Softpanorama

Home Switchboard Unix Administration Red Hat TCP/IP Networks Neoliberalism Toxic Managers
May the source be with you, but remember the KISS principle ;-)
Bigger doesn't imply better. Bigger often is a sign of obesity, of lost control, of overcomplexity, of cancerous cells

Tivoli lcdf daemon

Provides configuration information to the endpoint service (lcfd), including login options, port numbers, and debugging information. It is invoked by Tivoli_lcfd1 init script. Can be stopped and started manually via /opt/tivoli/lcf/dat/1/lcfd.sh

Syntax

lcfd [-b library_dir] [-C directory_name] [-d level] [-D option=value] [-e] [-g address[+port][:address[+port]...]] [-H] [-i] [-l file_name] [-n endpoint_label] [-p gateway_port] [-P endpoint_port] [-r service_name] [-s] [-S [service_name:]dependency | dependency_group[,dependency | dependency_group,...]] [-w 0 | 1] [-x protocol]

Description

The lcfd command provides configuration information to the endpoint service, including login options, port numbers, and debugging information. It can also start the endpoint service installed on an endpoint.

UNIX endpoints can use the lcfd.sh command to start and stop the endpoint. You can use the -i option to install the the endpoint service as a Windows operating system service. The -r option removes an existing service from the Windows Service Manager. Internetwork Packet Exchange (IPX) can be used to connect to endpoints only on NetWare and Windows operating systems.

The -S options can be used with the -L option of the winstlcf command to allow service dependencies to be created for the endpoint service when it is installed. However, when using the -S option with the -L option, the service_name option, if present, is ignored because the name of the service being installed is used. The -S option can also be used after the endpoint is installed to define a new service dependency.

The -S option can be used with the -i option to create service dependencies during the installation of a new endpoint service. However, this results in the creation of two endpoint services: one without the dependency and one with the dependency. In addition, when using the -i option, service_name is ignored because the name of the service being created is used.

The -S option can also be used to remove dependencies for a previously installed endpoint. Because the -S option cannot be used without suboptions, service_name or an empty string (" ") is required to remove all dependencies from an existing endpoint service.

Options

-b library_dir
Specifies the path to the configuration library, which contains the shared libraries required by an endpoint. This option does not apply to NetWare.
-C directory_name
Specifies the name of the endpoint's current working directory. This directory contains configuration files needed for startup and the method cache.
-d level
Defines the level of debug messages written to the lcfd.log file. The default value is 1. The following are valid entries:
0
No message logging
1
Minimal logging (default)
2
Tracing and moderate output
3
Detailed information and tight loops
4
Data
Note

Level 1 is the default value. Level 4 message logging generates a large number of messages. Level 2 or 3 is recommended for troubleshooting.

-D option=value
Reconfigures the endpoint during startup using one or more of the following options. Configuration information is stored in the last.cfg file on the endpoint. Some of these options can also be set with command line options.
?
Displays the usage statement for this command.
address_notif_interval=seconds
For Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) environments, specifies an endpoint timeout interval to wake up from its idle state and attempt to notify the gateway of its current IP address. This option is only for endpoints that might change IP addresses without the endpoint daemon restarting. The recommended value for this option is 300 seconds. The default value for this option is 0, meaning that the endpoint daemon does not notify the gateway.
address_notif_retry_count=count
Specifies the number of times that the endpoint will retry sending its IP address to the gateway, each address_notif_interval seconds, before attempting to contact another gateway in its login interfaces list. The default is 0.
allow_proxy_upcalls=true | false
Specifies whether all communication between the endpoint and its assigned gateway use the configured target port on the endpoint. If set to true, the endpoint and gateway communicate using the target port only. Before endpoint can use proxy upcalls, the endpoint must establish a connection to a proxy-capable gateway. If set to false, the endpoint and its assigned gateway communicate as usual. This option modifies the value of allow_proxy_upcalls in the last.cfg file. The default is false.
bcast_disable=1 | 0
Disables broadcast (1). When you disable broadcasting, you must use the lcs.login_interfaces option to define preferred gateways. If the endpoint protocol uses IPX, the extended broadcast uses the Routing Information Protocol (RIP) protocol and is able to send login packets within a 5-hops radius. The default is 0.
cache_limit=max_size
Specifies the maximum size of the method cache. After this maximum size is reached, the least recently used methods are deleted to make room for current methods.
cache_loc=cache
Identifies or changes the name of the method cache created and maintained on the endpoint. This option can also be used to change the location of the method cache when submitted with a full path name.
config_path=full_path
Identifies the absolute path to the last.cfg configuration file. Editing this option is not recommended.
debug_flags=debug_level
Enables the user to attach a debug tool to a running method. Editing this option is not recommended.
depot_dir=path
Specifies the directory on the endpoint where multicast distributions are stored until the distributions are installed. This option modifies the value of depot_dir in the last.cfg file. The default directory is $LCF_DATDIR/depot. If a relative path is specified, the depot directory is relative to the value of the $LCF_DATDIR variable.
detect_address_change=TRUE | FALSE
Specifies whether the endpoint detects changes to its network interface configuration and, if necessary, takes corrective action. When this option is set to TRUE, the endpoint monitors its network interface configuration for address changes. If the listening address for the endpoint changes, the endpoint attempts to log back in to its gateway. (The listening address is set using the local_ip_interface option.) This option applies to Windows 2000, Windows XP, and Windows Server 2003 systems only. The default is FALSE.
diag_interval=seconds
Specifies the interval, in seconds, that an endpoint waits between running a series of self-diagnostic tests. These tests help you determine the ability of an endpoint to run tasks and methods. The tests include checking temporary file space and permissions and cache space and permissions. On Windows operating systems, the tests also check token creation and process spawning. After the tests complete, the results are stored in the lcfd.log file. The results are sent to the current gateway if the endpoint is logged in. If this value is set to zero, a test will only be performed when requested by a gateway. The default is zero. The acceptable range of values is 900 seconds (15 minutes) to 86400 seconds (1 day).
diag_temp_space=bytes
Sets the minimum desired temporary space, in bytes, for running the self-diagnostic tests controlled by the diag_interval option. If this value is set to zero, the tests are not run. The default is zero. The minimum value is 1024.
fail_if_pref_port_busy=1 | 0
Specifies whether the endpoint should not start if its preferred endpoint port is inaccessible. If set to 1, the endpoint does not start when the port is unavailable. If set to 0, the endpoint will try an alternate port when the preferred port is unavailable. This option modifies the value of fail_if_pref_port_busy in the last.cfg file. The default is 0.
filefree_upcalls=TRUE | FALSE
Specifies whether consolidated upcalls write the upcall data to disk. This setting is valid only when allow_proxy_upcalls is set to TRUE. In this case, the default is to write the upcall data to disk. However, if you do not want upcall data written to disk, you can set filefree_upcalls to TRUE and all upcall data is transferred through the wire. This option modifies the value of filefree_upcalls in the last.cfg file. The default is FALSE.
gateway_port=port_number
Identifies the port on which the gateway monitors endpoint communications. The default value is 9494. This option can also be set using the -P option.
http_disable=value
Specifies the level of functionality for the Web browser accessible on the endpoint.
0
Anyone can use a browser to reconfigure the endpoint, This is the default value.
1
Anyone can use a browser to view the configuration data, but no one can use a browser to reconfigure the endpoint.
2
No one can use a browser to view or reconfigure the endpoint.
3
Everyone must provide authentication (user ID and password) to view or reconfigure the endpoint.
httpd_pw=password
Identifies the password that prevents security intrusion to the endpoint configuration file. This password is stored by the endpoint manager. To change this password, use the wep command.
interp=interpreter_type
Identifies the interpreter type of the endpoint. Editing this option is not recommended.
lcfd_alternate_port=port_number
Identifies an alternate port on which the endpoint service monitors gateway communications if endpoint service cannot contact its default port (set with the -P option) during startup. The default value is 9496.
lcfd_autostart=TRUE | FALSE
Specifies whether Windows endpoints set the endpoint service to start automatically. When this value is set to TRUE, a Windows endpoint checks the Windows endpoint service once during endpoint startup and once during endpoint shutdown. If the endpoint service is set to Manual, the endpoint resets the service to Automatic. When this value is set to FALSE, the endpoint does not check the setting of the Windows endpoint service. The default value is FALSE.
lcfd_port=port_number
Identifies the port on which the endpoint service monitors gateway communications. The default value is 9495. This option can also be set using the -P option.
lcs.gateway_address=IP_address | IPX_address
Changes the login gateway after the endpoint has successfully logged in. If the gateway has not previously logged in, use the lcs.login_interfaces option to provide one or more gateways through which the endpoint can log in. For NetWare and Windows endpoints using IPX, to log in to a gateway located outside a 5-hops radius, you must specify the IPX address (not host name).
lcs.login_interfaces=address[+port][:address[+port]]...
Specifies the IP address or host name (or IPX address or server name) and port number of one or more gateways to which an endpoint sends its login packet. This option is required for the endpoint to log in to a gateway on a different subnet or to log in to a specific gateway when two or more exist on a subnet. If your gateways and endpoints are separated by a network address translation (NAT) device, specify host names instead of IP addresses. Multiple addresses must be separated by colons. You can also use the -g option to list one or more gateways.

Note

This option does not specify the gateway to which an endpoint is ultimately assigned. The endpoint manager determines gateway selection and assignment. If the endpoint has successfully logged in to a gateway, use the lcs.gateway_address option to change the gateway.
lcs.machine_name=endpoint_label
Identifies the endpoint label as shown in wlookup or wep. You can also use the -n option to identify an endpoint label.
lcs.machine_unique_id=ID_string
Identifies the unique identifier of the endpoint. The ID_string value must be a unique string within the Tivoli environment. The length of the string must be 36 or fewer characters. This value is stored in the $LCF_DATDIR/lcf.id file.
local_ip_interface=IP_address
For endpoints with multiple IP addresses, allows connections on the specified IP address. If the local_ip_interface option is specified, the endpoint binds to the provided address instead of 0.0.0.0, and connections are only accepted on that interface.
log_threshold=integer
Specifies the level of detail written to trace files for the identified endpoint. This option modifies the value of log_threshold in the last.cfg file. The integer value specified can be in the range of 1 to 4, where 1 provides the least level of detail and 4 provides the most. The default is 1.
logfile=full_path
Identifies the absolute path to the file in which status messages are logged. The default log file is lcfd.log. Editing this option is not recommended. Use the -l option to change the name of the log file.
login_attempts=value
The number of directed login attempts on a gateway before the endpoint moves to the next gateway in the list. A directed login attempt is an attempt to log in to either the last known gateway or to a gateway in the login interfaces list. The default is 3.
login_interval=seconds
Specifies the number of seconds between initial login attempts. The default is 1800 seconds (30 minutes).
login_mode=mobile | non_mobile
For Windows endpoints only, enables a user at the specified endpoint to receive and control MDist 2 distributions through the Tivoli Mobile Computing console. Specify the non_mobile option to disable console functions on the endpoint.

Note:

For this to work, a Tivoli administrator must first use the wep command with the set login_mode -s variable options.

You also can enable mobile support by using the wep command with the set login_mode -m mobile options.

login_timeout=seconds
Specifies the number of seconds that an endpoint waits for a response to a directed login attempt. A directed login attempt is an attempt to log in to either the last known gateway or to a gateway in the login interfaces list. The default value is 300 seconds (5 minutes).
log_queue_size=max_size
Specifies the maximum amount of memory (measured in bytes) used for the log queue. Only LogQ messages are sent to the log queue. If an exception occurs, the entire queue is printed to the screen. The valid range is 1024 through 102400.
log_size=max_size
Specifies the maximum size (in bytes) of the log file. The valid range is 10240 through 10240000.
log_threshold=debug_level
Identifies the level of debug logging. This option can also be set using the -d option.
preload_loc=location
Specifies the location where the preloaded methods are stored on S/390 endpoints. This option modifies the value of preload_loc in the last.cfg file.
protocol=TCPIP | IPX
Specifies the protocol on which the endpoint service monitors gateway communications. Supported protocols are as follows:
TCPIP
Specifies Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP). This is the default. You cannot disable TCP/IP.
IPX
Specifies Internetwork Packet Exchange (IPX).

To specify both TCP/IP and IPX protocols, specify the option as protocol=TCPIP,IPX. You also can set this option using the -x option. Note that you cannot turn off the TCP/IP protocol for a gateway.

recvDataNumAttempts=count
Specifies how many times to receive or attempt to receive data on the current connection before closing the connection. The default is 10.
recvDataQMaxNum=connections
Specifies how many connections to hold in the pending connection queue. A connection that is waiting for data is considered a pending connection and is added to the queue. After this limit is reached, all additional connection attempts are rejected until a pending connection is closed. The default is 50.
recvDataTimeout=seconds
Specifies how many seconds that a new connection waits for incoming data before requeuing the connection. If the pending connection queue is full, the connection request is rejected. The default is 2.
repair_accts=TRUE | FALSE
Specifies whether the endpoint tests the installation and configuration of the tmersrvd account and the Tivoli_Admin_Privileges group and makes repairs as required. When this option is set to TRUE, the endpoint performs this check once during startup, and any corrective actions are noted in the lcfd.log file. When this option is set to FALSE, this check is not performed. The default value is FALSE.
repair_tap=TRUE | FALSE
Specifies whether the endpoint tests the installation and configuration of Tivoli Authentication Package and makes repairs as required. When this option is set to TRUE, the endpoint performs this check once during startup, and any corrective actions are noted in the lcfd.log file. When this option is set to FALSE, this check is not performed. The default value is FALSE.
run_dir=directory_name
Identifies the directory from which the endpoint daemon runs. Editing this option is not recommended.
run_timeout=seconds
This option is deprecated. Use the udp_interval option to specify the wait time (in seconds) before a communication timeout occurs following a successful login.
start_delay
Delays the startup of the endpoint service in cases where an endpoint and a gateway coexist on the same machine. If this option is not used in the above circumstances, endpoint login either takes a long time, or it might not occur at all.
start_timeout=seconds
Specifies the wait time (in seconds) before a communication timeout occurs during login. The default value is 120.
udp_attempts=number
Specifies the number of times an endpoint attempts to connect to a gateway during a broadcast login attempt. The default value is 6. After this number of login attempts is exceeded, the endpoint waits for the number of seconds indicated by the login_interval value, and then restarts the login cycle by attempting to log in to the gateway or gateways specified in the login interfaces list.
udp_interval=seconds
Specifies the number of seconds that the endpoint waits for a response from a gateway before attempting another broadcast login. The default value is 300 seconds (5 minutes).
upcall_retry_count=count
Specifies the number of attempts to retry after an upcall failure. This option modifies the value of upcall_retry_count in the last.cfg file. The default is 0.
web_post_interval=seconds
Specifies the interval, in seconds, at which an endpoint posts event and state change information to a Web server. Information is sent only if an event or state change occurs within this interval. The minimum value is 300 seconds (five minutes). The maximum value is 86,400 seconds (one day). The default value is zero. When this option is set to zero, endpoint Web posting is disabled.
web_post_url=URL
Specifies the URL to which an endpoint posts event and state change information. Enter the syntax for URL as shown in the following example:
http://web_server_name:port/relative_path_to_cgi_script/script_name
Note

You do not need to specify the port number if you are using the default port of 80.

wol_enable= 0 | 1 (OS/2 and Windows operating systems only)
Specifies whether the Network Interface Card (NIC) on the box supports Wake on Lan. This option modifies the value of wol_enable in the last.cfg file. The default is 0.
-g address[+port][:address [+port]]...
If the endpoint uses TCP/IP, this option specifies the IP address or host name and, optionally, the port number of one or more gateways to which an endpoint sends its login packet. If the endpoint uses Internetwork Packet Exchange/Sequenced Packet Exchange (IPX/SPX), this option specifies the IPX address or server name and port number of one or more gateways to which an endpoint sends its login packet. The default port number is 9495. This option is required for the endpoint to log in to a gateway on a different subnet or to log in to a specific gateway when two or more exist on a subnet.

Notes

-H
On OS/2 only, enables you to start the endpoint service on OS/2 systems in detached mode. This option removes lcfd.exe from the task list to prevent users from inadvertently stopping the endpoint service. This option does not hide the process from other means of detection such as PSPM2, pstat, or KILLFEATUREENABLE=YES in the config.sys file.
-i
Installs the endpoint software as a Windows service on the specified endpoint. This option is valid on Windows operating systems only.
-l file_name
Specifies the name of the log file to which status and error messages are written. The default file name is lcfd.log.
-n endpoint_label
Identifies the endpoint label as shown in wlookup or wep. NetWare, Windows, and OS/2 endpoints communicating over TCP/IP use the host name of the machine as the default. NetWare endpoints using IPX use the server name as the default. Windows endpoints using IPX use the computer name as the default.
-p gateway_port
Specifies the port number on which the gateway monitors endpoint communications.
-P endpoint_port
Sets the port number on which the endpoint monitors gateway communications.
-r service_name
Stops the specified endpoint service. This option is valid for Windows operating systems only.
-s
Starts an endpoint as a console application, printing all messages to the screen and to the endpoint log file. On OS/2 and NetWare endpoints, this option is ignored.
-S [service_name:]dependency | dependency_group
Specifies service dependencies to be created when the endpoint service is installed. To specify a service dependency, use the following options:
service_name
The name of the endpoint service.
dependency
The name of the service on which the endpoint service will depend.
dependency_group
The name of the group of services on which the endpoint service will depend.
This option can be used with the -L option of the winstlcf command.
-w 0 | 1
Enables Wake on LAN functionality on the endpoint (1). When an endpoint enabled for Wake on LAN performs a normal login, the endpoint sends the gateway the information necessary to generate the wake-up packet. By default, Wake on LAN is disabled (0). For more information about Wake on LAN, see Tivoli Management Framework Planning for Deployment Guide.
-x TCPIP | IPX
Specifies the protocol used by the endpoint. Supported protocols are the following:
TCPIP
Specifies Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP). This is the default. If you do not specify the -x option, the endpoint uses TCP/IP.
IPX
Specifies Internetwork Packet Exchange (IPX).

To specify both TCP/IP and IPX protocols, specify the option as -x=TCPIP,IPX. You also can set this option using the protocol option. Note that you cannot turn off the TCP/IP protocol for a gateway.

Authorization

No Tivoli authorization role is required.

Examples

  1. The following example provides usage information about the command:
    lcfd -s -D?
  2. The following example starts the local endpoint using configuration information contained in the last.cfg file:
    lcfd
  3. The following example starts the endpoint as a service on the local machine and sets the debug level to 3, which causes the endpoint to log all messages to the lcfd.log file:
    lcfd -i -d 3
  4. The following example restarts the local Windows endpoint. The endpoint logs in to a gateway outside its subnet (with host name zeus) on port 27246. The -p option indicates both the endpoint and gateway use port 27246.
    lcfd -p 27246 -g zeus+9494
  5. The following example starts the local endpoint as a service and specifies that it uses SPX/IPX as a protocol. It also specifies that the endpoint logs in to a gateway with the specified IPX address, listening to a specified port.
    lcfd -x IPX -g 4132AF12.000000000001+41204 -i
  6. The following example starts the endpoint service on a Windows operating system and specifies that it update the log_threshold option to debug level 3. Note that in this situation the option is not preceded with a dash, but is preceded with a slash.
    net start lcfd /d3

See Also

lcfd.sh

lcfd.sh

Starts or stops the endpoint daemon (lcfd) on UNIX endpoints.

lcfd.sh{start | stop} [lcfd_ arguments]

The lcfd.sh command is a wrapper for the lcfd command. lcfd.sh contains the links to platform-specific shared libraries required on UNIX endpoints. lcfd.sh takes the same arguments as the lcfd command and resides in LCF_DATDIR. These arguments are then passed to lcfd when it is invoked. See the lcfd command for a detailed explanation of the lcfd options.

The lcfd.sh command is run locally on UNIX machines in LCF_DATDIR.

Authorization

No Tivoli authorization is required.

Arguments
start
Starts the endpoint daemon (lcfd).

 

stop
Stops the endpoint daemon (lcfd).

 

lcfd_arguments
See lcfd command for a detailed explanation of the lcfd options.

EXAMPLES

The following example is run locally on a UNIX endpoint and stops the endpoint daemon on that machine:

lcfd.sh stop

SEE ALSO

 



Etc

Society

Groupthink : Two Party System as Polyarchy : Corruption of Regulators : Bureaucracies : Understanding Micromanagers and Control Freaks : Toxic Managers :   Harvard Mafia : Diplomatic Communication : Surviving a Bad Performance Review : Insufficient Retirement Funds as Immanent Problem of Neoliberal Regime : PseudoScience : Who Rules America : Neoliberalism  : The Iron Law of Oligarchy : Libertarian Philosophy

Quotes

War and Peace : Skeptical Finance : John Kenneth Galbraith :Talleyrand : Oscar Wilde : Otto Von Bismarck : Keynes : George Carlin : Skeptics : Propaganda  : SE quotes : Language Design and Programming Quotes : Random IT-related quotesSomerset Maugham : Marcus Aurelius : Kurt Vonnegut : Eric Hoffer : Winston Churchill : Napoleon Bonaparte : Ambrose BierceBernard Shaw : Mark Twain Quotes

Bulletin:

Vol 25, No.12 (December, 2013) Rational Fools vs. Efficient Crooks The efficient markets hypothesis : Political Skeptic Bulletin, 2013 : Unemployment Bulletin, 2010 :  Vol 23, No.10 (October, 2011) An observation about corporate security departments : Slightly Skeptical Euromaydan Chronicles, June 2014 : Greenspan legacy bulletin, 2008 : Vol 25, No.10 (October, 2013) Cryptolocker Trojan (Win32/Crilock.A) : Vol 25, No.08 (August, 2013) Cloud providers as intelligence collection hubs : Financial Humor Bulletin, 2010 : Inequality Bulletin, 2009 : Financial Humor Bulletin, 2008 : Copyleft Problems Bulletin, 2004 : Financial Humor Bulletin, 2011 : Energy Bulletin, 2010 : Malware Protection Bulletin, 2010 : Vol 26, No.1 (January, 2013) Object-Oriented Cult : Political Skeptic Bulletin, 2011 : Vol 23, No.11 (November, 2011) Softpanorama classification of sysadmin horror stories : Vol 25, No.05 (May, 2013) Corporate bullshit as a communication method  : Vol 25, No.06 (June, 2013) A Note on the Relationship of Brooks Law and Conway Law

History:

Fifty glorious years (1950-2000): the triumph of the US computer engineering : Donald Knuth : TAoCP and its Influence of Computer Science : Richard Stallman : Linus Torvalds  : Larry Wall  : John K. Ousterhout : CTSS : Multix OS Unix History : Unix shell history : VI editor : History of pipes concept : Solaris : MS DOSProgramming Languages History : PL/1 : Simula 67 : C : History of GCC developmentScripting Languages : Perl history   : OS History : Mail : DNS : SSH : CPU Instruction Sets : SPARC systems 1987-2006 : Norton Commander : Norton Utilities : Norton Ghost : Frontpage history : Malware Defense History : GNU Screen : OSS early history

Classic books:

The Peter Principle : Parkinson Law : 1984 : The Mythical Man-MonthHow to Solve It by George Polya : The Art of Computer Programming : The Elements of Programming Style : The Unix Haterís Handbook : The Jargon file : The True Believer : Programming Pearls : The Good Soldier Svejk : The Power Elite

Most popular humor pages:

Manifest of the Softpanorama IT Slacker Society : Ten Commandments of the IT Slackers Society : Computer Humor Collection : BSD Logo Story : The Cuckoo's Egg : IT Slang : C++ Humor : ARE YOU A BBS ADDICT? : The Perl Purity Test : Object oriented programmers of all nations : Financial Humor : Financial Humor Bulletin, 2008 : Financial Humor Bulletin, 2010 : The Most Comprehensive Collection of Editor-related Humor : Programming Language Humor : Goldman Sachs related humor : Greenspan humor : C Humor : Scripting Humor : Real Programmers Humor : Web Humor : GPL-related Humor : OFM Humor : Politically Incorrect Humor : IDS Humor : "Linux Sucks" Humor : Russian Musical Humor : Best Russian Programmer Humor : Microsoft plans to buy Catholic Church : Richard Stallman Related Humor : Admin Humor : Perl-related Humor : Linus Torvalds Related humor : PseudoScience Related Humor : Networking Humor : Shell Humor : Financial Humor Bulletin, 2011 : Financial Humor Bulletin, 2012 : Financial Humor Bulletin, 2013 : Java Humor : Software Engineering Humor : Sun Solaris Related Humor : Education Humor : IBM Humor : Assembler-related Humor : VIM Humor : Computer Viruses Humor : Bright tomorrow is rescheduled to a day after tomorrow : Classic Computer Humor

The Last but not Least Technology is dominated by two types of people: those who understand what they do not manage and those who manage what they do not understand ~Archibald Putt. Ph.D


Copyright © 1996-2018 by Dr. Nikolai Bezroukov. www.softpanorama.org was initially created as a service to the (now defunct) UN Sustainable Development Networking Programme (SDNP) in the author free time and without any remuneration. This document is an industrial compilation designed and created exclusively for educational use and is distributed under the Softpanorama Content License. Original materials copyright belong to respective owners. Quotes are made for educational purposes only in compliance with the fair use doctrine.

FAIR USE NOTICE This site contains copyrighted material the use of which has not always been specifically authorized by the copyright owner. We are making such material available to advance understanding of computer science, IT technology, economic, scientific, and social issues. We believe this constitutes a 'fair use' of any such copyrighted material as provided by section 107 of the US Copyright Law according to which such material can be distributed without profit exclusively for research and educational purposes.

This is a Spartan WHYFF (We Help You For Free) site written by people for whom English is not a native language. Grammar and spelling errors should be expected. The site contain some broken links as it develops like a living tree...

You can use PayPal to make a contribution, supporting development of this site and speed up access. In case softpanorama.org is down you can use the at softpanorama.info

Disclaimer:

The statements, views and opinions presented on this web page are those of the author (or referenced source) and are not endorsed by, nor do they necessarily reflect, the opinions of the author present and former employers, SDNP or any other organization the author may be associated with. We do not warrant the correctness of the information provided or its fitness for any purpose.

The site uses AdSense so you need to be aware of Google privacy policy. You you do not want to be tracked by Google please disable Javascript for this site. This site is perfectly usable without Javascript.

Last modified: September 12, 2017