its 18th year. In October the USA will spend approximately $6 trillion and will have accomplish nothing except to create blow back. The Middle Class is disappearing. Those who remain in their homes are head over heels in debt.

The average American household carries $137,063 in debt. The wealthy are getting richer.

The Jeff Bezos, Warren Buffett and Bill Gates families together have as much wealth as the lowest half of Americans. Donald Trump's Presidency and Brexit document that neoliberal politicians have lost contact with reality. They are nightmares that there is no escaping. At best, perhaps, Roosevelt Progressives will be reborn to resurrect regulated capitalism and debt forgiveness.

But more likely is a middle-class revolt when Americans no longer can pay for water, electricity, food, medicine and are jailed for not paying a $1,500 fine for littering the Beltway.

A civil war inside a nuclear armed nation state is dangerous beyond belief. France is approaching this.

[Mar 10, 2019] How do I detach a process from Terminal, entirely?

Mar 10, 2019 | superuser.com

stackoverflow.com, Aug 25, 2016 at 17:24

I use Tilda (drop-down terminal) on Ubuntu as my "command central" - pretty much the way others might use GNOME Do, Quicksilver or Launchy.

However, I'm struggling with how to completely detach a process (e.g. Firefox) from the terminal it's been launched from - i.e. prevent that such a (non-)child process

For example, in order to start Vim in a "proper" terminal window, I have tried a simple script like the following:

exec gnome-terminal -e "vim $@" &> /dev/null &

However, that still causes pollution (also, passing a file name doesn't seem to work).

lhunath, Sep 23, 2016 at 19:08

First of all; once you've started a process, you can background it by first stopping it (hit Ctrl - Z ) and then typing bg to let it resume in the background. It's now a "job", and its stdout / stderr / stdin are still connected to your terminal.

You can start a process as backgrounded immediately by appending a "&" to the end of it:

firefox &

To run it in the background silenced, use this:

firefox </dev/null &>/dev/null &

Some additional info:

nohup is a program you can use to run your application with such that its stdout/stderr can be sent to a file instead and such that closing the parent script won't SIGHUP the child. However, you need to have had the foresight to have used it before you started the application. Because of the way nohup works, you can't just apply it to a running process .

disown is a bash builtin that removes a shell job from the shell's job list. What this basically means is that you can't use fg , bg on it anymore, but more importantly, when you close your shell it won't hang or send a SIGHUP to that child anymore. Unlike nohup , disown is used after the process has been launched and backgrounded.

What you can't do, is change the stdout/stderr/stdin of a process after having launched it. At least not from the shell. If you launch your process and tell it that its stdout is your terminal (which is what you do by default), then that process is configured to output to your terminal. Your shell has no business with the processes' FD setup, that's purely something the process itself manages. The process itself can decide whether to close its stdout/stderr/stdin or not, but you can't use your shell to force it to do so.

To manage a background process' output, you have plenty of options from scripts, "nohup" probably being the first to come to mind. But for interactive processes you start but forgot to silence ( firefox < /dev/null &>/dev/null & ) you can't do much, really.

I recommend you get GNU screen . With screen you can just close your running shell when the process' output becomes a bother and open a new one ( ^Ac ).


Oh, and by the way, don't use " $@ " where you're using it.

$@ means, $1 , $2 , $3 ..., which would turn your command into:

gnome-terminal -e "vim $1" "$2" "$3" ...

That's probably not what you want because -e only takes one argument. Use $1 to show that your script can only handle one argument.

It's really difficult to get multiple arguments working properly in the scenario that you gave (with the gnome-terminal -e ) because -e takes only one argument, which is a shell command string. You'd have to encode your arguments into one. The best and most robust, but rather cludgy, way is like so:

gnome-terminal -e "vim $(printf "%q " "$@")"

Limited Atonement ,Aug 25, 2016 at 17:22

nohup cmd &

nohup detaches the process completely (daemonizes it)

Randy Proctor ,Sep 13, 2016 at 23:00

If you are using bash , try disown [ jobspec ] ; see bash(1) .

Another approach you can try is at now . If you're not superuser, your permission to use at may be restricted.

Stephen Rosen ,Jan 22, 2014 at 17:08

Reading these answers, I was under the initial impression that issuing nohup <command> & would be sufficient. Running zsh in gnome-terminal, I found that nohup <command> & did not prevent my shell from killing child processes on exit. Although nohup is useful, especially with non-interactive shells, it only guarantees this behavior if the child process does not reset its handler for the SIGHUP signal.

In my case, nohup should have prevented hangup signals from reaching the application, but the child application (VMWare Player in this case) was resetting its SIGHUP handler. As a result when the terminal emulator exits, it could still kill your subprocesses. This can only be resolved, to my knowledge, by ensuring that the process is removed from the shell's jobs table. If nohup is overridden with a shell builtin, as is sometimes the case, this may be sufficient, however, in the event that it is not...


disown is a shell builtin in bash , zsh , and ksh93 ,

<command> &
disown

or

<command> &; disown

if you prefer one-liners. This has the generally desirable effect of removing the subprocess from the jobs table. This allows you to exit the terminal emulator without accidentally signaling the child process at all. No matter what the SIGHUP handler looks like, this should not kill your child process.

After the disown, the process is still a child of your terminal emulator (play with pstree if you want to watch this in action), but after the terminal emulator exits, you should see it attached to the init process. In other words, everything is as it should be, and as you presumably want it to be.

What to do if your shell does not support disown ? I'd strongly advocate switching to one that does, but in the absence of that option, you have a few choices.

  1. screen and tmux can solve this problem, but they are much heavier weight solutions, and I dislike having to run them for such a simple task. They are much more suitable for situations in which you want to maintain a tty, typically on a remote machine.
  2. For many users, it may be desirable to see if your shell supports a capability like zsh's setopt nohup . This can be used to specify that SIGHUP should not be sent to the jobs in the jobs table when the shell exits. You can either apply this just before exiting the shell, or add it to shell configuration like ~/.zshrc if you always want it on.
  3. Find a way to edit the jobs table. I couldn't find a way to do this in tcsh or csh , which is somewhat disturbing.
  4. Write a small C program to fork off and exec() . This is a very poor solution, but the source should only consist of a couple dozen lines. You can then pass commands as commandline arguments to the C program, and thus avoid a process specific entry in the jobs table.

Sheljohn ,Jan 10 at 10:20

  1. nohup $COMMAND &
  2. $COMMAND & disown
  3. setsid command

I've been using number 2 for a very long time, but number 3 works just as well. Also, disown has a 'nohup' flag of '-h', can disown all processes with '-a', and can disown all running processes with '-ar'.

Silencing is accomplished by '$COMMAND &>/dev/null'.

Hope this helps!

dunkyp

add a comment ,Mar 25, 2009 at 1:51
I think screen might solve your problem

Nathan Fellman ,Mar 23, 2009 at 14:55

in tcsh (and maybe in other shells as well), you can use parentheses to detach the process.

Compare this:

> jobs # shows nothing
> firefox &
> jobs
[1]  + Running                       firefox

To this:

> jobs # shows nothing
> (firefox &)
> jobs # still shows nothing
>

This removes firefox from the jobs listing, but it is still tied to the terminal; if you logged in to this node via 'ssh', trying to log out will still hang the ssh process.

,

To disassociate tty shell run command through sub-shell for e.g.

(command)&

When exit used terminal closed but process is still alive.

check -

(sleep 100) & exit

Open other terminal

ps aux | grep sleep

Process is still alive.

[Mar 10, 2019] linux - How to attach terminal to detached process

Mar 10, 2019 | unix.stackexchange.com

Ask Question 86


Gilles ,Feb 16, 2012 at 21:39

I have detached a process from my terminal, like this:
$ process &

That terminal is now long closed, but process is still running and I want to send some commands to that process's stdin. Is that possible?

Samuel Edwin Ward ,Dec 22, 2018 at 13:34

Yes, it is. First, create a pipe: mkfifo /tmp/fifo . Use gdb to attach to the process: gdb -p PID

Then close stdin: call close (0) ; and open it again: call open ("/tmp/fifo", 0600)

Finally, write away (from a different terminal, as gdb will probably hang):

echo blah > /tmp/fifo

NiKiZe ,Jan 6, 2017 at 22:52

When original terminal is no longer accessible...

reptyr might be what you want, see https://serverfault.com/a/284795/187998

Quote from there:

Have a look at reptyr , which does exactly that. The github page has all the information.
reptyr - A tool for "re-ptying" programs.

reptyr is a utility for taking an existing running program and attaching it to a new terminal. Started a long-running process over ssh, but have to leave and don't want to interrupt it? Just start a screen, use reptyr to grab it, and then kill the ssh session and head on home.

USAGE

reptyr PID

"reptyr PID" will grab the process with id PID and attach it to your current terminal.

After attaching, the process will take input from and write output to the new terminal, including ^C and ^Z. (Unfortunately, if you background it, you will still have to run "bg" or "fg" in the old terminal. This is likely impossible to fix in a reasonable way without patching your shell.)

manatwork ,Nov 20, 2014 at 22:59

I am quite sure you can not.

Check using ps x . If a process has a ? as controlling tty , you can not send input to it any more.

9942 ?        S      0:00 tail -F /var/log/messages
9947 pts/1    S      0:00 tail -F /var/log/messages

In this example, you can send input to 9947 doing something like echo "test" > /dev/pts/1 . The other process ( 9942 ) is not reachable.

Next time, you could use screen or tmux to avoid this situation.

Stéphane Gimenez ,Feb 16, 2012 at 16:16

EDIT : As Stephane Gimenez said, it's not that simple. It's only allowing you to print to a different terminal.

You can try to write to this process using /proc . It should be located in /proc/ pid /fd/0 , so a simple :

echo "hello" > /proc/PID/fd/0

should do it. I have not tried it, but it should work, as long as this process still has a valid stdin file descriptor. You can check it with ls -l on /proc/ pid /fd/ .

See nohup for more details about how to keep processes running.

Stéphane Gimenez ,Nov 20, 2015 at 5:08

Just ending the command line with & will not completely detach the process, it will just run it in the background. (With zsh you can use &! to actually detach it, otherwise you have do disown it later).

When a process runs in the background, it won't receive input from its controlling terminal anymore. But you can send it back into the foreground with fg and then it will read input again.

Otherwise, it's not possible to externally change its filedescriptors (including stdin) or to reattach a lost controlling terminal unless you use debugging tools (see Ansgar's answer , or have a look at the retty command).

[Mar 10, 2019] linux - Preventing tmux session created by systemd from automatically terminating on Ctrl+C - Stack Overflow

Mar 10, 2019 | stackoverflow.com

Preventing tmux session created by systemd from automatically terminating on Ctrl+C Ask Question -1


Jim Stewart ,Nov 10, 2018 at 12:55

Since a few days I'm successfully running the new Minecraft Bedrock Edition dedicated server on my Ubuntu 18.04 LTS home server. Because it should be available 24/7 and automatically startup after boot I created a systemd service for a detached tmux session:

tmux.minecraftserver.service

[Unit]
Description=tmux minecraft_server detached

[Service]
Type=forking
WorkingDirectory=/home/mine/minecraftserver
ExecStart=/usr/bin/tmux new -s minecraftserver -d "LD_LIBRARY_PATH=. /home/mine/minecraftser$
User=mine

[Install]
WantedBy=multi-user.target

Everything works as expected but there's one tiny thing that keeps bugging me:

How can I prevent tmux from terminating it's whole session when I press Ctrl+C ? I just want to terminate the Minecraft server process itself instead of the whole tmux session. When starting the server from the command line in a manually created tmux session this does work (session stays alive) but not when the session was brought up by systemd .

FlKo ,Nov 12, 2018 at 6:21

When starting the server from the command line in a manually created tmux session this does work (session stays alive) but not when the session was brought up by systemd .

The difference between these situations is actually unrelated to systemd. In one case, you're starting the server from a shell within the tmux session, and when the server terminates, control returns to the shell. In the other case, you're starting the server directly within the tmux session, and when it terminates there's no shell to return to, so the tmux session also dies.

tmux has an option to keep the session alive after the process inside it dies (look for remain-on-exit in the manpage), but that's probably not what you want: you want to be able to return to an interactive shell, to restart the server, investigate why it died, or perform maintenance tasks, for example. So it's probably better to change your command to this:

'LD_LIBRARY_PATH=. /home/mine/minecraftserver/ ; exec bash'

That is, first run the server, and then, after it terminates, replace the process (the shell which tmux implicitly spawns to run the command, but which will then exit) with another, interactive shell. (For some other ways to get an interactive shell after the command exits, see e. g. this question – but note that the <(echo commands) syntax suggested in the top answer is not available in systemd unit files.)

FlKo ,Nov 12, 2018 at 6:21

I as able to solve this by using systemd's ExecStartPost and tmux's send-keys like this:
[Unit]
Description=tmux minecraft_server detached

[Service]
Type=forking
WorkingDirectory=/home/mine/minecraftserver
ExecStart=/usr/bin/tmux new -d -s minecraftserver
ExecStartPost=/usr/bin/tmux send-keys -t minecraftserver "cd /home/mine/minecraftserver/" Enter "LD_LIBRARY_PATH=. ./bedrock_server" Enter

User=mine

[Install]
WantedBy=multi-user.target

[Mar 01, 2019] Emergency reboot/shutdown using SysRq by Ilija Matoski

peakoilbarrel.com
As you know linux implements some type of mechanism to gracefully shutdown and reboot, this means the daemons are stopping, usually linux stops them one by one, the file cache is synced to disk.

But what sometimes happens is that the system will not reboot or shutdown no mater how many times you issue the shutdown or reboot command.

If the server is close to you, you can always just do a physical reset, but what if it's far away from you, where you can't reach it, sometimes it's not feasible, why if the OpenSSH server crashes and you cannot log in again in the system.

If you ever find yourself in a situation like that, there is another option to force the system to reboot or shutdown.

The magic SysRq key is a key combination understood by the Linux kernel, which allows the user to perform various low-level commands regardless of the system's state. It is often used to recover from freezes, or to reboot a computer without corrupting the filesystem.

Description QWERTY
Immediately reboot the system, without unmounting or syncing filesystems b
Sync all mounted filesystems s
Shut off the system o
Send the SIGKILL signal to all processes except init i

So if you are in a situation where you cannot reboot or shutdown the server, you can force an immediate reboot by issuing

echo 1 > /proc/sys/kernel/sysrq 
echo b > /proc/sysrq-trigger

If you want you can also force a sync before rebooting by issuing these commands

echo 1 > /proc/sys/kernel/sysrq 
echo s > /proc/sysrq-trigger
echo b > /proc/sysrq-trigger

These are called magic commands , and they're pretty much synonymous with holding down Alt-SysRq and another key on older keyboards. Dropping 1 into /proc/sys/kernel/sysrq tells the kernel that you want to enable SysRq access (it's usually disabled). The second command is equivalent to pressing * Alt-SysRq-b on a QWERTY keyboard.

If you want to keep SysRq enabled all the time, you can do that with an entry in your server's sysctl.conf:

echo "kernel.sysrq = 1" >> /etc/sysctl.conf

[Mar 01, 2019] Molly-guard for CentOS 7 UoB Unix by dg12158

Sep 21, 2015 | bris.ac.uk

Since I was looking at this already and had a few things to investigate and fix in our systemd-using hosts, I checked how plausible it is to insert a molly-guard-like password prompt as part of the reboot/shutdown process on CentOS 7 (i.e. using systemd).

Problems encountered include:

So for now this is shelved. It would be nice to have a solution though, so any hints from systemd experts are gratefully received!

(Note that CentOS 7 uses systemd 208, so new features in later versions which help won't be available to us) This entry was posted in Uncategorized by dg12158 . Bookmark the permalink .

[Mar 01, 2019] molly-guard protects machines from accidental shutdowns-reboots by ruchi

Nov 28, 2009 | www.ubuntugeek.com
molly-guard installs a shell script that overrides the existing shutdown/reboot/halt/poweroff commands and first runs a set of scripts, which all have to exit successfully, before molly-guard invokes the real command.

One of the scripts checks for existing SSH sessions. If any of the four commands are called interactively over an SSH session, the shell script prompts you to enter the name of the host you wish to shut down. This should adequately prevent you from accidental shutdowns and reboots.

This shell script passes through the commands to the respective binaries in /sbin and should thus not get in the way if called non-interactively, or locally.

The tool is basically a replacement for halt, reboot and shutdown to prevent such accidents.

Install molly-guard in ubuntu

sudo apt-get install molly-guard

or click on the following link

apt://molly-guard

Now that it's installed, try it out (on a non production box). Here you can see it save me from rebooting the box Ubuntu-test

Ubuntu-test:~$ sudo reboot
W: molly-guard: SSH session detected!
Please type in hostname of the machine to reboot: ruchi
Good thing I asked; I won't reboot Ubuntu-test ...
W: aborting reboot due to 30-query-hostname exiting with code 1.
Ubuntu-Test:~$

By default you're only protected on sessions that look like SSH sessions (have $SSH_CONNECTION set). If, like us, you use alot of virtual machines and RILOE cards, edit /etc/molly-guard/rc and uncomment ALWAYS_QUERY_HOSTNAME=true. Now you should be prompted for any interactive session.

[Mar 01, 2019] Confirm before executing shutdown-reboot command on linux by Ilija Matoski

Notable quotes:
"... rushing to leave and was still logged into a server so I wanted to shutdown my laptop, but what I didn't notice is that I was still connected to the remote server. ..."
Oct 23, 2017 | matoski.com
rushing to leave and was still logged into a server so I wanted to shutdown my laptop, but what I didn't notice is that I was still connected to the remote server. Luckily before pressing enter I noticed I'm not on my machine but on a remote server. So I was thinking there should be a very easy way to prevent it from happening again, to me or to anyone else.

So first thing we need to create a new bash script at /usr/local/bin/confirm with the contents bellow and with execution permissions

#!/usr/bin/env bash
echo "About to execute $1 command"
echo -n "Would you like to proceed y/n? "
read reply

if [ "$reply" = y -o "$reply" = Y ]
then
   $1 "${@:2}"
else
   echo "$1 ${@:2} cancelled"
fi

Now only thing left to do is to setup the aliases so they go through this command to confirm instead of directly calling the command.

So I create the following files

/etc/profile.d/confirm-shutdown.sh

alias shutdown="/usr/local/bin/confirm /sbin/shutdown"

/etc/profile.d/confirm-reboot.sh

alias reboot="/usr/local/bin/confirm /sbin/reboot"

Now when I actually try to do a shutdown/reboot it will prompt me like so.

ilijamt@x1 ~ $ reboot 
Before proceeding to perform /sbin/reboot, please ensure you have approval to perform this task
Would you like to proceed y/n? n
/sbin/reboot  cancelled

[Feb 26, 2019] THE CRISIS OF NEOLIBERALISM by Julie A. Wilson

Highly recommended!
Notable quotes:
"... While the Tea Party was critical of status-quo neoliberalism -- especially its cosmopolitanism and embrace of globalization and diversity, which was perfectly embodied by Obama's election and presidency -- it was not exactly anti-neoliberal. Rather, it was anti-left neoliberalism-, it represented a more authoritarian, right [wing] version of neoliberalism. ..."
"... Within the context of the 2016 election, Clinton embodied the neoliberal center that could no longer hold. Inequality. Suffering. Collapsing infrastructures. Perpetual war. Anger. Disaffected consent. ..."
"... Both Sanders and Trump were embedded in the emerging left and right responses to neoliberalism's crisis. Specifically, Sanders' energetic campaign -- which was undoubtedly enabled by the rise of the Occupy movement -- proposed a decidedly more "commongood" path. Higher wages for working people. Taxes on the rich, specifically the captains of the creditocracy. ..."
"... In other words, Trump supporters may not have explicitly voted for neoliberalism, but that's what they got. In fact, as Rottenberg argues, they got a version of right neoliberalism "on steroids" -- a mix of blatant plutocracy and authoritarianism that has many concerned about the rise of U.S. fascism. ..."
"... We can't know what would have happened had Sanders run against Trump, but we can think seriously about Trump, right and left neoliberalism, and the crisis of neoliberal hegemony. In other words, we can think about where and how we go from here. As I suggested in the previous chapter, if we want to construct a new world, we are going to have to abandon the entangled politics of both right and left neoliberalism; we have to reject the hegemonic frontiers of both disposability and marketized equality. After all, as political philosopher Nancy Fraser argues, what was rejected in the election of 2016 was progressive, left neoliberalism. ..."
"... While the rise of hyper-right neoliberalism is certainly nothing to celebrate, it does present an opportunity for breaking with neoliberal hegemony. We have to proceed, as Gary Younge reminds us, with the realization that people "have not rejected the chance of a better world. They have not yet been offered one."' ..."
Oct 08, 2017 | www.amazon.com

Quote from the book is courtesy of Amazon preview of the book Neoliberalism (Key Ideas in Media & Cultural Studies)

In Chapter 1, we traced the rise of our neoliberal conjuncture back to the crisis of liberalism during the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, culminating in the Great Depression. During this period, huge transformations in capitalism proved impossible to manage with classical laissez-faire approaches. Out of this crisis, two movements emerged, both of which would eventually shape the course of the twentieth century and beyond. The first, and the one that became dominant in the aftermath of the crisis, was the conjuncture of embedded liberalism. The crisis indicated that capitalism wrecked too much damage on the lives of ordinary citizens. People (white workers and families, especially) warranted social protection from the volatilities and brutalities of capitalism. The state's public function was expanded to include the provision of a more substantive social safety net, a web of protections for people and a web of constraints on markets. The second response was the invention of neoliberalism. Deeply skeptical of the common-good principles that undergirded the emerging social welfare state, neoliberals began organizing on the ground to develop a "new" liberal govemmentality, one rooted less in laissez-faire principles and more in the generalization of competition and enterprise. They worked to envision a new society premised on a new social ontology, that is, on new truths about the state, the market, and human beings. Crucially, neoliberals also began building infrastructures and institutions for disseminating their new' knowledges and theories (i.e., the Neoliberal Thought Collective), as well as organizing politically to build mass support for new policies (i.e., working to unite anti-communists, Christian conservatives, and free marketers in common cause against the welfare state). When cracks in embedded liberalism began to surface -- which is bound to happen with any moving political equilibrium -- neoliberals were there with new stories and solutions, ready to make the world anew.

We are currently living through the crisis of neoliberalism. As I write this book, Donald Trump has recently secured the U.S. presidency, prevailing in the national election over his Democratic opponent Hillary Clinton. Throughout the election, I couldn't help but think back to the crisis of liberalism and the two responses that emerged. Similarly, after the Great Recession of 2008, we've saw two responses emerge to challenge our unworkable status quo, which dispossesses so many people of vital resources for individual and collective life. On the one hand, we witnessed the rise of Occupy Wall Street. While many continue to critique the movement for its lack of leadership and a coherent political vision, Occupy was connected to burgeoning movements across the globe, and our current political horizons have been undoubtedly shaped by the movement's success at repositioning class and economic inequality within our political horizon. On the other hand, we saw' the rise of the Tea Party, a right-wing response to the crisis. While the Tea Party was critical of status-quo neoliberalism -- especially its cosmopolitanism and embrace of globalization and diversity, which was perfectly embodied by Obama's election and presidency -- it was not exactly anti-neoliberal. Rather, it was anti-left neoliberalism-, it represented a more authoritarian, right [wing] version of neoliberalism.

Within the context of the 2016 election, Clinton embodied the neoliberal center that could no longer hold. Inequality. Suffering. Collapsing infrastructures. Perpetual war. Anger. Disaffected consent. There were just too many fissures and fault lines in the glossy, cosmopolitan world of left neoliberalism and marketized equality. Indeed, while Clinton ran on status-quo stories of good governance and neoliberal feminism, confident that demographics and diversity would be enough to win the election, Trump effectively tapped into the unfolding conjunctural crisis by exacerbating the cracks in the system of marketized equality, channeling political anger into his celebrity brand that had been built on saying "f*** you" to the culture of left neoliberalism (corporate diversity, political correctness, etc.) In fact, much like Clinton's challenger in the Democratic primary, Benie Sanders, Trump was a crisis candidate.

Both Sanders and Trump were embedded in the emerging left and right responses to neoliberalism's crisis. Specifically, Sanders' energetic campaign -- which was undoubtedly enabled by the rise of the Occupy movement -- proposed a decidedly more "commongood" path. Higher wages for working people. Taxes on the rich, specifically the captains of the creditocracy.

Universal health care. Free higher education. Fair trade. The repeal of Citizens United. Trump offered a different response to the crisis. Like Sanders, he railed against global trade deals like NAFTA and the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP). However, Trump's victory was fueled by right neoliberalism's culture of cruelty. While Sanders tapped into and mobilized desires for a more egalitarian and democratic future, Trump's promise was nostalgic, making America "great again" -- putting the nation back on "top of the world," and implying a time when women were "in their place" as male property, and minorities and immigrants were controlled by the state.

Thus, what distinguished Trump's campaign from more traditional Republican campaigns was that it actively and explicitly pitted one group's equality (white men) against everyone else's (immigrants, women, Muslims, minorities, etc.). As Catherine Rottenberg suggests, Trump offered voters a choice between a multiracial society (where folks are increasingly disadvantaged and dispossessed) and white supremacy (where white people would be back on top). However, "[w]hat he neglected to state," Rottenberg writes,

is that neoliberalism flourishes in societies where the playing field is already stacked against various segments of society, and that it needs only a relatively small select group of capital-enhancing subjects, while everyone else is ultimately dispensable. 1

In other words, Trump supporters may not have explicitly voted for neoliberalism, but that's what they got. In fact, as Rottenberg argues, they got a version of right neoliberalism "on steroids" -- a mix of blatant plutocracy and authoritarianism that has many concerned about the rise of U.S. fascism.

We can't know what would have happened had Sanders run against Trump, but we can think seriously about Trump, right and left neoliberalism, and the crisis of neoliberal hegemony. In other words, we can think about where and how we go from here. As I suggested in the previous chapter, if we want to construct a new world, we are going to have to abandon the entangled politics of both right and left neoliberalism; we have to reject the hegemonic frontiers of both disposability and marketized equality. After all, as political philosopher Nancy Fraser argues, what was rejected in the election of 2016 was progressive, left neoliberalism.

While the rise of hyper-right neoliberalism is certainly nothing to celebrate, it does present an opportunity for breaking with neoliberal hegemony. We have to proceed, as Gary Younge reminds us, with the realization that people "have not rejected the chance of a better world. They have not yet been offered one."'

Mark Fisher, the author of Capitalist Realism, put it this way:

The long, dark night of the end of history has to be grasped as an enormous opportunity. The very oppressive pervasiveness of capitalist realism means that even glimmers of alternative political and economic possibilities can have a disproportionately great effect. The tiniest event can tear a hole in the grey curtain of reaction which has marked the horizons of possibility under capitalist realism. From a situation in which nothing can happen, suddenly anything is possible again.4

I think that, for the first time in the history of U.S. capitalism, the vast majority of people might sense the lie of liberal, capitalist democracy. They feel anxious, unfree, disaffected. Fantasies of the good life have been shattered beyond repair for most people. Trump and this hopefully brief triumph of right neoliberalism will soon lay this bare for everyone to see. Now, with Trump, it is absolutely clear: the rich rule the world; we are all disposable; this is no democracy. The question becomes: How will we show up for history? Will there be new stories, ideas, visions, and fantasies to attach to? How can we productively and meaningful intervene in the crisis of neoliberalism? How can we "tear a hole in the grey curtain" and open up better worlds? How can we put what we've learned to use and begin to imagine and build a world beyond living in competition? I hope our critical journey through the neoliberal conjuncture has enabled you to begin to answer these questions.

More specifically, in recent decades, especially since the end of the Cold War, our common-good sensibilities have been channeled into neoliberal platforms for social change and privatized action, funneling our political energies into brand culture and marketized struggles for equality (e.g., charter schools, NGOs and non-profits, neoliberal antiracism and feminism). As a result, despite our collective anger and disaffected consent, we find ourselves stuck in capitalist realism with no real alternative. Like the neoliberal care of the self, we are trapped in a privatized mode of politics that relies on cruel optimism; we are attached, it seems, to politics that inspire and motivate us to action, while keeping us living in competition.

To disrupt the game, we need to construct common political horizons against neoliberal hegemony. We need to use our common stories and common reason to build common movements against precarity -- for within neoliberalism, precarity is what ultimately has the potential to thread all of our lives together. Put differently, the ultimate fault line in the neoliberal conjiuicture is the way it subjects us all to precarity and the biopolitics of disposability, thereby creating conditions of possibility for new coalitions across race, gender, citizenship, sexuality, and class. Recognizing this potential for coalition in the face of precarization is the most pressing task facing those who are yearning for a new world. The question is: How do we get there? How do we realize these coalitional potentialities and materialize common horizons?

HOW WE GET THERE

Ultimately, mapping the neoliberal conjuncture through everyday life in enterprise culture has not only provided some direction in terms of what we need; it has also cultivated concrete and practical intellectual resources for political interv ention and social interconnection -- a critical toolbox for living in common. More specifically, this book has sought to provide resources for thinking and acting against the four Ds: resources for engaging in counter-conduct, modes of living that refuse, on one hand, to conduct one's life according to the norm of enterprise, and on the other, to relate to others through the norm of competition. Indeed, we need new ways of relating, interacting, and living as friends, lovers, workers, vulnerable bodies, and democratic people if we are to write new stories, invent new govemmentalities, and build coalitions for new worlds.

Against Disimagination: Educated Hope and Affirmative Speculation

We need to stop turning inward, retreating into ourselves, and taking personal responsibility for our lives (a task which is ultimately impossible). Enough with the disimagination machine! Let's start looking outward, not inward -- to the broader structures that undergird our lives. Of course, we need to take care of ourselves; we must survive. But I firmly believe that we can do this in ways both big and small, that transform neoliberal culture and its status-quo stories.

Here's the thing I tell my students all the time. You cannot escape neoliberalism. It is the air we breathe, the water in which we swim. No job, practice of social activism, program of self-care, or relationship will be totally free from neoliberal impingements and logics. There is no pure "outside" to get to or work from -- that's just the nature of the neoliberalism's totalizing cultural power. But let's not forget that neoliberalism's totalizing cultural power is also a source of weakness. Potential for resistance is everywhere, scattered throughout our everyday lives in enterprise culture. Our critical toolbox can help us identify these potentialities and navigate and engage our conjuncture in ways that tear open up those new worlds we desire.

In other words, our critical perspective can help us move through the world with what Henry Giroux calls educated hope. Educated hope means holding in tension the material realities of power and the contingency of history. This orientation of educated hope knows very well what we're up against. However, in the face of seemingly totalizing power, it also knows that neoliberalism can never become total because the future is open. Educated hope is what allows us to see the fault lines, fissures, and potentialities of the present and emboldens us to think and work from that sliver of social space where we do have political agency and freedom to construct a new world. Educated hope is what undoes the power of capitalist realism. It enables affirmative speculation (such as discussed in Chapter 5), which does not try to hold the future to neoliberal horizons (that's cruel optimism!), but instead to affirm our commonalities and the potentialities for the new worlds they signal. Affirmative speculation demands a different sort of risk calculation and management. It senses how little we have to lose and how much we have to gain from knocking the hustle of our lives.

Against De-democratization: Organizing and Collective Coverning

We can think of educated hope and affirmative speculation as practices of what Wendy Brown calls "bare democracy" -- the basic idea that ordinary' people like you and me should govern our lives in common, that we should critique and try to change our world, especially the exploitative and oppressive structures of power that maintain social hierarchies and diminish lives. Neoliberal culture works to stomp out capacities for bare democracy by transforming democratic desires and feelings into meritocratic desires and feelings. In neoliberal culture, utopian sensibilities are directed away from the promise of collective utopian sensibilities are directed away from the promise of collective governing to competing for equality.

We have to get back that democractic feeling! As Jeremy Gilbert taught us, disaffected consent is a post-democratic orientation. We don't like our world, but we don't think we can do anything about it. So, how do we get back that democratic feeling? How do we transform our disaffected consent into something new? As I suggested in the last chapter, we organize. Organizing is simply about people coming together around a common horizon and working collectively to materialize it. In this way, organizing is based on the idea of radical democracy, not liberal democracy. While the latter is based on formal and abstract rights guaranteed by the state, radical democracy insists that people should directly make the decisions that impact their lives, security, and well-being. Radical democracy is a practice of collective governing: it is about us hashing out, together in communities, what matters, and working in common to build a world based on these new sensibilities.

The work of organizing is messy, often unsatisfying, and sometimes even scary. Organizing based on affirmative speculation and coalition-building, furthermore, will have to be experimental and uncertain. As Lauren Berlant suggests, it means "embracing the discomfort of affective experience in a truly open social life that no

one has ever experienced." Organizing through and for the common "requires more adaptable infrastructures. Keep forcing the existing infrastructures to do what they don't know how to do. Make new ways to be local together, where local doesn't require a physical neighborhood." 5 What Berlant is saying is that the work of bare democracy requires unlearning, and detaching from, our current stories and infrastructures in order to see and make things work differently. Organizing for a new world is not easy -- and there are no guarantees -- but it is the only way out of capitalist realism.

Against Disposability: Radical Equality

Getting back democratic feeling will at once require and help us lo move beyond the biopolitics of disposability and entrenched systems of inequality. On one hand, organizing will never be enough if it is not animated by bare democracy, a sensibility that each of us is equally important when it comes to the project of determining our lives in common. Our bodies, our hurts, our dreams, and our desires matter regardless of our race, gender, sexuality, or citizenship, and regardless of how r much capital (economic, social, or cultural) we have. Simply put, in a radical democracy, no one is disposable. This bare-democratic sense of equality must be foundational to organizing and coalition-building. Otherwise, we will always and inevitably fall back into a world of inequality.

On the other hand, organizing and collective governing will deepen and enhance our sensibilities and capacities for radical equality. In this context, the kind of self-enclosed individualism that empowers and underwrites the biopolitics of disposability melts away, as we realize the interconnectedness of our lives and just how amazing it feels to

fail, we affirm our capacities for freedom, political intervention, social interconnection, and collective social doing.

Against Dispossession: Shared Security and Common Wealth

Thinking and acting against the biopolitics of disposability goes hand-in-hand with thinking and acting against dispossession. Ultimately, when we really understand and feel ourselves in relationships of interconnection with others, we want for them as we want for ourselves. Our lives and sensibilities of what is good and just are rooted in radical equality, not possessive or self-appreciating individualism. Because we desire social security and protection, we also know others desire and deserve the same.

However, to really think and act against dispossession means not only advocating for shared security and social protection, but also for a new society that is built on the egalitarian production and distribution of social wealth that we all produce. In this sense, we can take Marx's critique of capitalism -- that wealth is produced collectively but appropriated individually -- to heart. Capitalism was built on the idea that one class -- the owners of the means of production -- could exploit and profit from the collective labors of everyone else (those who do not own and thus have to work), albeit in very different ways depending on race, gender, or citizenship. This meant that, for workers of all stripes, their lives existed not for themselves, but for others (the appropriating class), and that regardless of what we own as consumers, we are not really free or equal in that bare-democratic sense of the word.

If we want to be really free, we need to construct new material and affective social infrastructures for our common wealth. In these new infrastructures, wealth must not be reduced to economic value; it must be rooted in social value. Here, the production of wealth does not exist as a separate sphere from the reproduction of our lives. In other words, new infrastructures, based on the idea of common wealth, will not be set up to exploit our labor, dispossess our communities, or to divide our lives. Rather, they will work to provide collective social resources and care so that we may all be free to pursue happiness, create beautiful and/or useful things, and to realize our potential within a social world of living in common. Crucially, to create the conditions for these new, democratic forms of freedom rooted in radical equality, we need to find ways to refuse and exit the financial networks of Empire and the dispossessions of creditocracy, building new systems that invite everyone to participate in the ongoing production of new worlds and the sharing of the wealth that we produce in common.

It's not up to me to tell you exactly where to look, but I assure you that potentialities for these new worlds are everywhere around you.

[Feb 21, 2019] https://github.com/MikeDacre/careful_rm

Feb 21, 2019 | github.com

rm is a powerful *nix tool that simply drops a file from the drive index. It doesn't delete it or put it in a Trash can, it just de-indexes it which makes the file hard to recover unless you want to put in the work, and pretty easy to recover if you are willing to spend a few hours trying (use shred to actually secure erase files).

careful_rm.py is inspired by the -I interactive mode of rm and by safe-rm . safe-rm adds a recycle bin mode to rm, and the -I interactive mode adds a prompt if you delete more than a handful of files or recursively delete a directory. ZSH also has an option to warn you if you recursively rm a directory.

These are all great, but I found them unsatisfying. What I want is for rm to be quick and not bother me for single file deletions (so rm -i is out), but to let me know when I am deleting a lot of files, and to actually print a list of files that are about to be deleted . I also want it to have the option to trash/recycle my files instead of just straight deleting them.... like safe-rm , but not so intrusive (safe-rm defaults to recycle, and doesn't warn).

careful_rm.py is fundamentally a simple rm wrapper, that accepts all of the same commands as rm , but with a few additional options features. In the source code CUTOFF is set to 3 , so deleting more files than that will prompt the user. Also, deleting a directory will prompt the user separately with a count of all files and subdirectories within the folders to be deleted.

Furthermore, careful_rm.py implements a fully integrated trash mode that can be toggled on with -c . It can also be forced on by adding a file at ~/.rm_recycle , or toggled on only for $HOME (the best idea), by ~/.rm_recycle_home . The mode can be disabled on the fly by passing --direct , which forces off recycle mode.

The recycle mode tries to find the best location to recycle to on MacOS or Linux, on MacOS it also tries to use Apple Script to trash files, which means the original location is preserved (note Applescript can be slow, you can disable it by adding a ~/.no_apple_rm file, but Put Back won't work). The best location for trashes goes in this order:

  1. $HOME/.Trash on Mac or $HOME/.local/share/Trash on Linux
  2. <mountpoint>/.Trashes on Mac or <mountpoint>/.Trash-$UID on Linux
  3. /tmp/$USER_trash

Always the best trash can to avoid Volume hopping is favored, as moving across file systems is slow. If the trash does not exist, the user is prompted to create it, they then also have the option to fall back to the root trash ( /tmp/$USER_trash ) or just rm the files.

/tmp/$USER_trash is almost always used for deleting system/root files, but note that you most likely do not want to save those files, and straight rm is generally better.

[Feb 21, 2019] https://github.com/lagerspetz/linux-stuff/blob/master/scripts/saferm.sh by Eemil Lagerspetz

Shell script that tires to implement trash can idea
Feb 21, 2019 | github.com
#!/bin/bash
##
## saferm.sh
## Safely remove files, moving them to GNOME/KDE trash instead of deleting.
## Made by Eemil Lagerspetz
## Login <vermind@drache>
##
## Started on Mon Aug 11 22:00:58 2008 Eemil Lagerspetz
## Last update Sat Aug 16 23:49:18 2008 Eemil Lagerspetz
##
version= " 1.16 " ;

... ... ...

[Feb 21, 2019] The rm='rm -i' alias is an horror

Feb 21, 2019 | superuser.com

The rm='rm -i' alias is an horror because after a while using it, you will expect rm to prompt you by default before removing files. Of course, one day you'll run it with an account that hasn't that alias set and before you understand what's going on, it is too late.

... ... ...

If you want save aliases, but don't want to risk getting used to the commands working differently on your system than on others, you can to disable rm like this
alias rm='echo "rm is disabled, use remove or trash or /bin/rm instead."'

Then you can create your own safe alias, e.g.

alias remove='/bin/rm -irv'

or use trash instead.

[Feb 21, 2019] Ubuntu Manpage trash - Command line trash utility.

Feb 21, 2019 | manpages.ubuntu.com

xenial ( 1 ) trash.1.gz

Provided by: trash-cli_0.12.9.14-2_all

NAME

       trash - Command line trash utility.
SYNOPSIS 
       trash [arguments] ...
DESCRIPTION 
       Trash-cli  package  provides  a command line interface trashcan utility compliant with the
       FreeDesktop.org Trash Specification.  It remembers the name, original path, deletion date,
       and permissions of each trashed file.

ARGUMENTS 
       Names of files or directory to move in the trashcan.
EXAMPLES
       $ cd /home/andrea/
       $ touch foo bar
       $ trash foo bar
BUGS 
       Report bugs to http://code.google.com/p/trash-cli/issues
AUTHORS
       Trash  was  written  by Andrea Francia <andreafrancia@users.sourceforge.net> and Einar Orn
       Olason <eoo@hi.is>.  This manual page was written by  Steve  Stalcup  <vorian@ubuntu.com>.
       Changes made by Massimo Cavalleri <submax@tiscalinet.it>.

SEE ALSO 
       trash-list(1),   trash-restore(1),   trash-empty(1),   and   the   FreeDesktop.org   Trash
       Specification at http://www.ramendik.ru/docs/trashspec.html.

       Both are released under the GNU General Public License, version 2 or later.

[Feb 21, 2019] How to prompt and read user input in a Bash shell script

Feb 21, 2019 | alvinalexander.com

By Alvin Alexander. Last updated: June 22 2017 Unix/Linux bash shell script FAQ: How do I prompt a user for input from a shell script (Bash shell script), and then read the input the user provides?

Answer: I usually use the shell script read function to read input from a shell script. Here are two slightly different versions of the same shell script. This first version prompts the user for input only once, and then dies if the user doesn't give a correct Y/N answer:

# (1) prompt user, and read command line argument
read -p "Run the cron script now? " answer

# (2) handle the command line argument we were given
while true
do
  case $answer in
   [yY]* ) /usr/bin/wget -O - -q -t 1 http://www.example.com/cron.php
           echo "Okay, just ran the cron script."
           break;;

   [nN]* ) exit;;

   * )     echo "Dude, just enter Y or N, please."; break ;;
  esac
done

This second version stays in a loop until the user supplies a Y/N answer:

while true
do
  # (1) prompt user, and read command line argument
  read -p "Run the cron script now? " answer

  # (2) handle the input we were given
  case $answer in
   [yY]* ) /usr/bin/wget -O - -q -t 1 http://www.example.com/cron.php
           echo "Okay, just ran the cron script."
           break;;

   [nN]* ) exit;;

   * )     echo "Dude, just enter Y or N, please.";;
  esac
done

I prefer the second approach, but I thought I'd share both of them here. They are subtly different, so not the extra break in the first script.

This Linux Bash 'read' function is nice, because it does both things, prompting the user for input, and then reading the input. The other nice thing it does is leave the cursor at the end of your prompt, as shown here:

Run the cron script now? _

(This is so much nicer than what I had to do years ago.)

[Feb 15, 2019] Losing a job in your 50s is especially tough. Here are 3 steps to take when layoffs happen by Peter Dunn

Unemployment usually is just six month or so; this is the time when you can plan you "downsizing". You do not need to rush.
Often losing job logically requires selling your home and moving to a modest apartment, especially if no children are living with you. At 50 it is abut time... You need to do it later anyway, so why not now.
But that's a very tough decision to make... Still, if the current housing market is close to the top, this is one of the best moves you can make. Getting from your house several hundred thousand dollars allows you to create kind of private pension to compensate for losses in income till you hit your Social Security check, which currently means 66.
$300K investment in A quality bonds that returns 3% per year are enough to provides you with $24K per year "pension" from 50 to age of 66. That allows you to pay for the apartment and amenities. The food is extra...
This way you can take lower paid job and survive.
And in this case you 401k remains intact and can supplement your SS income later on. Simple Excel spreadsheet can provide you with a complete picture of what you can afford and what not. Actually ability to walk of fresh air for 3 or more hours each day worth a lot of money ;-)
Notable quotes:
"... Losing a job in your 50s is a devastating moment, especially if the job is connected to a long career ripe with upward mobility. As a frequent observer of this phenomenon, it's as scary and troublesome as unchecked credit card debt or an expensive chronic health condition. This is one of the many reasons why I believe our 50s can be the most challenging decade of our lives. ..."
"... The first thing you should do is identify the exact day your job income stops arriving ..."
"... Next, and by next I mean five minutes later, explore your eligibility for unemployment benefits, and then file for them if you're able. ..."
"... Grab your bank statement, a marker, and a calculator. As much as you want to pretend its business as usual, you shouldn't. Identify expenses that don't make sense if you don't have a job. Circle them. Add them up. Resolve to eliminate them for the time being, and possibly permanently. While this won't necessarily lengthen your fuse, it could lessen the severity of a potential boom. ..."
Feb 15, 2019 | finance.yahoo.com

... ... ...

Losing a job in your 50s is a devastating moment, especially if the job is connected to a long career ripe with upward mobility. As a frequent observer of this phenomenon, it's as scary and troublesome as unchecked credit card debt or an expensive chronic health condition. This is one of the many reasons why I believe our 50s can be the most challenging decade of our lives.

Assuming you can clear the mental challenges, the financial and administrative obstacles can leave you feeling like a Rube Goldberg machine.

Income, health insurance, life insurance, disability insurance, bills, expenses, short-term savings and retirement savings are all immediately important in the face of a job loss. Never mind your Parent PLUS loans, financially-dependent aging parents, and boomerang children (adult kids who live at home), which might all be lurking as well.

When does your income stop?

From the shocking moment a person learns their job is no longer their job, the word "triage" must flash in bright lights like an obnoxiously large sign in Times Square. This is more challenging than you might think. Like a pickpocket bumping into you right before he grabs your wallet, the distraction is the problem that takes your focus away from the real problem.

This is hard to do because of the emotion that arrives with the dirty deed. The mind immediately begins to race to sources of money and relief. And unfortunately that relief is often found in the wrong place.

The first thing you should do is identify the exact day your job income stops arriving . That's how much time you have to defuse the bomb. Your fuse may come in the form of a severance package, or work you've performed but have't been paid for yet.

When do benefits kick in?

Next, and by next I mean five minutes later, explore your eligibility for unemployment benefits, and then file for them if you're able. However, in some states severance pay affects your immediate eligibility for unemployment benefits. In other words, you can't file for unemployment until your severance payments go away.

Assuming you can't just retire at this moment, which you likely can't, you must secure fresh employment income quickly. But quickly is relative to the length of your fuse. I've witnessed way too many people miscalculate the length and importance of their fuse. If you're able to get back to work quickly, the initial job loss plus severance ends up enhancing your financial life. If you take too much time, by your choice or that of the cosmos, boom.

The next move is much more hands-on, and must also be performed the day you find yourself without a job.

What nonessentials do I cut?

Grab your bank statement, a marker, and a calculator. As much as you want to pretend its business as usual, you shouldn't. Identify expenses that don't make sense if you don't have a job. Circle them. Add them up. Resolve to eliminate them for the time being, and possibly permanently. While this won't necessarily lengthen your fuse, it could lessen the severity of a potential boom.

The idea of diving into your spending habits on the day you lose your job is no fun. But when else will you have such a powerful reason to do so? You won't. It's better than dipping into your assets to fund your current lifestyle. And that's where we'll pick it up the next time.

We've covered day one. In my next column we will tackle day two and beyond.

Peter Dunn is an author, speaker and radio host, and he has a free podcast: "Million Dollar Plan." Have a question for Pete the Planner? Email him at AskPete@petetheplanner.com. The views and opinions expressed in this column are the author's and do not necessarily reflect those of USA TODAY.

[Feb 13, 2019] Microsoft patches 0-day vulnerabilities in IE and Exchange

It is unclear how long this vulnerability exists, but this is pretty serious staff that shows how Hillary server could be hacked via Abedin account. As Abedin technical level was lower then zero, to hack into her home laptop just just trivial.
Feb 13, 2019 | arstechnica.com

Microsoft also patched Exchange against a vulnerability that allowed remote attackers with little more than an unprivileged mailbox account to gain administrative control over the server. Dubbed PrivExchange, CVE-2019-0686 was publicly disclosed last month , along with proof-of-concept code that exploited it. In Tuesday's advisory , Microsoft officials said they haven't seen active exploits yet but that they were "likely."

[Feb 12, 2019] Older Workers Need a Different Kind of Layoff A 60-year-old whose position is eliminated might be unable to find another job, but could retire if allowed early access to Medicare

Highly recommended!
This is a constructive suggestion that is implementable even under neoliberalism. As everything is perverted under neoliberalism that might prompt layoffs before the age of 55.
Notable quotes:
"... Older workers often struggle to get rehired as easily as younger workers. Age discrimination is a well-known problem in corporate America. What's a 60-year-old back office worker supposed to do if downsized in a merger? The BB&T-SunTrust prospect highlights the need for a new type of unemployment insurance for some of the workforce. ..."
"... One policy might be treating unemployed older workers differently than younger workers. Giving them unemployment benefits for a longer period of time than younger workers would be one idea, as well as accelerating the age of Medicare eligibility for downsized employees over the age of 55. The latter idea would help younger workers as well, by encouraging older workers to accept buyout packages -- freeing up career opportunities for younger workers. ..."
Feb 12, 2019 | www.bloomberg.com

The proposed merger between SunTrust and BB&T makes sense for both firms -- which is why Wall Street sent both stocks higher on Thursday after the announcement. But employees of the two banks, especially older workers who are not yet retirement age, are understandably less enthused at the prospect of downsizing. In a nation with almost 37 million workers over the age of 55, the quandary of SunTrust-BB&T workforce will become increasingly familiar across the U.S. economy.

But what's good for the firms isn't good for all of the workers. Older workers often struggle to get rehired as easily as younger workers. Age discrimination is a well-known problem in corporate America. What's a 60-year-old back office worker supposed to do if downsized in a merger? The BB&T-SunTrust prospect highlights the need for a new type of unemployment insurance for some of the workforce.

One policy might be treating unemployed older workers differently than younger workers. Giving them unemployment benefits for a longer period of time than younger workers would be one idea, as well as accelerating the age of Medicare eligibility for downsized employees over the age of 55. The latter idea would help younger workers as well, by encouraging older workers to accept buyout packages -- freeing up career opportunities for younger workers.

The economy can be callous toward older workers, but policy makers don't have to be. We should think about ways of dealing with this shift in the labor market before it happens.

[Feb 11, 2019] Resuming rsync on a interrupted transfer

May 15, 2013 | stackoverflow.com

Glitches , May 15, 2013 at 18:06

I am trying to backup my file server to a remove file server using rsync. Rsync is not successfully resuming when a transfer is interrupted. I used the partial option but rsync doesn't find the file it already started because it renames it to a temporary file and when resumed it creates a new file and starts from beginning.

Here is my command:

rsync -avztP -e "ssh -p 2222" /volume1/ myaccont@backup-server-1:/home/myaccount/backup/ --exclude "@spool" --exclude "@tmp"

When this command is ran, a backup file named OldDisk.dmg from my local machine get created on the remote machine as something like .OldDisk.dmg.SjDndj23 .

Now when the internet connection gets interrupted and I have to resume the transfer, I have to find where rsync left off by finding the temp file like .OldDisk.dmg.SjDndj23 and rename it to OldDisk.dmg so that it sees there already exists a file that it can resume.

How do I fix this so I don't have to manually intervene each time?

Richard Michael , Nov 6, 2013 at 4:26

TL;DR : Use --timeout=X (X in seconds) to change the default rsync server timeout, not --inplace .

The issue is the rsync server processes (of which there are two, see rsync --server ... in ps output on the receiver) continue running, to wait for the rsync client to send data.

If the rsync server processes do not receive data for a sufficient time, they will indeed timeout, self-terminate and cleanup by moving the temporary file to it's "proper" name (e.g., no temporary suffix). You'll then be able to resume.

If you don't want to wait for the long default timeout to cause the rsync server to self-terminate, then when your internet connection returns, log into the server and clean up the rsync server processes manually. However, you must politely terminate rsync -- otherwise, it will not move the partial file into place; but rather, delete it (and thus there is no file to resume). To politely ask rsync to terminate, do not SIGKILL (e.g., -9 ), but SIGTERM (e.g., pkill -TERM -x rsync - only an example, you should take care to match only the rsync processes concerned with your client).

Fortunately there is an easier way: use the --timeout=X (X in seconds) option; it is passed to the rsync server processes as well.

For example, if you specify rsync ... --timeout=15 ... , both the client and server rsync processes will cleanly exit if they do not send/receive data in 15 seconds. On the server, this means moving the temporary file into position, ready for resuming.

I'm not sure of the default timeout value of the various rsync processes will try to send/receive data before they die (it might vary with operating system). In my testing, the server rsync processes remain running longer than the local client. On a "dead" network connection, the client terminates with a broken pipe (e.g., no network socket) after about 30 seconds; you could experiment or review the source code. Meaning, you could try to "ride out" the bad internet connection for 15-20 seconds.

If you do not clean up the server rsync processes (or wait for them to die), but instead immediately launch another rsync client process, two additional server processes will launch (for the other end of your new client process). Specifically, the new rsync client will not re-use/reconnect to the existing rsync server processes. Thus, you'll have two temporary files (and four rsync server processes) -- though, only the newer, second temporary file has new data being written (received from your new rsync client process).

Interestingly, if you then clean up all rsync server processes (for example, stop your client which will stop the new rsync servers, then SIGTERM the older rsync servers, it appears to merge (assemble) all the partial files into the new proper named file. So, imagine a long running partial copy which dies (and you think you've "lost" all the copied data), and a short running re-launched rsync (oops!).. you can stop the second client, SIGTERM the first servers, it will merge the data, and you can resume.

Finally, a few short remarks:

JamesTheAwesomeDude , Dec 29, 2013 at 16:50

Just curious: wouldn't SIGINT (aka ^C ) be 'politer' than SIGTERM ? – JamesTheAwesomeDude Dec 29 '13 at 16:50

Richard Michael , Dec 29, 2013 at 22:34

I didn't test how the server-side rsync handles SIGINT, so I'm not sure it will keep the partial file - you could check. Note that this doesn't have much to do with Ctrl-c ; it happens that your terminal sends SIGINT to the foreground process when you press Ctrl-c , but the server-side rsync has no controlling terminal. You must log in to the server and use kill . The client-side rsync will not send a message to the server (for example, after the client receives SIGINT via your terminal Ctrl-c ) - might be interesting though. As for anthropomorphizing, not sure what's "politer". :-) – Richard Michael Dec 29 '13 at 22:34

d-b , Feb 3, 2015 at 8:48

I just tried this timeout argument rsync -av --delete --progress --stats --human-readable --checksum --timeout=60 --partial-dir /tmp/rsync/ rsync://$remote:/ /src/ but then it timed out during the "receiving file list" phase (which in this case takes around 30 minutes). Setting the timeout to half an hour so kind of defers the purpose. Any workaround for this? – d-b Feb 3 '15 at 8:48

Cees Timmerman , Sep 15, 2015 at 17:10

@user23122 --checksum reads all data when preparing the file list, which is great for many small files that change often, but should be done on-demand for large files. – Cees Timmerman Sep 15 '15 at 17:10

[Feb 11, 2019] prsync command man page - pssh

Originally from Brent N. Chun ~ Intel Research Berkeley
Feb 11, 2019 | www.mankier.com

prsync -- parallel file sync program

Synopsis

prsync [ - v A r a z ] [ -h hosts_file ] [ -H [ user @] host [: port ]] [ -l user ] [ -p par ] [ -o outdir ] [ -e errdir ] [ -t timeout ] [ -O options ] [ -x args ] [ -X arg ] [ -S args ] local ... remote

Description

prsync is a program for copying files in parallel to a number of hosts using the popular rsync program. It provides features such as passing a password to ssh, saving output to files, and timing out.

Options
-h host_file
--hosts host_file
Read hosts from the given host_file . Lines in the host file are of the form [ user @] host [: port ] and can include blank lines and comments (lines beginning with "#"). If multiple host files are given (the -h option is used more than once), then prsync behaves as though these files were concatenated together. If a host is specified multiple times, then prsync will connect the given number of times.
-H
[ user @] host [: port ]
--host
[ user @] host [: port ]
-H
"[ user @] host [: port ] [ [ user @] host [: port ] ... ]"
--host
"[ user @] host [: port ] [ [ user @] host [: port ] ... ]"

Add the given host strings to the list of hosts. This option may be given multiple times, and may be used in conjunction with the -h option.

-l user
--user user
Use the given username as the default for any host entries that don't specifically specify a user.
-p parallelism
--par parallelism
Use the given number as the maximum number of concurrent connections.
-t timeout
--timeout timeout
Make connections time out after the given number of seconds. With a value of 0, prsync will not timeout any connections.
-o outdir
--outdir outdir
Save standard output to files in the given directory. Filenames are of the form [ user @] host [: port ][. num ] where the user and port are only included for hosts that explicitly specify them. The number is a counter that is incremented each time for hosts that are specified more than once.
-e errdir
--errdir errdir
Save standard error to files in the given directory. Filenames are of the same form as with the -o option.
-x args
--extra-args args
Passes extra rsync command-line arguments (see the rsync(1) man page for more information about rsync arguments). This option may be specified multiple times. The arguments are processed to split on whitespace, protect text within quotes, and escape with backslashes. To pass arguments without such processing, use the -X option instead.
-X arg
--extra-arg arg
Passes a single rsync command-line argument (see the rsync(1) man page for more information about rsync arguments). Unlike the -x option, no processing is performed on the argument, including word splitting. To pass multiple command-line arguments, use the option once for each argument.
-O options
--options options
SSH options in the format used in the SSH configuration file (see the ssh_config(5) man page for more information). This option may be specified multiple times.
-A
--askpass
Prompt for a password and pass it to ssh. The password may be used for either to unlock a key or for password authentication. The password is transferred in a fairly secure manner (e.g., it will not show up in argument lists). However, be aware that a root user on your system could potentially intercept the password.
-v
--verbose
Include error messages from rsync with the -i and \ options.
-r
--recursive
Recursively copy directories.
-a
--archive
Use rsync archive mode (rsync's -a option).
-z
--compress
Use rsync compression.
-S args
--ssh-args args
Passes extra SSH command-line arguments (see the ssh(1) man page for more information about SSH arguments). The given value is appended to the ssh command (rsync's -e option) without any processing.
Tips

The ssh_config file can include an arbitrary number of Host sections. Each host entry specifies ssh options which apply only to the given host. Host definitions can even behave like aliases if the HostName option is included. This ssh feature, in combination with pssh host files, provides a tremendous amount of flexibility.

Exit Status

The exit status codes from prsync are as follows:

0
Success
1
Miscellaneous error
2
Syntax or usage error
3
At least one process was killed by a signal or timed out.
4
All processes completed, but at least one rsync process reported an error (exit status other than 0).
Authors

Written by Brent N. Chun <bnc@theether.org> and Andrew McNabb <amcnabb@mcnabbs.org>.

https://github.com/lilydjwg/pssh

See Also

rsync(1) , ssh(1) , ssh_config(5) , pssh(1) , prsync (1), pslurp(1) , pnuke(1) ,

Referenced By

pnuke(1) , pscp.pssh(1) , pslurp(1) , pssh(1) .

[Feb 07, 2019] Installing Nagios-3.4 in CentOS 6.3 LinTut

Feb 07, 2019 | lintut.com

Nagios is an opensource software used for network and infrastructure monitoring . Nagios will monitor servers, switches, applications and services . It alerts the System Administrator when something went wrong and also alerts back when the issues has been rectified.

View also: How to Enable EPEL Repository for RHEL/CentOS 6/5

View also: How to Enable EPEL Repository for RHEL/CentOS 6/5
yum install nagios nagios-devel nagios-plugins* gd gd-devel httpd php gcc glibc glibc-common

Bydefualt on doing yum install nagios, in cgi.cfg file, authorized user name nagiosadmin is mentioned and for htpasswd file /etc/nagios/passwd file is used.So for easy steps I am using the same name.
# htpasswd -c /etc/nagios/passwd nagiosadmin

Check the below given values in /etc/nagios/cgi.cfg
nano /etc/nagios/cgi.cfg
# AUTHENTICATION USAGE
use_authentication=1
# SYSTEM/PROCESS INFORMATION ACCESS
authorized_for_system_information=nagiosadmin
# CONFIGURATION INFORMATION ACCESS
authorized_for_configuration_information=nagiosadmin
# SYSTEM/PROCESS COMMAND ACCESS
authorized_for_system_commands=nagiosadmin
# GLOBAL HOST/SERVICE VIEW ACCESS
authorized_for_all_services=nagiosadmin
authorized_for_all_hosts=nagiosadmin
# GLOBAL HOST/SERVICE COMMAND ACCESS
authorized_for_all_service_commands=nagiosadmin
authorized_for_all_host_commands=nagiosadmin

For provoding the access to nagiosadmin user in http, /etc/httpd/conf.d/nagios.conf file exist. Below is the nagios.conf configuration for nagios server.
cat /etc/http/conf.d/nagios.conf
# SAMPLE CONFIG SNIPPETS FOR APACHE WEB SERVER
# Last Modified: 11-26-2005
#
# This file contains examples of entries that need
# to be incorporated into your Apache web server
# configuration file. Customize the paths, etc. as
# needed to fit your system.

ScriptAlias /nagios/cgi-bin/ "/usr/lib/nagios/cgi-bin/"
# SSLRequireSSL
Options ExecCGI
AllowOverride None
Order allow,deny
Allow from all
# Order deny,allow
# Deny from all
# Allow from 127.0.0.1
AuthName "Nagios Access"
AuthType Basic
AuthUserFile /etc/nagios/passwd
Require valid-user

Alias /nagios "/usr/share/nagios/html"
# SSLRequireSSL
Options None
AllowOverride None
Order allow,deny
Allow from all
# Order deny,allow
# Deny from all
Allow from 127.0.0.1
AuthName "Nagios Access"
AuthType Basic
AuthUserFile /etc/nagios/passwd
Require valid-user

Start the httpd and nagios /etc/init.d/httpd start /etc/init.d/nagios start [warn]Note: SELINUX and IPTABLE are disabled.[/warn] Access the nagios server by http://nagios_server_ip-address/nagios Give the username = nagiosadmin and password which you have given to nagiosadmin user.

[Feb 04, 2019] Do not play those dangerous games with resing of partitions unless absolutly nessesary

Copying to additional drive (can be USB), repartitioning and then copying everything back is a safer bet
May 07, 2017 | superuser.com
womble

In theory, you could reduce the size of sda1, increase the size of the extended partition, shift the contents of the extended partition down, then increase the size of the PV on the extended partition and you'd have the extra room.

However, the number of possible things that can go wrong there is just astronomical

So I'd recommend either buying a second hard drive (and possibly transferring everything onto it in a more sensible layout, then repartitioning your current drive better) or just making some bind mounts of various bits and pieces out of /home into / to free up a bit more space.

--womble

[Feb 04, 2019] Ticket 3745 (Integration mc with mc2(Lua))

This ticket is from2016...
Dec 01, 2020 | midnight-commander.org
Ticket #3745 (closed enhancement: invalid)

Opened 2 years ago

Last modified 2 years ago Integration mc with mc2(Lua)

Description I think that it is necessary that code base mc and mc2 correspond each other. mooffie? can you check that patches from andrew_b easy merged with mc2 and if some patch conflict with mc2 code hold this changes by writing about in corresponding ticket. zaytsev can you help automate this( continues integration, travis and so on). Sorry, but some words in Russian:

Ребята, я не пытаюсь давать ЦУ, Вы делаете классную работу. Просто яхотел обратить внимание, что Муфья пытается поддерживать свой код в актуальном состоянии, но видя как у него возникают проблемы на ровном месте боюсь энтузиазм у него может пропасть.

Change History comment:1 Changed 2 years ago by zaytsev-work

​ https://mail.gnome.org/archives/mc-devel/2016-February/msg00021.html

I have asked what plans does mooffie have for mc 2 sometime ago and never got an answer. Note that I totally don't blame him for that. Everyone here is working at their own pace. Sometimes I disappear for weeks or months, because I can't get a spare 5 minutes not even speaking of several hours due to the non-mc related workload. I hope that one day we'll figure out the way towards merging it, and eventually get it done.

In the mean time, he's working together with us by offering extremely important and well-prepared contributions, which are a pleasure to deal with and we are integrating them as fast as we can, so it's not like we are at war and not talking to each other.

Anyways, creating random noise in the ticket tracking system will not help to advance your cause. The only way to influence the process is to invest serious amount of time in the development.

[Feb 02, 2019] Google Employees Are Fighting With Executives Over Pay

Notable quotes:
"... In July, Bloomberg reported that, for the first time, more than 50 percent of Google's workforce were temps, contractors, and vendors. ..."
Feb 02, 2019 | www.wired.com

... ... ...

Asked whether they have confidence in CEO Sundar Pichai and his management team to "effectively lead in the future," 74 percent of employees responded "positive," as opposed to "neutral" or "negative," in late 2018, down from 92 percent "positive" the year before. The 18-point drop left employee confidence at its lowest point in at least six years. The results of the survey, known internally as Googlegeist, also showed a decline in employees' satisfaction with their compensation, with 54 percent saying they were satisfied, compared with 64 percent the prior year.

The drop in employee sentiment helps explain why internal debate around compensation, pay equity, and trust in executives has heated up in recent weeks -- and why an HR presentation from 2016 went viral inside the company three years later.

The presentation, first reported by Bloomberg and reviewed by WIRED, dates from July 2016, about a year after Google started an internal effort to curb spending . In the slide deck, Google's human-resources department presents potential ways to cut the company's $20 billion compensation budget. Ideas include: promoting fewer people, hiring proportionately more low-level employees, and conducting an audit to make sure Google is paying benefits "(only) for the right people." In some cases, HR suggested ways to implement changes while drawing little attention, or tips on how to sell the changes to Google employees. Some of the suggestions were implemented, like eliminating the annual employee holiday gift; most were not.

Another, more radical proposal floated inside the company around the same time didn't appear in the deck. That suggested converting some full-time employees to contractors to save money. A person familiar with the situation said this proposal was not implemented. In July, Bloomberg reported that, for the first time, more than 50 percent of Google's workforce were temps, contractors, and vendors.

[Jan 31, 2019] Troubleshooting performance issue in CentOS-RHEL using collectl utility The Geek Diary

Jan 31, 2019 | www.thegeekdiary.com

Troubleshooting performance issue in CentOS/RHEL using collectl utility

By admin

Unlike most monitoring tools that either focus on a small set of statistics, format their output in only one way, run either interactively or as a daemon but not both, collectl tries to do it all. You can choose to monitor any of a broad set of subsystems which currently include buddyinfo, cpu, disk, inodes, InfiniBand, lustre, memory, network, nfs, processes, quadrics, slabs, sockets and tcp.

Installing collectl

The collectl community project is maintained at http://collectl.sourceforge.net/ as well as provided in the Fedora community project. For Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 and 7, the easiest way to install collectl is via the EPEL repositories (Extra Packages for Enterprise Linux) maintained by the Fedora community.

Once set up, collectl can be installed with the following command:

# yum install collectl

The packages are also available for direct download using the following links:

RHEL 5 x86_64 (available in the EPEL archives) https://archive.fedoraproject.org/pub/archive/epel/5/x86_64/
RHEL 6 x86_64 http://dl.fedoraproject.org/pub/epel/6/x86_64/
RHEL 7 x86_64 http://dl.fedoraproject.org/pub/epel/7/x86_64/

General usage of collectl

The collectl utility can be run manually via the command line or as a service. Data will be logged to /var/log/collectl/*.raw.gz . The logs will be rotated every 24 hours by default. To run as a service:

# chkconfig collectl on       # [optional, to start at boot time]
# service collectl start
Sample Intervals

When run manually from the command line, the first Interval value is 1 . When running as a service, default sample intervals are as show below. It might sometimes be desired to lower these to avoid averaging, such as 1,30,60.

# grep -i interval /etc/collectl.conf 
#Interval =     10
#Interval2 =    60
#Interval3 =   120
Using collectl to troubleshoot disk or SAN storage performance

The defaults of 10s for all but process data which is collected at 60s intervals are best left as is, even for storage performance analysis.

The SAR Equivalence Matrix shows common SAR command equivalents to help experienced SAR users learn to use Collectl. The following example command will view summary detail of the CPU, Network and Disk from the file /var/log/collectl/HOSTNAME-20190116-164506.raw.gz :

# collectl -scnd -oT -p HOSTNAME-20190116-164506.raw.gz
#         <----CPU[HYPER]-----><----------Disks-----------><----------Network---------->
#Time     cpu sys inter  ctxsw KBRead  Reads KBWrit Writes   KBIn  PktIn  KBOut  PktOut 
16:46:10    9   2 14470  20749      0      0     69      9      0      1      0       2 
16:46:20   13   4 14820  22569      0      0    312     25    253    174      7      79 
16:46:30   10   3 15175  21546      0      0     54      5      0      2      0       3 
16:46:40    9   2 14741  21410      0      0     57      9      1      2      0       4 
16:46:50   10   2 14782  23766      0      0    374      8    250    171      5      75 
....

The next example will output the 1 minute period from 17:00 – 17:01.

# collectl -scnd -oT --from 17:00 --thru 17:01 -p HOSTNAME-20190116-164506.raw.gz
#         <----CPU[HYPER]-----><----------Disks-----------><----------Network---------->
#Time     cpu sys inter  ctxsw KBRead  Reads KBWrit Writes   KBIn  PktIn  KBOut  PktOut 
17:00:00   13   3 15870  25320      0      0     67      9    251    172      6      90 
17:00:10   16   4 16386  24539      0      0    315     17    246    170      6      84 
17:00:20   10   2 14959  22465      0      0     65     26      5      6      1       8 
17:00:30   11   3 15056  24852      0      0    323     12    250    170      5      69 
17:00:40   18   5 16595  23826      0      0    463     13      1      5      0       5 
17:00:50   12   3 15457  23663      0      0     57      9    250    170      6      76 
17:01:00   13   4 15479  24488      0      0    304      7    254    176      5      70

The next example will output Detailed Disk data.

# collectl -scnD -oT -p HOSTNAME-20190116-164506.raw.gz

### RECORD    7 >>> tabserver <<< (1366318860.001) (Thu Apr 18 17:01:00 2013) ###

# CPU[HYPER] SUMMARY (INTR, CTXSW & PROC /sec)
# User  Nice   Sys  Wait   IRQ  Soft Steal  Idle  CPUs  Intr  Ctxsw  Proc  RunQ   Run   Avg1  Avg5 Avg15 RunT BlkT
     8     0     3     0     0     0     0    86     8   15K    24K     0   638     5   1.07  1.05  0.99    0    0

# DISK STATISTICS (/sec)
#          <---------reads---------><---------writes---------><--------averages--------> Pct
#Name       KBytes Merged  IOs Size  KBytes Merged  IOs Size  RWSize  QLen  Wait SvcTim Util
sda              0      0    0    0     304     11    7   44      44     2    16      6    4
sdb              0      0    0    0       0      0    0    0       0     0     0      0    0
dm-0             0      0    0    0       0      0    0    0       0     0     0      0    0
dm-1             0      0    0    0       5      0    1    4       4     1     2      2    0
dm-2             0      0    0    0     298      0   14   22      22     1     4      3    4
dm-3             0      0    0    0       0      0    0    0       0     0     0      0    0
dm-4             0      0    0    0       0      0    0    0       0     0     0      0    0
dm-5             0      0    0    0       0      0    0    0       0     0     0      0    0
dm-6             0      0    0    0       0      0    0    0       0     0     0      0    0
dm-7             0      0    0    0       0      0    0    0       0     0     0      0    0
dm-8             0      0    0    0       0      0    0    0       0     0     0      0    0
dm-9             0      0    0    0       0      0    0    0       0     0     0      0    0
dm-10            0      0    0    0       0      0    0    0       0     0     0      0    0
dm-11            0      0    0    0       0      0    0    0       0     0     0      0    0

# NETWORK SUMMARY (/sec)
# KBIn  PktIn SizeIn  MultI   CmpI  ErrsI  KBOut PktOut  SizeO   CmpO  ErrsO
   253    175   1481      0      0      0      5     70     79      0      0
....
Commonly used options

These generate summary, which is the total of ALL data for a particular type

These generate detail data, typically but not limited to the device level

The most useful switches are listed here

Final Thoughts

Performance Co-Pilot (PCP) is the preferred tool for collecting comprehensive performance metrics for performance analysis and troubleshooting. It is shipped and supported in Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 & 7 and is the preferred recommendation over Collectl or Sar/Sysstat. It also includes conversion tools between its own performance data and Collectl & Sar/Syststat.

[Jan 31, 2019] Linus Torvalds and others on Linux's systemd by By Steven J. Vaughan-Nichols

Notable quotes:
"... I think some of the design details are insane (I dislike the binary logs, for example) ..."
"... Systemd problems might not have mattered that much, except that GNOME has a similar attitude; they only care for a small subset of the Linux desktop users, and they have historically abandoned some ways of interacting the Desktop in the interest of supporting touchscreen devices and to try to attract less technically sophisticated users. ..."
"... If you don't fall in the demographic of what GNOME supports, you're sadly out of luck. (Or you become a second class citizen, being told that you have to rely on GNOME extensions that may break on every single new version of GNOME.) ..."
"... As a result, many traditional GNOME users have moved over to Cinnamon, XFCE, KDE, etc. But as systemd starts subsuming new functions, components like network-manager will only work on systemd or other components that are forced to be used due to a network of interlocking dependencies; and it may simply not be possible for these alternate desktops to continue to function, because there is [no] viable alternative to systemd supported by more and more distributions. ..."
| www.zdnet.com

So what do Linux's leaders think of all this? I asked them and this is what they told me.

Linus Torvalds said:

"I don't actually have any particularly strong opinions on systemd itself. I've had issues with some of the core developers that I think are much too cavalier about bugs and compatibility, and I think some of the design details are insane (I dislike the binary logs, for example) , but those are details, not big issues."

Theodore "Ted" Ts'o, a leading Linux kernel developer and a Google engineer, sees systemd as potentially being more of a problem. "The bottom line is that they are trying to solve some real problems that matter in some use cases. And, [that] sometimes that will break assumptions made in other parts of the system."

Another concern that Ts'o made -- which I've heard from many other developers -- is that the systemd move was made too quickly: "The problem is sometimes what they break are in other parts of the software stack, and so long as it works for GNOME, they don't necessarily consider it their responsibility to fix the rest of the Linux ecosystem."

This, as Ts'o sees it, feeds into another problem:

" Systemd problems might not have mattered that much, except that GNOME has a similar attitude; they only care for a small subset of the Linux desktop users, and they have historically abandoned some ways of interacting the Desktop in the interest of supporting touchscreen devices and to try to attract less technically sophisticated users.

If you don't fall in the demographic of what GNOME supports, you're sadly out of luck. (Or you become a second class citizen, being told that you have to rely on GNOME extensions that may break on every single new version of GNOME.) "

Ts'o has an excellent point. GNOME 3.x has alienated both users and developers . He continued,

" As a result, many traditional GNOME users have moved over to Cinnamon, XFCE, KDE, etc. But as systemd starts subsuming new functions, components like network-manager will only work on systemd or other components that are forced to be used due to a network of interlocking dependencies; and it may simply not be possible for these alternate desktops to continue to function, because there is [no] viable alternative to systemd supported by more and more distributions. "

Of course, Ts'o continued, "None of these nightmare scenarios have happened yet. The people who are most stridently objecting to systemd are people who are convinced that the nightmare scenario is inevitable so long as we continue on the same course and altitude."

Ts'o is "not entirely certain it's going to happen, but he's afraid it will.

What I find puzzling about all this is that even though everyone admits that sysvinit needed replacing and many people dislike systemd, the distributions keep adopting it. Only a few distributions, including Slackware , Gentoo , PCLinuxOS , and Chrome OS , haven't adopted it.

It's not like there aren't alternatives. These include Upstart , runit , and OpenRC .

If systemd really does turn out to be as bad as some developers fear, there are plenty of replacements waiting in the wings. Indeed, rather than hear so much about how awful systemd is, I'd rather see developers spending their time working on an alternative.

[Jan 29, 2019] hardware - Is post-sudden-power-loss filesystem corruption on an SSD drive's ext3 partition expected behavior

Dec 04, 2012 | serverfault.com

My company makes an embedded Debian Linux device that boots from an ext3 partition on an internal SSD drive. Because the device is an embedded "black box", it is usually shut down the rude way, by simply cutting power to the device via an external switch.

This is normally okay, as ext3's journalling keeps things in order, so other than the occasional loss of part of a log file, things keep chugging along fine.

However, we've recently seen a number of units where after a number of hard-power-cycles the ext3 partition starts to develop structural issues -- in particular, we run e2fsck on the ext3 partition and it finds a number of issues like those shown in the output listing at the bottom of this Question. Running e2fsck until it stops reporting errors (or reformatting the partition) clears the issues.

My question is... what are the implications of seeing problems like this on an ext3/SSD system that has been subjected to lots of sudden/unexpected shutdowns?

My feeling is that this might be a sign of a software or hardware problem in our system, since my understanding is that (barring a bug or hardware problem) ext3's journalling feature is supposed to prevent these sorts of filesystem-integrity errors. (Note: I understand that user-data is not journalled and so munged/missing/truncated user-files can happen; I'm specifically talking here about filesystem-metadata errors like those shown below)

My co-worker, on the other hand, says that this is known/expected behavior because SSD controllers sometimes re-order write commands and that can cause the ext3 journal to get confused. In particular, he believes that even given normally functioning hardware and bug-free software, the ext3 journal only makes filesystem corruption less likely, not impossible, so we should not be surprised to see problems like this from time to time.

Which of us is right?

Embedded-PC-failsafe:~# ls
Embedded-PC-failsafe:~# umount /mnt/unionfs
Embedded-PC-failsafe:~# e2fsck /dev/sda3
e2fsck 1.41.3 (12-Oct-2008)
embeddedrootwrite contains a file system with errors, check forced.
Pass 1: Checking inodes, blocks, and sizes
Pass 2: Checking directory structure
Invalid inode number for '.' in directory inode 46948.
Fix<y>? yes

Directory inode 46948, block 0, offset 12: directory corrupted
Salvage<y>? yes

Entry 'status_2012-11-26_14h13m41.csv' in /var/log/status_logs (46956) has deleted/unused inode 47075.  Clear<y>? yes
Entry 'status_2012-11-26_10h42m58.csv.gz' in /var/log/status_logs (46956) has deleted/unused inode 47076.  Clear<y>? yes
Entry 'status_2012-11-26_11h29m41.csv.gz' in /var/log/status_logs (46956) has deleted/unused inode 47080.  Clear<y>? yes
Entry 'status_2012-11-26_11h42m13.csv.gz' in /var/log/status_logs (46956) has deleted/unused inode 47081.  Clear<y>? yes
Entry 'status_2012-11-26_12h07m17.csv.gz' in /var/log/status_logs (46956) has deleted/unused inode 47083.  Clear<y>? yes
Entry 'status_2012-11-26_12h14m53.csv.gz' in /var/log/status_logs (46956) has deleted/unused inode 47085.  Clear<y>? yes
Entry 'status_2012-11-26_15h06m49.csv' in /var/log/status_logs (46956) has deleted/unused inode 47088.  Clear<y>? yes
Entry 'status_2012-11-20_14h50m09.csv' in /var/log/status_logs (46956) has deleted/unused inode 47073.  Clear<y>? yes
Entry 'status_2012-11-20_14h55m32.csv' in /var/log/status_logs (46956) has deleted/unused inode 47074.  Clear<y>? yes
Entry 'status_2012-11-26_11h04m36.csv.gz' in /var/log/status_logs (46956) has deleted/unused inode 47078.  Clear<y>? yes
Entry 'status_2012-11-26_11h54m45.csv.gz' in /var/log/status_logs (46956) has deleted/unused inode 47082.  Clear<y>? yes
Entry 'status_2012-11-26_12h12m20.csv.gz' in /var/log/status_logs (46956) has deleted/unused inode 47084.  Clear<y>? yes
Entry 'status_2012-11-26_12h33m52.csv.gz' in /var/log/status_logs (46956) has deleted/unused inode 47086.  Clear<y>? yes
Entry 'status_2012-11-26_10h51m59.csv.gz' in /var/log/status_logs (46956) has deleted/unused inode 47077.  Clear<y>? yes
Entry 'status_2012-11-26_11h17m09.csv.gz' in /var/log/status_logs (46956) has deleted/unused inode 47079.  Clear<y>? yes
Entry 'status_2012-11-26_12h54m11.csv.gz' in /var/log/status_logs (46956) has deleted/unused inode 47087.  Clear<y>? yes

Pass 3: Checking directory connectivity
'..' in /etc/network/run (46948) is <The NULL inode> (0), should be /etc/network (46953).
Fix<y>? yes

Couldn't fix parent of inode 46948: Couldn't find parent directory entry

Pass 4: Checking reference counts
Unattached inode 46945
Connect to /lost+found<y>? yes

Inode 46945 ref count is 2, should be 1.  Fix<y>? yes
Inode 46953 ref count is 5, should be 4.  Fix<y>? yes

Pass 5: Checking group summary information
Block bitmap differences:  -(208264--208266) -(210062--210068) -(211343--211491) -(213241--213250) -(213344--213393) -213397 -(213457--213463) -(213516--213521) -(213628--213655) -(213683--213688) -(213709--213728) -(215265--215300) -(215346--215365) -(221541--221551) -(221696--221704) -227517
Fix<y>? yes

Free blocks count wrong for group #6 (17247, counted=17611).
Fix<y>? yes

Free blocks count wrong (161691, counted=162055).
Fix<y>? yes

Inode bitmap differences:  +(47089--47090) +47093 +47095 +(47097--47099) +(47101--47104) -(47219--47220) -47222 -47224 -47228 -47231 -(47347--47348) -47350 -47352 -47356 -47359 -(47457--47488) -47985 -47996 -(47999--48000) -48017 -(48027--48028) -(48030--48032) -48049 -(48059--48060) -(48062--48064) -48081 -(48091--48092) -(48094--48096)
Fix<y>? yes

Free inodes count wrong for group #6 (7608, counted=7624).
Fix<y>? yes

Free inodes count wrong (61919, counted=61935).
Fix<y>? yes


embeddedrootwrite: ***** FILE SYSTEM WAS MODIFIED *****

embeddedrootwrite: ********** WARNING: Filesystem still has errors **********

embeddedrootwrite: 657/62592 files (24.4% non-contiguous), 87882/249937 blocks

Embedded-PC-failsafe:~# 
Embedded-PC-failsafe:~# e2fsck /dev/sda3
e2fsck 1.41.3 (12-Oct-2008)
embeddedrootwrite contains a file system with errors, check forced.
Pass 1: Checking inodes, blocks, and sizes
Pass 2: Checking directory structure
Directory entry for '.' in ... (46948) is big.
Split<y>? yes

Missing '..' in directory inode 46948.
Fix<y>? yes

Setting filetype for entry '..' in ... (46948) to 2.
Pass 3: Checking directory connectivity
'..' in /etc/network/run (46948) is <The NULL inode> (0), should be /etc/network (46953).
Fix<y>? yes

Pass 4: Checking reference counts
Inode 2 ref count is 12, should be 13.  Fix<y>? yes

Pass 5: Checking group summary information

embeddedrootwrite: ***** FILE SYSTEM WAS MODIFIED *****
embeddedrootwrite: 657/62592 files (24.4% non-contiguous), 87882/249937 blocks
Embedded-PC-failsafe:~# 
Embedded-PC-failsafe:~# e2fsck /dev/sda3
e2fsck 1.41.3 (12-Oct-2008)
embeddedrootwrite: clean, 657/62592 files, 87882/249937 blocks
filesystems hardware ssd ext3 share | improve this question edited Dec 5 '12 at 18:40 ewwhite 173k 75 364 712 asked Dec 4 '12 at 1:13 Jeremy Friesner Jeremy Friesner 611 1 8 25 add a comment | 2 Answers 2 active oldest votes 10 You're both wrong (maybe?)... ext3 is coping the best it can with having its underlying storage removed so abruptly.

Your SSD probably has some type of onboard cache. You don't mention the make/model of SSD in use, but this sounds like a consumer-level SSD versus an enterprise or industrial-grade model .

Either way, the cache is used to help coalesce writes and prolong the life of the drive. If there are writes in-transit, the sudden loss of power is definitely the source of your corruption. True enterprise and industrial SSD's have supercapacitors that maintain power long enough to move data from cache to nonvolatile storage, much in the same way battery-backed and flash-backed RAID controller caches work .

If your drive doesn't have a supercap, the in-flight transactions are being lost, hence the filesystem corruption. ext3 is probably being told that everything is on stable storage, but that's just a function of the cache. share | improve this answer edited Apr 13 '17 at 12:14 Community ♦ 1 answered Dec 4 '12 at 1:24 ewwhite ewwhite 173k 75 364 712

add a comment | 2 You are right and your coworker is wrong. Barring something going wrong the journal makes sure you never have inconsistent fs metadata. You might check with hdparm to see if the drive's write cache is enabled. If it is, and you have not enabled IO barriers ( off by default on ext3, on by default in ext4 ), then that would be the cause of the problem.

The barriers are needed to force the drive write cache to flush at the correct time to maintain consistency, but some drives are badly behaved and either report that their write cache is disabled when it is not, or silently ignore the flush commands. This prevents the journal from doing its job. share | improve this answer answered Dec 5 '12 at 19:09 psusi psusi 2,617 11 9

[Jan 29, 2019] xfs corrupted after power failure

Highly recommended!
Oct 15, 2013 | www.linuxquestions.org

katmai90210

hi guys,

i have a problem. yesterday there was a power outage at one of my datacenters, where i have a relatively large fileserver. 2 arrays, 1 x 14 tb and 1 x 18 tb both in raid6, with a 3ware card.

after the outage, the server came back online, the xfs partitions were mounted, and everything looked okay. i could access the data and everything seemed just fine.

today i woke up to lots of i/o errors, and when i rebooted the server, the partitions would not mount:

Oct 14 04:09:17 kp4 kernel:
Oct 14 04:09:17 kp4 kernel: XFS internal error XFS_WANT_CORRUPTED_RETURN a<ffffffff80056933>] pdflush+0x0/0x1fb
Oct 14 04:09:17 kp4 kernel: [<ffffffff80056a84>] pdflush+0x151/0x1fb
Oct 14 04:09:17 kp4 kernel: [<ffffffff800cd931>] wb_kupdate+0x0/0x16a
Oct 14 04:09:17 kp4 kernel: [<ffffffff80032c2b>] kthread+0xfe/0x132
Oct 14 04:09:17 kp4 kernel: [<ffffffff8005dfc1>] child_rip+0xa/0x11
Oct 14 04:09:17 kp4 kernel: [<ffffffff800a3ab7>] keventd_create_kthread+0x0/0xc4
Oct 14 04:09:17 kp4 kernel: [<ffffffff80032b2d>] kthread+0x0/0x132
Oct 14 04:09:17 kp4 kernel: [<ffffffff8005dfb7>] child_rip+0x0/0x11
Oct 14 04:09:17 kp4 kernel:
Oct 14 04:09:17 kp4 kernel: XFS internal error XFS_WANT_CORRUPTED_RETURN at line 279 of file fs/xfs/xfs_alloc.c. Caller 0xffffffff88342331
Oct 14 04:09:17 kp4 kernel:

got a bunch of these in dmesg.

The array is fine:

[root@kp4 ~]# tw_cli
//kp4> focus c6
s
//kp4/c6> how

Unit UnitType Status %RCmpl %V/I/M Stripe Size(GB) Cache AVrfy
------------------------------------------------------------------------------
u0 RAID-6 OK - - 256K 13969.8 RiW ON
u1 RAID-6 OK - - 256K 16763.7 RiW ON

VPort Status Unit Size Type Phy Encl-Slot Model
------------------------------------------------------------------------------
p0 OK u1 2.73 TB SATA 0 - Hitachi HDS723030AL
p1 OK u1 2.73 TB SATA 1 - Hitachi HDS723030AL
p2 OK u1 2.73 TB SATA 2 - Hitachi HDS723030AL
p3 OK u1 2.73 TB SATA 3 - Hitachi HDS723030AL
p4 OK u1 2.73 TB SATA 4 - Hitachi HDS723030AL
p5 OK u1 2.73 TB SATA 5 - Hitachi HDS723030AL
p6 OK u1 2.73 TB SATA 6 - Hitachi HDS723030AL
p7 OK u1 2.73 TB SATA 7 - Hitachi HDS723030AL
p8 OK u0 2.73 TB SATA 8 - Hitachi HDS723030AL
p9 OK u0 2.73 TB SATA 9 - Hitachi HDS723030AL
p10 OK u0 2.73 TB SATA 10 - Hitachi HDS723030AL
p11 OK u0 2.73 TB SATA 11 - Hitachi HDS723030AL
p12 OK u0 2.73 TB SATA 12 - Hitachi HDS723030AL
p13 OK u0 2.73 TB SATA 13 - Hitachi HDS723030AL
p14 OK u0 2.73 TB SATA 14 - Hitachi HDS723030AL

Name OnlineState BBUReady Status Volt Temp Hours LastCapTest
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
bbu On Yes OK OK OK 0 xx-xxx-xxxx

i googled for solutions and i think i jumped the horse by doing

xfs_repair -L /dev/sdc

it would not clean it with xfs_repair /dev/sdc, and everybody pretty much says the same thing.

this is what i was getting when trying to mount the array.

Filesystem Corruption of in-memory data detected. Shutting down filesystem xfs_check

Did i jump the gun by using the -L switch :/ ?

jefro

Here is the RH data on that.

https://docs.fedoraproject.org/en-US...xfsrepair.html

[Jan 29, 2019] an HVAC tech that confused the BLACK button that got pushed to exit the room with the RED button clearly marked EMERGENCY POWER OFF.

Jan 29, 2019 | thwack.solarwinds.com

George Sutherland Jul 8, 2015 9:58 AM ( in response to RandyBrown ) had similar thing happen with an HVAC tech that confused the BLACK button that got pushed to exit the room with the RED button clearly marked EMERGENCY POWER OFF. Clear plastic cover installed with in 24 hours.... after 3 hours of recovery!

PS... He told his boss that he did not do it.... the camera that focused on the door told a much different story. He was persona non grata at our site after that.

[Jan 29, 2019] HVAC units greatly help to increase reliability

Jan 29, 2019 | thwack.solarwinds.com

sleeper_777 Jul 15, 2015 1:07 PM

Worked at a bank. 6" raised floor. Liebert cooling units on floor with all network equipment. Two units developed a water drain issue over a weekend.

About an hour into Monday morning, devices, servers, routers, in a domino effect starting shorting out and shutting down or blowing up, literally.

Opened the floor tiles to find three inches of water.

We did not have water alarms on the floor at the time.

Shortly after the incident, we did.

But the mistake was very costly and multiple 24 hour shifts of IT people made it a week of pure h3ll.

[Jan 29, 2019] In a former life, I had every server crash over the weekend when the facilities group took down the climate control and HVAC systems without warning

Jan 29, 2019 | thwack.solarwinds.com

[Jan 29, 2019] [SOLVED] Unable to mount root file system after a power failure

Jan 29, 2019 | www.linuxquestions.org
07-01-2012, 12:56 PM # 1
damateem LQ Newbie
Registered: Dec 2010 Posts: 8
Rep: Reputation: 0
Unable to mount root file system after a power failure

[ Log in to get rid of this advertisement] We had a storm yesterday and the power dropped out, causing my Ubuntu server to shut off. Now, when booting, I get

[ 0.564310] Kernel panic - not syncing: VFS: Unable to mount root fs on unkown-block(0,0)

It looks like a file system corruption, but I'm having a hard time fixing the problem. I'm using Rescue Remix 12-04 to boot from USB and get access to the system.

Using

sudo fdisk -l

Shows the hard drive as

/dev/sda1: Linux
/dev/sda2: Extended
/dev/sda5: Linux LVM

Using

sudo lvdisplay

Shows LV Names as

/dev/server1/root
/dev/server1/swap_1

Using

sudo blkid

Shows types as

/dev/sda1: ext2
/dev/sda5: LVM2_member
/dev/mapper/server1-root: ext4
/dev/mapper/server1-swap_1: swap

I can mount sda1 and server1/root and all the files appear normal, although I'm not really sure what issues I should be looking for. On sda1, I see a grub folder and several other files. On root, I see the file system as it was before I started having trouble.

I've ran the following fsck commands and none of them report any errors

sudo fsck -f /dev/sda1
sudo fsck -f /dev/server1/root
sudo fsck.ext2 -f /dev/sda1
sudo fsck.ext4 -f /dev/server1/root

and I still get the same error when the system boots.

I've hit a brick wall.

What should I try next?

What can I look at to give me a better understanding of what the problem is?

Thanks,
David

damateem
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Old 07-02-2012, 05:58 AM # 2
syg00 LQ Veteran
Registered: Aug 2003 Location: Australia Distribution: Lots ... Posts: 17,415
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Might depend a bit on what messages we aren't seeing.

Normally I'd reckon that means that either the filesystem or disk controller support isn't available. But with something like Ubuntu you'd expect that to all be in place from the initrd. And that is on the /boot partition, and shouldn't be subject to update activity in a normal environment. Unless maybe you're real unlucky and an update was in flight.

Can you chroot into the server (disk) install and run from there successfully ?.

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Old 07-02-2012, 06:08 PM # 3
damateem LQ Newbie
Registered: Dec 2010 Posts: 8
Original Poster
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I had a very hard time getting the Grub menu to appear. There must be a very small window for detecting the shift key. Holding it down through the boot didn't work. Repeatedly hitting it at about twice per second didn't work. Increasing the rate to about 4 hits per second got me into it.

Once there, I was able to select an older kernel (2.6.32-39-server). The non-booting kernel was 2.6.32-40-server. 39 booted without any problems.

When I initially setup this system, I couldn't send email from it. It wasn't important to me at the time, so I planned to come back and fix it later. Last week (before the power drop), email suddenly started working on its own. I was surprised because I haven't specifically performed any updates. However, I seem to remember setting up automatic updates, so perhaps an auto update was done that introduced a problem, but it wasn't seen until the reboot that was forced by the power outage.

Next, I'm going to try updating to the latest kernel and see if it has the same problem.

Thanks,
David

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Old 07-02-2012, 06:24 PM # 4
frieza Senior Member Contributing Member
Registered: Feb 2002 Location: harvard, il Distribution: Ubuntu 11.4,DD-WRT micro plus ssh,lfs-6.6,Fedora 15,Fedora 16 Posts: 3,233
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imho auto updates are dangerous, if you want my opinion, make sure auto updates are off, and only have the system tell you there are updates, that way you can chose not to install them during a power failure

as for a possible future solution for what you went through, unlike other keys, the shift key being held doesn't register as a stuck key to the best of my knowledge, so you can hold the shift key to get into grub, after that, edit the recovery line (the e key) to say at the end, init=/bin/bash then boot the system using the keys specified on the bottom of the screen, then once booted to a prompt, you would run
Code:

fsck -f {root partition}
(in this state, the root partition should be either not mounted or mounted read-only, so you can safely run an fsck on the drive)

note the -f seems to be an undocumented flag that does a more thorough scan than merely a standard run of fsck.

then reboot, and hopefully that fixes things

glad things seem to be working for the moment though.

frieza
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Old 07-02-2012, 06:32 PM # 5
suicidaleggroll LQ Guru Contributing Member
Registered: Nov 2010 Location: Colorado Distribution: OpenSUSE, CentOS Posts: 5,573
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Quote:
Originally Posted by damateem View Post However, I seem to remember setting up automatic updates, so perhaps an auto update was done that introduced a problem, but it wasn't seen until the reboot that was forced by the power outage.
I think this is very likely. Delayed reboots after performing an update can make tracking down errors impossibly difficult. I had a system a while back that wouldn't boot, turns out it was caused by an update I had done 6 MONTHS earlier, and the system had simply never been restarted afterward.
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Old 07-04-2012, 10:18 AM # 6
damateem LQ Newbie
Registered: Dec 2010 Posts: 8
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I discovered the root cause of the problem. When I attempted the update, I found that the boot partition was full. So I suspect that caused issues for the auto update, but they went undetected until the reboot.

I next tried to purge old kernels using the instructions at

http://www.liberiangeek.net/2011/11/...neiric-ocelot/

but that failed because a previous install had not completed, but it couldn't complete because of the full partition. So had no choice but to manually rm the oldest kernel and it's associated files. With that done, the command

apt-get -f install

got far enough that I could then purge the unwanted kernels. Finally,

sudo apt-get update
sudo apt-get upgrade

brought everything up to date.

I will be deactivating the auto updates.

Thanks for all the help!

David

[Jan 29, 2019] How to Setup DRBD to Replicate Storage on Two CentOS 7 Servers by Aaron Kili

Notable quotes:
"... It mirrors the content of block devices such as hard disks, partitions, logical volumes etc. between servers. ..."
"... It involves a copy of data on two storage devices, such that if one fails, the data on the other can be used. ..."
"... Originally, DRBD was mainly used in high availability (HA) computer clusters, however, starting with version 9, it can be used to deploy cloud storage solutions. In this article, we will show how to install DRBD in CentOS and briefly demonstrate how to use it to replicate storage (partition) on two servers. ..."
www.thegeekdiary.com
The DRBD (stands for Distributed Replicated Block Device ) is a distributed, flexible and versatile replicated storage solution for Linux. It mirrors the content of block devices such as hard disks, partitions, logical volumes etc. between servers.

It involves a copy of data on two storage devices, such that if one fails, the data on the other can be used.

You can think of it somewhat like a network RAID 1 configuration with the disks mirrored across servers. However, it operates in a very different way from RAID and even network RAID.

Originally, DRBD was mainly used in high availability (HA) computer clusters, however, starting with version 9, it can be used to deploy cloud storage solutions. In this article, we will show how to install DRBD in CentOS and briefly demonstrate how to use it to replicate storage (partition) on two servers.

... ... ...

For the purpose of this article, we are using two nodes cluster for this setup.

... ... ...

Reference : The DRBD User's Guide .
Summary
Jan 19, 2019 | www.tecmint.com

DRBD is extremely flexible and versatile, which makes it a storage replication solution suitable for adding HA to just about any application. In this article, we have shown how to install DRBD in CentOS 7 and briefly demonstrated how to use it to replicate storage. Feel free to share your thoughts with us via the feedback form below.

[Jan 29, 2019] mc2 is the first version of Midnight commander that supports LUA by mooffie

Highly recommended!
That was three years ago. No progress so far in merging it with mainstream version. Sad but typical...
Links are now broken as the site was migrated to www.geek.co.il. Valid link is Getting started
Oct 15, 2015 | n2.nabble.com

[ANN] mc^2 11 posts

mc^2 is a fork of Midnight Commander with Lua support:

http://www.typo.co.il/~mooffie/mc-lua/docs/html/

...but let's skip the verbiage and go directly to the screenshots:

http://www.typo.co.il/~mooffie/mc-lua/docs/html/guide/SCREENSHOTS.md.html

Now, I assume most of you here aren't users of MC.

So I won't bore you with description of how Lua makes MC a better file-manager. Instead, I'll just list some details that may interest
any developer who works on extending some application.

And, as you'll shortly see, you may find mc^2 useful even if you aren't a user of MC!

So, some interesting details:

* Programmer Goodies

- You can restart the Lua system from within MC.

- Since MC has a built-in editor, you can edit Lua code right there and restart Lua. So it's somewhat like a live IDE:

http://www.typo.co.il/~mooffie/mc-lua/docs/html/images/screenshots/game.png

- It comes with programmer utilities: regular expressions; global scope protected by default; good pretty printer for Lua tables; calculator where you can type Lua expressions; the editor can "lint" Lua code (and flag uses of global variables).

- It installs a /usr/bin/mcscript executable letting you use all the goodies from "outside" MC:

http://www.typo.co.il/~mooffie/mc-lua/docs/html/guide/60-standalone.md.html

* User Interface programming (UI)

- You can program a UI (user interface) very easily. The API is fun
yet powerful. It has some DOM/JavaScript borrowings in it: you can
attach functions to events like on_click, on_change, etc. The API
uses "properties", so your code tends to be short and readable:

http://www.typo.co.il/~mooffie/mc-lua/docs/html/guide/40-user-interface.md.html

- The UI has a "canvas" object letting you draw your own stuff. The
system is so fast you can program arcade games. Pacman, Tetris,
Digger, whatever:

http://www.typo.co.il/~mooffie/mc-lua/docs/html/classes/ui.Canvas.html

Need timers in your game? You've got them:

http://www.typo.co.il/~mooffie/mc-lua/docs/html/modules/timer.html

- This UI API is an ideal replacement for utilities like dialog(1).
You can write complex frontends to command-line tools with ease:

http://www.typo.co.il/~mooffie/mc-lua/docs/html/images/screenshots/frontend-scanimage.png

- Thanks to the aforementioned /usr/bin/mcscript, you can run your
games/frontends from "outside" MC:

http://www.typo.co.il/~mooffie/mc-lua/docs/html/images/screenshots/standalone-game.png

* Misc

- You can compile it against Lua 5.1, 5.2, 5.3, or LuaJIT.

- Extensive documentation.

[Jan 29, 2019] hstr -- Bash and zsh shell history suggest box - easily view, navigate, search and manage your command history

This is quite useful command. RPM exists for CentOS7. You need to build on other versions.
Nov 17, 2018 | dvorka.github.io

hstr -- Bash and zsh shell history suggest box - easily view, navigate, search and manage your command history.

View on GitHub

Configuration

Get most of HSTR by configuring it with:

hstr --show-configuration >> ~/.bashrc

Run hstr --show-configuration to determine what will be appended to your Bash profile. Don't forget to source ~/.bashrc to apply changes.


For more configuration options details please refer to:

Check also configuration examples .

Binding HSTR to Keyboard Shortcut

Bash uses Emacs style keyboard shortcuts by default. There is also Vi mode. Find out how to bind HSTR to a keyboard shortcut based on the style you prefer below.

Check your active Bash keymap with:

bind -v | grep editing-mode
bind -v | grep keymap

To determine character sequence emitted by a pressed key in terminal, type Ctrlv and then press the key. Check your current bindings using:

bind -S
Bash Emacs Keymap (default)

Bind HSTR to a Bash key e.g. to Ctrlr :

bind '"\C-r": "\C-ahstr -- \C-j"'

or CtrlAltr :

bind '"\e\C-r":"\C-ahstr -- \C-j"'

or CtrlF12 :

bind '"\e[24;5~":"\C-ahstr -- \C-j"'

Bind HSTR to Ctrlr only if it is interactive shell:

if [[ $- =~ .*i.* ]]; then bind '"\C-r": "\C-a hstr -- \C-j"'; fi

You can bind also other HSTR commands like --kill-last-command :

if [[ $- =~ .*i.* ]]; then bind '"\C-xk": "\C-a hstr -k \C-j"'; fi
Bash Vim Keymap

Bind HSTR to a Bash key e.g. to Ctrlr :

bind '"\C-r": "\e0ihstr -- \C-j"'
Zsh Emacs Keymap

Bind HSTR to a zsh key e.g. to Ctrlr :

bindkey -s "\C-r" "\eqhstr --\n"
Alias

If you want to make running of hstr from command line even easier, then define alias in your ~/.bashrc :

alias hh=hstr

Don't forget to source ~/.bashrc to be able to to use hh command.

Colors

Let HSTR to use colors:

export HSTR_CONFIG=hicolor

or ensure black and white mode:

export HSTR_CONFIG=monochromatic
Default History View

To show normal history by default (instead of metrics-based view, which is default) use:

export HSTR_CONFIG=raw-history-view

To show favorite commands as default view use:

export HSTR_CONFIG=favorites-view
Filtering

To use regular expressions based matching:

export HSTR_CONFIG=regexp-matching

To use substring based matching:

export HSTR_CONFIG=substring-matching

To use keywords (substrings whose order doesn't matter) search matching (default):

export HSTR_CONFIG=keywords-matching

Make search case sensitive (insensitive by default):

export HSTR_CONFIG=case-sensitive

Keep duplicates in raw-history-view (duplicate commands are discarded by default):

export HSTR_CONFIG=duplicates
Static favorites

Last selected favorite command is put the head of favorite commands list by default. If you want to disable this behavior and make favorite commands list static, then use the following configuration:

export HSTR_CONFIG=static-favorites
Skip favorites comments

If you don't want to show lines starting with # (comments) among favorites, then use the following configuration:

export HSTR_CONFIG=skip-favorites-comments
Blacklist

Skip commands when processing history i.e. make sure that these commands will not be shown in any view:

export HSTR_CONFIG=blacklist

Commands to be stored in ~/.hstr_blacklist file with trailing empty line. For instance:

cd
my-private-command
ls
ll
Confirm on Delete

Do not prompt for confirmation when deleting history items:

export HSTR_CONFIG=no-confirm
Verbosity

Show a message when deleting the last command from history:

export HSTR_CONFIG=verbose-kill

Show warnings:

export HSTR_CONFIG=warning

Show debug messages:

export HSTR_CONFIG=debug
Bash History Settings

Use the following Bash settings to get most out of HSTR.

Increase the size of history maintained by BASH - variables defined below increase the number of history items and history file size (default value is 500):

export HISTFILESIZE=10000
export HISTSIZE=${HISTFILESIZE}

Ensure syncing (flushing and reloading) of .bash_history with in-memory history:

export PROMPT_COMMAND="history -a; history -n; ${PROMPT_COMMAND}"

Force appending of in-memory history to .bash_history (instead of overwriting):

shopt -s histappend

Use leading space to hide commands from history:

export HISTCONTROL=ignorespace

Suitable for a sensitive information like passwords.

zsh History Settings

If you use zsh , set HISTFILE environment variable in ~/.zshrc :

export HISTFILE=~/.zsh_history
Examples

More colors with case sensitive search of history:

export HSTR_CONFIG=hicolor,case-sensitive

Favorite commands view in black and white with prompt at the bottom of the screen:

export HSTR_CONFIG=favorites-view,prompt-bottom

Keywords based search in colors with debug mode verbosity:

export HSTR_CONFIG=keywords-matching,hicolor,debug

[Jan 29, 2019] Split string into an array in Bash

May 14, 2012 | stackoverflow.com

Lgn ,May 14, 2012 at 15:15

In a Bash script I would like to split a line into pieces and store them in an array.

The line:

Paris, France, Europe

I would like to have them in an array like this:

array[0] = Paris
array[1] = France
array[2] = Europe

I would like to use simple code, the command's speed doesn't matter. How can I do it?

antak ,Jun 18, 2018 at 9:22

This is #1 Google hit but there's controversy in the answer because the question unfortunately asks about delimiting on , (comma-space) and not a single character such as comma. If you're only interested in the latter, answers here are easier to follow: stackoverflow.com/questions/918886/antak Jun 18 '18 at 9:22

Dennis Williamson ,May 14, 2012 at 15:16

IFS=', ' read -r -a array <<< "$string"

Note that the characters in $IFS are treated individually as separators so that in this case fields may be separated by either a comma or a space rather than the sequence of the two characters. Interestingly though, empty fields aren't created when comma-space appears in the input because the space is treated specially.

To access an individual element:

echo "${array[0]}"

To iterate over the elements:

for element in "${array[@]}"
do
    echo "$element"
done

To get both the index and the value:

for index in "${!array[@]}"
do
    echo "$index ${array[index]}"
done

The last example is useful because Bash arrays are sparse. In other words, you can delete an element or add an element and then the indices are not contiguous.

unset "array[1]"
array[42]=Earth

To get the number of elements in an array:

echo "${#array[@]}"

As mentioned above, arrays can be sparse so you shouldn't use the length to get the last element. Here's how you can in Bash 4.2 and later:

echo "${array[-1]}"

in any version of Bash (from somewhere after 2.05b):

echo "${array[@]: -1:1}"

Larger negative offsets select farther from the end of the array. Note the space before the minus sign in the older form. It is required.

l0b0 ,May 14, 2012 at 15:24

Just use IFS=', ' , then you don't have to remove the spaces separately. Test: IFS=', ' read -a array <<< "Paris, France, Europe"; echo "${array[@]}"l0b0 May 14 '12 at 15:24

Dennis Williamson ,May 14, 2012 at 16:33

@l0b0: Thanks. I don't know what I was thinking. I like to use declare -p array for test output, by the way. – Dennis Williamson May 14 '12 at 16:33

Nathan Hyde ,Mar 16, 2013 at 21:09

@Dennis Williamson - Awesome, thorough answer. – Nathan Hyde Mar 16 '13 at 21:09

dsummersl ,Aug 9, 2013 at 14:06

MUCH better than multiple cut -f calls! – dsummersl Aug 9 '13 at 14:06

caesarsol ,Oct 29, 2015 at 14:45

Warning: the IFS variable means split by one of these characters , so it's not a sequence of chars to split by. IFS=', ' read -a array <<< "a,d r s,w" => ${array[*]} == a d r s wcaesarsol Oct 29 '15 at 14:45

Jim Ho ,Mar 14, 2013 at 2:20

Here is a way without setting IFS:
string="1:2:3:4:5"
set -f                      # avoid globbing (expansion of *).
array=(${string//:/ })
for i in "${!array[@]}"
do
    echo "$i=>${array[i]}"
done

The idea is using string replacement:

${string//substring/replacement}

to replace all matches of $substring with white space and then using the substituted string to initialize a array:

(element1 element2 ... elementN)

Note: this answer makes use of the split+glob operator . Thus, to prevent expansion of some characters (such as * ) it is a good idea to pause globbing for this script.

Werner Lehmann ,May 4, 2013 at 22:32

Used this approach... until I came across a long string to split. 100% CPU for more than a minute (then I killed it). It's a pity because this method allows to split by a string, not some character in IFS. – Werner Lehmann May 4 '13 at 22:32

Dieter Gribnitz ,Sep 2, 2014 at 15:46

WARNING: Just ran into a problem with this approach. If you have an element named * you will get all the elements of your cwd as well. thus string="1:2:3:4:*" will give some unexpected and possibly dangerous results depending on your implementation. Did not get the same error with (IFS=', ' read -a array <<< "$string") and this one seems safe to use. – Dieter Gribnitz Sep 2 '14 at 15:46

akostadinov ,Nov 6, 2014 at 14:31

not reliable for many kinds of values, use with care – akostadinov Nov 6 '14 at 14:31

Andrew White ,Jun 1, 2016 at 11:44

quoting ${string//:/ } prevents shell expansion – Andrew White Jun 1 '16 at 11:44

Mark Thomson ,Jun 5, 2016 at 20:44

I had to use the following on OSX: array=(${string//:/ })Mark Thomson Jun 5 '16 at 20:44

bgoldst ,Jul 19, 2017 at 21:20

All of the answers to this question are wrong in one way or another.

Wrong answer #1

IFS=', ' read -r -a array <<< "$string"

1: This is a misuse of $IFS . The value of the $IFS variable is not taken as a single variable-length string separator, rather it is taken as a set of single-character string separators, where each field that read splits off from the input line can be terminated by any character in the set (comma or space, in this example).

Actually, for the real sticklers out there, the full meaning of $IFS is slightly more involved. From the bash manual :

The shell treats each character of IFS as a delimiter, and splits the results of the other expansions into words using these characters as field terminators. If IFS is unset, or its value is exactly <space><tab><newline> , the default, then sequences of <space> , <tab> , and <newline> at the beginning and end of the results of the previous expansions are ignored, and any sequence of IFS characters not at the beginning or end serves to delimit words. If IFS has a value other than the default, then sequences of the whitespace characters <space> , <tab> , and <newline> are ignored at the beginning and end of the word, as long as the whitespace character is in the value of IFS (an IFS whitespace character). Any character in IFS that is not IFS whitespace, along with any adjacent IFS whitespace characters, delimits a field. A sequence of IFS whitespace characters is also treated as a delimiter. If the value of IFS is null, no word splitting occurs.

Basically, for non-default non-null values of $IFS , fields can be separated with either (1) a sequence of one or more characters that are all from the set of "IFS whitespace characters" (that is, whichever of <space> , <tab> , and <newline> ("newline" meaning line feed (LF) ) are present anywhere in $IFS ), or (2) any non-"IFS whitespace character" that's present in $IFS along with whatever "IFS whitespace characters" surround it in the input line.

For the OP, it's possible that the second separation mode I described in the previous paragraph is exactly what he wants for his input string, but we can be pretty confident that the first separation mode I described is not correct at all. For example, what if his input string was 'Los Angeles, United States, North America' ?

IFS=', ' read -ra a <<<'Los Angeles, United States, North America'; declare -p a;
## declare -a a=([0]="Los" [1]="Angeles" [2]="United" [3]="States" [4]="North" [5]="America")

2: Even if you were to use this solution with a single-character separator (such as a comma by itself, that is, with no following space or other baggage), if the value of the $string variable happens to contain any LFs, then read will stop processing once it encounters the first LF. The read builtin only processes one line per invocation. This is true even if you are piping or redirecting input only to the read statement, as we are doing in this example with the here-string mechanism, and thus unprocessed input is guaranteed to be lost. The code that powers the read builtin has no knowledge of the data flow within its containing command structure.

You could argue that this is unlikely to cause a problem, but still, it's a subtle hazard that should be avoided if possible. It is caused by the fact that the read builtin actually does two levels of input splitting: first into lines, then into fields. Since the OP only wants one level of splitting, this usage of the read builtin is not appropriate, and we should avoid it.

3: A non-obvious potential issue with this solution is that read always drops the trailing field if it is empty, although it preserves empty fields otherwise. Here's a demo:

string=', , a, , b, c, , , '; IFS=', ' read -ra a <<<"$string"; declare -p a;
## declare -a a=([0]="" [1]="" [2]="a" [3]="" [4]="b" [5]="c" [6]="" [7]="")

Maybe the OP wouldn't care about this, but it's still a limitation worth knowing about. It reduces the robustness and generality of the solution.

This problem can be solved by appending a dummy trailing delimiter to the input string just prior to feeding it to read , as I will demonstrate later.


Wrong answer #2

string="1:2:3:4:5"
set -f                     # avoid globbing (expansion of *).
array=(${string//:/ })

Similar idea:

t="one,two,three"
a=($(echo $t | tr ',' "\n"))

(Note: I added the missing parentheses around the command substitution which the answerer seems to have omitted.)

Similar idea:

string="1,2,3,4"
array=(`echo $string | sed 's/,/\n/g'`)

These solutions leverage word splitting in an array assignment to split the string into fields. Funnily enough, just like read , general word splitting also uses the $IFS special variable, although in this case it is implied that it is set to its default value of <space><tab><newline> , and therefore any sequence of one or more IFS characters (which are all whitespace characters now) is considered to be a field delimiter.

This solves the problem of two levels of splitting committed by read , since word splitting by itself constitutes only one level of splitting. But just as before, the problem here is that the individual fields in the input string can already contain $IFS characters, and thus they would be improperly split during the word splitting operation. This happens to not be the case for any of the sample input strings provided by these answerers (how convenient...), but of course that doesn't change the fact that any code base that used this idiom would then run the risk of blowing up if this assumption were ever violated at some point down the line. Once again, consider my counterexample of 'Los Angeles, United States, North America' (or 'Los Angeles:United States:North America' ).

Also, word splitting is normally followed by filename expansion ( aka pathname expansion aka globbing), which, if done, would potentially corrupt words containing the characters * , ? , or [ followed by ] (and, if extglob is set, parenthesized fragments preceded by ? , * , + , @ , or ! ) by matching them against file system objects and expanding the words ("globs") accordingly. The first of these three answerers has cleverly undercut this problem by running set -f beforehand to disable globbing. Technically this works (although you should probably add set +f afterward to reenable globbing for subsequent code which may depend on it), but it's undesirable to have to mess with global shell settings in order to hack a basic string-to-array parsing operation in local code.

Another issue with this answer is that all empty fields will be lost. This may or may not be a problem, depending on the application.

Note: If you're going to use this solution, it's better to use the ${string//:/ } "pattern substitution" form of parameter expansion , rather than going to the trouble of invoking a command substitution (which forks the shell), starting up a pipeline, and running an external executable ( tr or sed ), since parameter expansion is purely a shell-internal operation. (Also, for the tr and sed solutions, the input variable should be double-quoted inside the command substitution; otherwise word splitting would take effect in the echo command and potentially mess with the field values. Also, the $(...) form of command substitution is preferable to the old `...` form since it simplifies nesting of command substitutions and allows for better syntax highlighting by text editors.)


Wrong answer #3

str="a, b, c, d"  # assuming there is a space after ',' as in Q
arr=(${str//,/})  # delete all occurrences of ','

This answer is almost the same as #2 . The difference is that the answerer has made the assumption that the fields are delimited by two characters, one of which being represented in the default $IFS , and the other not. He has solved this rather specific case by removing the non-IFS-represented character using a pattern substitution expansion and then using word splitting to split the fields on the surviving IFS-represented delimiter character.

This is not a very generic solution. Furthermore, it can be argued that the comma is really the "primary" delimiter character here, and that stripping it and then depending on the space character for field splitting is simply wrong. Once again, consider my counterexample: 'Los Angeles, United States, North America' .

Also, again, filename expansion could corrupt the expanded words, but this can be prevented by temporarily disabling globbing for the assignment with set -f and then set +f .

Also, again, all empty fields will be lost, which may or may not be a problem depending on the application.


Wrong answer #4

string='first line
second line
third line'

oldIFS="$IFS"
IFS='
'
IFS=${IFS:0:1} # this is useful to format your code with tabs
lines=( $string )
IFS="$oldIFS"

This is similar to #2 and #3 in that it uses word splitting to get the job done, only now the code explicitly sets $IFS to contain only the single-character field delimiter present in the input string. It should be repeated that this cannot work for multicharacter field delimiters such as the OP's comma-space delimiter. But for a single-character delimiter like the LF used in this example, it actually comes close to being perfect. The fields cannot be unintentionally split in the middle as we saw with previous wrong answers, and there is only one level of splitting, as required.

One problem is that filename expansion will corrupt affected words as described earlier, although once again this can be solved by wrapping the critical statement in set -f and set +f .

Another potential problem is that, since LF qualifies as an "IFS whitespace character" as defined earlier, all empty fields will be lost, just as in #2 and #3 . This would of course not be a problem if the delimiter happens to be a non-"IFS whitespace character", and depending on the application it may not matter anyway, but it does vitiate the generality of the solution.

So, to sum up, assuming you have a one-character delimiter, and it is either a non-"IFS whitespace character" or you don't care about empty fields, and you wrap the critical statement in set -f and set +f , then this solution works, but otherwise not.

(Also, for information's sake, assigning a LF to a variable in bash can be done more easily with the $'...' syntax, e.g. IFS=$'\n'; .)


Wrong answer #5

countries='Paris, France, Europe'
OIFS="$IFS"
IFS=', ' array=($countries)
IFS="$OIFS"

Similar idea:

IFS=', ' eval 'array=($string)'

This solution is effectively a cross between #1 (in that it sets $IFS to comma-space) and #2-4 (in that it uses word splitting to split the string into fields). Because of this, it suffers from most of the problems that afflict all of the above wrong answers, sort of like the worst of all worlds.

Also, regarding the second variant, it may seem like the eval call is completely unnecessary, since its argument is a single-quoted string literal, and therefore is statically known. But there's actually a very non-obvious benefit to using eval in this way. Normally, when you run a simple command which consists of a variable assignment only , meaning without an actual command word following it, the assignment takes effect in the shell environment:

IFS=', '; ## changes $IFS in the shell environment

This is true even if the simple command involves multiple variable assignments; again, as long as there's no command word, all variable assignments affect the shell environment:

IFS=', ' array=($countries); ## changes both $IFS and $array in the shell environment

But, if the variable assignment is attached to a command name (I like to call this a "prefix assignment") then it does not affect the shell environment, and instead only affects the environment of the executed command, regardless whether it is a builtin or external:

IFS=', ' :; ## : is a builtin command, the $IFS assignment does not outlive it
IFS=', ' env; ## env is an external command, the $IFS assignment does not outlive it

Relevant quote from the bash manual :

If no command name results, the variable assignments affect the current shell environment. Otherwise, the variables are added to the environment of the executed command and do not affect the current shell environment.

It is possible to exploit this feature of variable assignment to change $IFS only temporarily, which allows us to avoid the whole save-and-restore gambit like that which is being done with the $OIFS variable in the first variant. But the challenge we face here is that the command we need to run is itself a mere variable assignment, and hence it would not involve a command word to make the $IFS assignment temporary. You might think to yourself, well why not just add a no-op command word to the statement like the : builtin to make the $IFS assignment temporary? This does not work because it would then make the $array assignment temporary as well:

IFS=', ' array=($countries) :; ## fails; new $array value never escapes the : command

So, we're effectively at an impasse, a bit of a catch-22. But, when eval runs its code, it runs it in the shell environment, as if it was normal, static source code, and therefore we can run the $array assignment inside the eval argument to have it take effect in the shell environment, while the $IFS prefix assignment that is prefixed to the eval command will not outlive the eval command. This is exactly the trick that is being used in the second variant of this solution:

IFS=', ' eval 'array=($string)'; ## $IFS does not outlive the eval command, but $array does

So, as you can see, it's actually quite a clever trick, and accomplishes exactly what is required (at least with respect to assignment effectation) in a rather non-obvious way. I'm actually not against this trick in general, despite the involvement of eval ; just be careful to single-quote the argument string to guard against security threats.

But again, because of the "worst of all worlds" agglomeration of problems, this is still a wrong answer to the OP's requirement.


Wrong answer #6

IFS=', '; array=(Paris, France, Europe)

IFS=' ';declare -a array=(Paris France Europe)

Um... what? The OP has a string variable that needs to be parsed into an array. This "answer" starts with the verbatim contents of the input string pasted into an array literal. I guess that's one way to do it.

It looks like the answerer may have assumed that the $IFS variable affects all bash parsing in all contexts, which is not true. From the bash manual:

IFS The Internal Field Separator that is used for word splitting after expansion and to split lines into words with the read builtin command. The default value is <space><tab><newline> .

So the $IFS special variable is actually only used in two contexts: (1) word splitting that is performed after expansion (meaning not when parsing bash source code) and (2) for splitting input lines into words by the read builtin.

Let me try to make this clearer. I think it might be good to draw a distinction between parsing and execution . Bash must first parse the source code, which obviously is a parsing event, and then later it executes the code, which is when expansion comes into the picture. Expansion is really an execution event. Furthermore, I take issue with the description of the $IFS variable that I just quoted above; rather than saying that word splitting is performed after expansion , I would say that word splitting is performed during expansion, or, perhaps even more precisely, word splitting is part of the expansion process. The phrase "word splitting" refers only to this step of expansion; it should never be used to refer to the parsing of bash source code, although unfortunately the docs do seem to throw around the words "split" and "words" a lot. Here's a relevant excerpt from the linux.die.net version of the bash manual:

Expansion is performed on the command line after it has been split into words. There are seven kinds of expansion performed: brace expansion , tilde expansion , parameter and variable expansion , command substitution , arithmetic expansion , word splitting , and pathname expansion .

The order of expansions is: brace expansion; tilde expansion, parameter and variable expansion, arithmetic expansion, and command substitution (done in a left-to-right fashion); word splitting; and pathname expansion.

You could argue the GNU version of the manual does slightly better, since it opts for the word "tokens" instead of "words" in the first sentence of the Expansion section:

Expansion is performed on the command line after it has been split into tokens.

The important point is, $IFS does not change the way bash parses source code. Parsing of bash source code is actually a very complex process that involves recognition of the various elements of shell grammar, such as command sequences, command lists, pipelines, parameter expansions, arithmetic substitutions, and command substitutions. For the most part, the bash parsing process cannot be altered by user-level actions like variable assignments (actually, there are some minor exceptions to this rule; for example, see the various compatxx shell settings , which can change certain aspects of parsing behavior on-the-fly). The upstream "words"/"tokens" that result from this complex parsing process are then expanded according to the general process of "expansion" as broken down in the above documentation excerpts, where word splitting of the expanded (expanding?) text into downstream words is simply one step of that process. Word splitting only touches text that has been spit out of a preceding expansion step; it does not affect literal text that was parsed right off the source bytestream.


Wrong answer #7

string='first line
        second line
        third line'

while read -r line; do lines+=("$line"); done <<<"$string"

This is one of the best solutions. Notice that we're back to using read . Didn't I say earlier that read is inappropriate because it performs two levels of splitting, when we only need one? The trick here is that you can call read in such a way that it effectively only does one level of splitting, specifically by splitting off only one field per invocation, which necessitates the cost of having to call it repeatedly in a loop. It's a bit of a sleight of hand, but it works.

But there are problems. First: When you provide at least one NAME argument to read , it automatically ignores leading and trailing whitespace in each field that is split off from the input string. This occurs whether $IFS is set to its default value or not, as described earlier in this post. Now, the OP may not care about this for his specific use-case, and in fact, it may be a desirable feature of the parsing behavior. But not everyone who wants to parse a string into fields will want this. There is a solution, however: A somewhat non-obvious usage of read is to pass zero NAME arguments. In this case, read will store the entire input line that it gets from the input stream in a variable named $REPLY , and, as a bonus, it does not strip leading and trailing whitespace from the value. This is a very robust usage of read which I've exploited frequently in my shell programming career. Here's a demonstration of the difference in behavior:

string=$'  a  b  \n  c  d  \n  e  f  '; ## input string

a=(); while read -r line; do a+=("$line"); done <<<"$string"; declare -p a;
## declare -a a=([0]="a  b" [1]="c  d" [2]="e  f") ## read trimmed surrounding whitespace

a=(); while read -r; do a+=("$REPLY"); done <<<"$string"; declare -p a;
## declare -a a=([0]="  a  b  " [1]="  c  d  " [2]="  e  f  ") ## no trimming

The second issue with this solution is that it does not actually address the case of a custom field separator, such as the OP's comma-space. As before, multicharacter separators are not supported, which is an unfortunate limitation of this solution. We could try to at least split on comma by specifying the separator to the -d option, but look what happens:

string='Paris, France, Europe';
a=(); while read -rd,; do a+=("$REPLY"); done <<<"$string"; declare -p a;
## declare -a a=([0]="Paris" [1]=" France")

Predictably, the unaccounted surrounding whitespace got pulled into the field values, and hence this would have to be corrected subsequently through trimming operations (this could also be done directly in the while-loop). But there's another obvious error: Europe is missing! What happened to it? The answer is that read returns a failing return code if it hits end-of-file (in this case we can call it end-of-string) without encountering a final field terminator on the final field. This causes the while-loop to break prematurely and we lose the final field.

Technically this same error afflicted the previous examples as well; the difference there is that the field separator was taken to be LF, which is the default when you don't specify the -d option, and the <<< ("here-string") mechanism automatically appends a LF to the string just before it feeds it as input to the command. Hence, in those cases, we sort of accidentally solved the problem of a dropped final field by unwittingly appending an additional dummy terminator to the input. Let's call this solution the "dummy-terminator" solution. We can apply the dummy-terminator solution manually for any custom delimiter by concatenating it against the input string ourselves when instantiating it in the here-string:

a=(); while read -rd,; do a+=("$REPLY"); done <<<"$string,"; declare -p a;
declare -a a=([0]="Paris" [1]=" France" [2]=" Europe")

There, problem solved. Another solution is to only break the while-loop if both (1) read returned failure and (2) $REPLY is empty, meaning read was not able to read any characters prior to hitting end-of-file. Demo:

a=(); while read -rd,|| [[ -n "$REPLY" ]]; do a+=("$REPLY"); done <<<"$string"; declare -p a;
## declare -a a=([0]="Paris" [1]=" France" [2]=$' Europe\n')

This approach also reveals the secretive LF that automatically gets appended to the here-string by the <<< redirection operator. It could of course be stripped off separately through an explicit trimming operation as described a moment ago, but obviously the manual dummy-terminator approach solves it directly, so we could just go with that. The manual dummy-terminator solution is actually quite convenient in that it solves both of these two problems (the dropped-final-field problem and the appended-LF problem) in one go.

So, overall, this is quite a powerful solution. It's only remaining weakness is a lack of support for multicharacter delimiters, which I will address later.


Wrong answer #8

string='first line
        second line
        third line'

readarray -t lines <<<"$string"

(This is actually from the same post as #7 ; the answerer provided two solutions in the same post.)

The readarray builtin, which is a synonym for mapfile , is ideal. It's a builtin command which parses a bytestream into an array variable in one shot; no messing with loops, conditionals, substitutions, or anything else. And it doesn't surreptitiously strip any whitespace from the input string. And (if -O is not given) it conveniently clears the target array before assigning to it. But it's still not perfect, hence my criticism of it as a "wrong answer".

First, just to get this out of the way, note that, just like the behavior of read when doing field-parsing, readarray drops the trailing field if it is empty. Again, this is probably not a concern for the OP, but it could be for some use-cases. I'll come back to this in a moment.

Second, as before, it does not support multicharacter delimiters. I'll give a fix for this in a moment as well.

Third, the solution as written does not parse the OP's input string, and in fact, it cannot be used as-is to parse it. I'll expand on this momentarily as well.

For the above reasons, I still consider this to be a "wrong answer" to the OP's question. Below I'll give what I consider to be the right answer.


Right answer

Here's a naïve attempt to make #8 work by just specifying the -d option:

string='Paris, France, Europe';
readarray -td, a <<<"$string"; declare -p a;
## declare -a a=([0]="Paris" [1]=" France" [2]=$' Europe\n')

We see the result is identical to the result we got from the double-conditional approach of the looping read solution discussed in #7 . We can almost solve this with the manual dummy-terminator trick:

readarray -td, a <<<"$string,"; declare -p a;
## declare -a a=([0]="Paris" [1]=" France" [2]=" Europe" [3]=$'\n')

The problem here is that readarray preserved the trailing field, since the <<< redirection operator appended the LF to the input string, and therefore the trailing field was not empty (otherwise it would've been dropped). We can take care of this by explicitly unsetting the final array element after-the-fact:

readarray -td, a <<<"$string,"; unset 'a[-1]'; declare -p a;
## declare -a a=([0]="Paris" [1]=" France" [2]=" Europe")

The only two problems that remain, which are actually related, are (1) the extraneous whitespace that needs to be trimmed, and (2) the lack of support for multicharacter delimiters.

The whitespace could of course be trimmed afterward (for example, see How to trim whitespace from a Bash variable? ). But if we can hack a multicharacter delimiter, then that would solve both problems in one shot.

Unfortunately, there's no direct way to get a multicharacter delimiter to work. The best solution I've thought of is to preprocess the input string to replace the multicharacter delimiter with a single-character delimiter that will be guaranteed not to collide with the contents of the input string. The only character that has this guarantee is the NUL byte . This is because, in bash (though not in zsh, incidentally), variables cannot contain the NUL byte. This preprocessing step can be done inline in a process substitution. Here's how to do it using awk :

readarray -td '' a < <(awk '{ gsub(/, /,"\0"); print; }' <<<"$string, "); unset 'a[-1]';
declare -p a;
## declare -a a=([0]="Paris" [1]="France" [2]="Europe")

There, finally! This solution will not erroneously split fields in the middle, will not cut out prematurely, will not drop empty fields, will not corrupt itself on filename expansions, will not automatically strip leading and trailing whitespace, will not leave a stowaway LF on the end, does not require loops, and does not settle for a single-character delimiter.


Trimming solution

Lastly, I wanted to demonstrate my own fairly intricate trimming solution using the obscure -C callback option of readarray . Unfortunately, I've run out of room against Stack Overflow's draconian 30,000 character post limit, so I won't be able to explain it. I'll leave that as an exercise for the reader.

function mfcb { local val="$4"; "$1"; eval "$2[$3]=\$val;"; };
function val_ltrim { if [[ "$val" =~ ^[[:space:]]+ ]]; then val="${val:${#BASH_REMATCH[0]}}"; fi; };
function val_rtrim { if [[ "$val" =~ [[:space:]]+$ ]]; then val="${val:0:${#val}-${#BASH_REMATCH[0]}}"; fi; };
function val_trim { val_ltrim; val_rtrim; };
readarray -c1 -C 'mfcb val_trim a' -td, <<<"$string,"; unset 'a[-1]'; declare -p a;
## declare -a a=([0]="Paris" [1]="France" [2]="Europe")

fbicknel ,Aug 18, 2017 at 15:57

It may also be helpful to note (though understandably you had no room to do so) that the -d option to readarray first appears in Bash 4.4. – fbicknel Aug 18 '17 at 15:57

Cyril Duchon-Doris ,Nov 3, 2017 at 9:16

You should add a "TL;DR : scroll 3 pages to see the right solution at the end of my answer" – Cyril Duchon-Doris Nov 3 '17 at 9:16

dawg ,Nov 26, 2017 at 22:28

Great answer (+1). If you change your awk to awk '{ gsub(/,[ ]+|$/,"\0"); print }' and eliminate that concatenation of the final ", " then you don't have to go through the gymnastics on eliminating the final record. So: readarray -td '' a < <(awk '{ gsub(/,[ ]+/,"\0"); print; }' <<<"$string") on Bash that supports readarray . Note your method is Bash 4.4+ I think because of the -d in readarraydawg Nov 26 '17 at 22:28

datUser ,Feb 22, 2018 at 14:54

Looks like readarray is not an available builtin on OSX. – datUser Feb 22 '18 at 14:54

bgoldst ,Feb 23, 2018 at 3:37

@datUser That's unfortunate. Your version of bash must be too old for readarray . In this case, you can use the second-best solution built on read . I'm referring to this: a=(); while read -rd,; do a+=("$REPLY"); done <<<"$string,"; (with the awk substitution if you need multicharacter delimiter support). Let me know if you run into any problems; I'm pretty sure this solution should work on fairly old versions of bash, back to version 2-something, released like two decades ago. – bgoldst Feb 23 '18 at 3:37

Jmoney38 ,Jul 14, 2015 at 11:54

t="one,two,three"
a=($(echo "$t" | tr ',' '\n'))
echo "${a[2]}"

Prints three

shrimpwagon ,Oct 16, 2015 at 20:04

I actually prefer this approach. Simple. – shrimpwagon Oct 16 '15 at 20:04

Ben ,Oct 31, 2015 at 3:11

I copied and pasted this and it did did not work with echo, but did work when I used it in a for loop. – Ben Oct 31 '15 at 3:11

Pinaki Mukherjee ,Nov 9, 2015 at 20:22

This is the simplest approach. thanks – Pinaki Mukherjee Nov 9 '15 at 20:22

abalter ,Aug 30, 2016 at 5:13

This does not work as stated. @Jmoney38 or shrimpwagon if you can paste this in a terminal and get the desired output, please paste the result here. – abalter Aug 30 '16 at 5:13

leaf ,Jul 17, 2017 at 16:28

@abalter Works for me with a=($(echo $t | tr ',' "\n")) . Same result with a=($(echo $t | tr ',' ' ')) . – leaf Jul 17 '17 at 16:28

Luca Borrione ,Nov 2, 2012 at 13:44

Sometimes it happened to me that the method described in the accepted answer didn't work, especially if the separator is a carriage return.
In those cases I solved in this way:
string='first line
second line
third line'

oldIFS="$IFS"
IFS='
'
IFS=${IFS:0:1} # this is useful to format your code with tabs
lines=( $string )
IFS="$oldIFS"

for line in "${lines[@]}"
    do
        echo "--> $line"
done

Stefan van den Akker ,Feb 9, 2015 at 16:52

+1 This completely worked for me. I needed to put multiple strings, divided by a newline, into an array, and read -a arr <<< "$strings" did not work with IFS=$'\n' . – Stefan van den Akker Feb 9 '15 at 16:52

Stefan van den Akker ,Feb 10, 2015 at 13:49

Here is the answer to make the accepted answer work when the delimiter is a newline . – Stefan van den Akker Feb 10 '15 at 13:49

,Jul 24, 2015 at 21:24

The accepted answer works for values in one line.
If the variable has several lines:
string='first line
        second line
        third line'

We need a very different command to get all lines:

while read -r line; do lines+=("$line"); done <<<"$string"

Or the much simpler bash readarray :

readarray -t lines <<<"$string"

Printing all lines is very easy taking advantage of a printf feature:

printf ">[%s]\n" "${lines[@]}"

>[first line]
>[        second line]
>[        third line]

Mayhem ,Dec 31, 2015 at 3:13

While not every solution works for every situation, your mention of readarray... replaced my last two hours with 5 minutes... you got my vote – Mayhem Dec 31 '15 at 3:13

Derek 朕會功夫 ,Mar 23, 2018 at 19:14

readarray is the right answer. – Derek 朕會功夫 Mar 23 '18 at 19:14

ssanch ,Jun 3, 2016 at 15:24

This is similar to the approach by Jmoney38, but using sed:
string="1,2,3,4"
array=(`echo $string | sed 's/,/\n/g'`)
echo ${array[0]}

Prints 1

dawg ,Nov 26, 2017 at 19:59

The key to splitting your string into an array is the multi character delimiter of ", " . Any solution using IFS for multi character delimiters is inherently wrong since IFS is a set of those characters, not a string.

If you assign IFS=", " then the string will break on EITHER "," OR " " or any combination of them which is not an accurate representation of the two character delimiter of ", " .

You can use awk or sed to split the string, with process substitution:

#!/bin/bash

str="Paris, France, Europe"
array=()
while read -r -d $'\0' each; do   # use a NUL terminated field separator 
    array+=("$each")
done < <(printf "%s" "$str" | awk '{ gsub(/,[ ]+|$/,"\0"); print }')
declare -p array
# declare -a array=([0]="Paris" [1]="France" [2]="Europe") output

It is more efficient to use a regex you directly in Bash:

#!/bin/bash

str="Paris, France, Europe"

array=()
while [[ $str =~ ([^,]+)(,[ ]+|$) ]]; do
    array+=("${BASH_REMATCH[1]}")   # capture the field
    i=${#BASH_REMATCH}              # length of field + delimiter
    str=${str:i}                    # advance the string by that length
done                                # the loop deletes $str, so make a copy if needed

declare -p array
# declare -a array=([0]="Paris" [1]="France" [2]="Europe") output...

With the second form, there is no sub shell and it will be inherently faster.


Edit by bgoldst: Here are some benchmarks comparing my readarray solution to dawg's regex solution, and I also included the read solution for the heck of it (note: I slightly modified the regex solution for greater harmony with my solution) (also see my comments below the post):

## competitors
function c_readarray { readarray -td '' a < <(awk '{ gsub(/, /,"\0"); print; };' <<<"$1, "); unset 'a[-1]'; };
function c_read { a=(); local REPLY=''; while read -r -d ''; do a+=("$REPLY"); done < <(awk '{ gsub(/, /,"\0"); print; };' <<<"$1, "); };
function c_regex { a=(); local s="$1, "; while [[ $s =~ ([^,]+),\  ]]; do a+=("${BASH_REMATCH[1]}"); s=${s:${#BASH_REMATCH}}; done; };

## helper functions
function rep {
    local -i i=-1;
    for ((i = 0; i<$1; ++i)); do
        printf %s "$2";
    done;
}; ## end rep()

function testAll {
    local funcs=();
    local args=();
    local func='';
    local -i rc=-1;
    while [[ "$1" != ':' ]]; do
        func="$1";
        if [[ ! "$func" =~ ^[_a-zA-Z][_a-zA-Z0-9]*$ ]]; then
            echo "bad function name: $func" >&2;
            return 2;
        fi;
        funcs+=("$func");
        shift;
    done;
    shift;
    args=("$@");
    for func in "${funcs[@]}"; do
        echo -n "$func ";
        { time $func "${args[@]}" >/dev/null 2>&1; } 2>&1| tr '\n' '/';
        rc=${PIPESTATUS[0]}; if [[ $rc -ne 0 ]]; then echo "[$rc]"; else echo; fi;
    done| column -ts/;
}; ## end testAll()

function makeStringToSplit {
    local -i n=$1; ## number of fields
    if [[ $n -lt 0 ]]; then echo "bad field count: $n" >&2; return 2; fi;
    if [[ $n -eq 0 ]]; then
        echo;
    elif [[ $n -eq 1 ]]; then
        echo 'first field';
    elif [[ "$n" -eq 2 ]]; then
        echo 'first field, last field';
    else
        echo "first field, $(rep $[$1-2] 'mid field, ')last field";
    fi;
}; ## end makeStringToSplit()

function testAll_splitIntoArray {
    local -i n=$1; ## number of fields in input string
    local s='';
    echo "===== $n field$(if [[ $n -ne 1 ]]; then echo 's'; fi;) =====";
    s="$(makeStringToSplit "$n")";
    testAll c_readarray c_read c_regex : "$s";
}; ## end testAll_splitIntoArray()

## results
testAll_splitIntoArray 1;
## ===== 1 field =====
## c_readarray   real  0m0.067s   user 0m0.000s   sys  0m0.000s
## c_read        real  0m0.064s   user 0m0.000s   sys  0m0.000s
## c_regex       real  0m0.000s   user 0m0.000s   sys  0m0.000s
##
testAll_splitIntoArray 10;
## ===== 10 fields =====
## c_readarray   real  0m0.067s   user 0m0.000s   sys  0m0.000s
## c_read        real  0m0.064s   user 0m0.000s   sys  0m0.000s
## c_regex       real  0m0.001s   user 0m0.000s   sys  0m0.000s
##
testAll_splitIntoArray 100;
## ===== 100 fields =====
## c_readarray   real  0m0.069s   user 0m0.000s   sys  0m0.062s
## c_read        real  0m0.065s   user 0m0.000s   sys  0m0.046s
## c_regex       real  0m0.005s   user 0m0.000s   sys  0m0.000s
##
testAll_splitIntoArray 1000;
## ===== 1000 fields =====
## c_readarray   real  0m0.084s   user 0m0.031s   sys  0m0.077s
## c_read        real  0m0.092s   user 0m0.031s   sys  0m0.046s
## c_regex       real  0m0.125s   user 0m0.125s   sys  0m0.000s
##
testAll_splitIntoArray 10000;
## ===== 10000 fields =====
## c_readarray   real  0m0.209s   user 0m0.093s   sys  0m0.108s
## c_read        real  0m0.333s   user 0m0.234s   sys  0m0.109s
## c_regex       real  0m9.095s   user 0m9.078s   sys  0m0.000s
##
testAll_splitIntoArray 100000;
## ===== 100000 fields =====
## c_readarray   real  0m1.460s   user 0m0.326s   sys  0m1.124s
## c_read        real  0m2.780s   user 0m1.686s   sys  0m1.092s
## c_regex       real  17m38.208s   user 15m16.359s   sys  2m19.375s
##

bgoldst ,Nov 27, 2017 at 4:28

Very cool solution! I never thought of using a loop on a regex match, nifty use of $BASH_REMATCH . It works, and does indeed avoid spawning subshells. +1 from me. However, by way of criticism, the regex itself is a little non-ideal, in that it appears you were forced to duplicate part of the delimiter token (specifically the comma) so as to work around the lack of support for non-greedy multipliers (also lookarounds) in ERE ("extended" regex flavor built into bash). This makes it a little less generic and robust. – bgoldst Nov 27 '17 at 4:28

bgoldst ,Nov 27, 2017 at 4:28

Secondly, I did some benchmarking, and although the performance is better than the other solutions for smallish strings, it worsens exponentially due to the repeated string-rebuilding, becoming catastrophic for very large strings. See my edit to your answer. – bgoldst Nov 27 '17 at 4:28

dawg ,Nov 27, 2017 at 4:46

@bgoldst: What a cool benchmark! In defense of the regex, for 10's or 100's of thousands of fields (what the regex is splitting) there would probably be some form of record (like \n delimited text lines) comprising those fields so the catastrophic slow-down would likely not occur. If you have a string with 100,000 fields -- maybe Bash is not ideal ;-) Thanks for the benchmark. I learned a thing or two. – dawg Nov 27 '17 at 4:46

Geoff Lee ,Mar 4, 2016 at 6:02

Try this
IFS=', '; array=(Paris, France, Europe)
for item in ${array[@]}; do echo $item; done

It's simple. If you want, you can also add a declare (and also remove the commas):

IFS=' ';declare -a array=(Paris France Europe)

The IFS is added to undo the above but it works without it in a fresh bash instance

MrPotatoHead ,Nov 13, 2018 at 13:19

Pure bash multi-character delimiter solution.

As others have pointed out in this thread, the OP's question gave an example of a comma delimited string to be parsed into an array, but did not indicate if he/she was only interested in comma delimiters, single character delimiters, or multi-character delimiters.

Since Google tends to rank this answer at or near the top of search results, I wanted to provide readers with a strong answer to the question of multiple character delimiters, since that is also mentioned in at least one response.

If you're in search of a solution to a multi-character delimiter problem, I suggest reviewing Mallikarjun M 's post, in particular the response from gniourf_gniourf who provides this elegant pure BASH solution using parameter expansion:

#!/bin/bash
str="LearnABCtoABCSplitABCaABCString"
delimiter=ABC
s=$str$delimiter
array=();
while [[ $s ]]; do
    array+=( "${s%%"$delimiter"*}" );
    s=${s#*"$delimiter"};
done;
declare -p array

Link to cited comment/referenced post

Link to cited question: Howto split a string on a multi-character delimiter in bash?

Eduardo Cuomo ,Dec 19, 2016 at 15:27

Use this:
countries='Paris, France, Europe'
OIFS="$IFS"
IFS=', ' array=($countries)
IFS="$OIFS"

#${array[1]} == Paris
#${array[2]} == France
#${array[3]} == Europe

gniourf_gniourf ,Dec 19, 2016 at 17:22

Bad: subject to word splitting and pathname expansion. Please don't revive old questions with good answers to give bad answers. – gniourf_gniourf Dec 19 '16 at 17:22

Scott Weldon ,Dec 19, 2016 at 18:12

This may be a bad answer, but it is still a valid answer. Flaggers / reviewers: For incorrect answers such as this one, downvote, don't delete!Scott Weldon Dec 19 '16 at 18:12

George Sovetov ,Dec 26, 2016 at 17:31

@gniourf_gniourf Could you please explain why it is a bad answer? I really don't understand when it fails. – George Sovetov Dec 26 '16 at 17:31

gniourf_gniourf ,Dec 26, 2016 at 18:07

@GeorgeSovetov: As I said, it's subject to word splitting and pathname expansion. More generally, splitting a string into an array as array=( $string ) is a (sadly very common) antipattern: word splitting occurs: string='Prague, Czech Republic, Europe' ; Pathname expansion occurs: string='foo[abcd],bar[efgh]' will fail if you have a file named, e.g., food or barf in your directory. The only valid usage of such a construct is when string is a glob.gniourf_gniourf Dec 26 '16 at 18:07

user1009908 ,Jun 9, 2015 at 23:28

UPDATE: Don't do this, due to problems with eval.

With slightly less ceremony:

IFS=', ' eval 'array=($string)'

e.g.

string="foo, bar,baz"
IFS=', ' eval 'array=($string)'
echo ${array[1]} # -> bar

caesarsol ,Oct 29, 2015 at 14:42

eval is evil! don't do this. – caesarsol Oct 29 '15 at 14:42

user1009908 ,Oct 30, 2015 at 4:05

Pfft. No. If you're writing scripts large enough for this to matter, you're doing it wrong. In application code, eval is evil. In shell scripting, it's common, necessary, and inconsequential. – user1009908 Oct 30 '15 at 4:05

caesarsol ,Nov 2, 2015 at 18:19

put a $ in your variable and you'll see... I write many scripts and I never ever had to use a single evalcaesarsol Nov 2 '15 at 18:19

Dennis Williamson ,Dec 2, 2015 at 17:00

Eval command and security issuesDennis Williamson Dec 2 '15 at 17:00

user1009908 ,Dec 22, 2015 at 23:04

You're right, this is only usable when the input is known to be clean. Not a robust solution. – user1009908 Dec 22 '15 at 23:04

Eduardo Lucio ,Jan 31, 2018 at 20:45

Here's my hack!

Splitting strings by strings is a pretty boring thing to do using bash. What happens is that we have limited approaches that only work in a few cases (split by ";", "/", "." and so on) or we have a variety of side effects in the outputs.

The approach below has required a number of maneuvers, but I believe it will work for most of our needs!

#!/bin/bash

# --------------------------------------
# SPLIT FUNCTION
# ----------------

F_SPLIT_R=()
f_split() {
    : 'It does a "split" into a given string and returns an array.

    Args:
        TARGET_P (str): Target string to "split".
        DELIMITER_P (Optional[str]): Delimiter used to "split". If not 
    informed the split will be done by spaces.

    Returns:
        F_SPLIT_R (array): Array with the provided string separated by the 
    informed delimiter.
    '

    F_SPLIT_R=()
    TARGET_P=$1
    DELIMITER_P=$2
    if [ -z "$DELIMITER_P" ] ; then
        DELIMITER_P=" "
    fi

    REMOVE_N=1
    if [ "$DELIMITER_P" == "\n" ] ; then
        REMOVE_N=0
    fi

    # NOTE: This was the only parameter that has been a problem so far! 
    # By Questor
    # [Ref.: https://unix.stackexchange.com/a/390732/61742]
    if [ "$DELIMITER_P" == "./" ] ; then
        DELIMITER_P="[.]/"
    fi

    if [ ${REMOVE_N} -eq 1 ] ; then

        # NOTE: Due to bash limitations we have some problems getting the 
        # output of a split by awk inside an array and so we need to use 
        # "line break" (\n) to succeed. Seen this, we remove the line breaks 
        # momentarily afterwards we reintegrate them. The problem is that if 
        # there is a line break in the "string" informed, this line break will 
        # be lost, that is, it is erroneously removed in the output! 
        # By Questor
        TARGET_P=$(awk 'BEGIN {RS="dn"} {gsub("\n", "3F2C417D448C46918289218B7337FCAF"); printf $0}' <<< "${TARGET_P}")

    fi

    # NOTE: The replace of "\n" by "3F2C417D448C46918289218B7337FCAF" results 
    #