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May the source be with you, but remember the KISS principle ;-)
Bigger doesn't imply better. Bigger often is a sign of obesity, of lost control, of overcomplexity, of cancerous cells
Perform Network configuration
Misc configure steps before reboot
Configuration steps after the system reboot
Before you install a SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 10 verify the following:
You have Dell Installation and Server management disk
You have a registration number from Novell
DRAC card is configured and you can access it from your PC.
You are using Suse 10 installation the DVD with SP2 not the original GA release.
Server IP addresses corresponds to those in DNS.
Network masks and gateway information that you have are correct.
Note: Make sure you are using Suse 10 installation the DVD with SP2 not the original GA release. Mistakes happen...
Usually PE1950/2950 servers are usually ordered with 4 drives if there is no NAS and 2 drives if NAS is used. We will discuss "no-NAS" configuration here.
Note: If you changed RAID configuration using controller BIOS you need go to the creation of a service partition as it looks like Dell startup disk write signatures on the disks and reboot the system. You can delete it later if you do not want it (it is actually very small).
The typical solution is simple mirroring as drives are cheap: that greatly simplifies maintenance and slightly increases speed of I/O. With the current size of harddrives RAID 1 is the simplest and probably most reliable RAID configuration.
Typically we create 2 virtual drives (again, I would like to stress that
you do not need to worry about size of the drives those day; if you do just
order bigger drives).
Example 1: mirrored pair of 36 drives (no LVM)Filesystem 1K-blocks Used Available Use% Mounted on /dev/sda5 4128320 338524 3580032 9% / /dev/sda2 298471 16210 266850 6% /boot /dev/sda10 5207780 737020 4206212 15% /home /dev/sda8 4128320 735412 3183144 19% /opt /dev/sda9 4128320 240456 3678100 7% /tmp /dev/sda6 4128320 1851872 2066684 48% /usr /dev/sda7 8256696 342928 7494288 5% /varExample 2: mirrored pair of 73G drives (with LVM)Filesystem 1K-blocks Used Available Use% Mounted on /dev/mapper/vg01-root 4128448 304384 3614352 8% / /dev/sda2 297485 16507 265618 6% /boot /dev/mapper/vg01-home 1032088 77000 902660 8% /home /dev/mapper/vg01-opt 2064208 633432 1325920 33% /opt /dev/mapper/vg01-tmp 4128448 136468 3782268 4% /tmp /dev/mapper/vg01-usr 4128448 1404892 2513844 36% /usr /dev/mapper/vg01-var 10321208 917848 8879072 10% /var /dev/mapper/vg02-backup 17546044 6162448 10492308 38% /backup
Partitioning of hard drives using LVM
We will assume the first part of drive is visible as sda.
First you need to switch to the advanced mode in YAST2 Partitioner. You will see that one partition is already created.
If there are extra partitions on the boot drive you need to delete them.
sda2 /boot 200MB 4-29 (format ext3)
Create another primary partition for swap by using swap partition code from the
menu For example for 64G of RAM enter +32G, but for 8G RAM or less you
probably can afford 8G swap.
sda3 swap 32GB 30-4207
Extended (rest of disk)
Create LVM partition out of extended (select Linux LVM partition type and default size)
vg00 lv01 / 4GB
vg00 lv02 /usr 8GB
vg00 lv03 /var 12GB
vg00 lv04 /opt 4GB
vg00 lv05 /tmp 8GB
vg00 lv06 /home 8GB
In network configuration screen
Open Yast2 and make the following configuration changes:
Note: if you have a lot of Red Hat servers you can install vsftpd FTP daemon instead for consistency...
___ Verify that you can access internet using FireFox.
Checking for service xinetd: unused
chkconfig xinetd on
disable = yes
disable = no
Note: The best way is to use Red Hat style of primary group assignments: each user has GID identical to UID and all enrollment into groups is done in /etc/group
- Note: Use bash as the default shell for all human users
Note: Novell registration is often pain in the neck. Be patient
registration code -a email=ourEmailAddress
suse_register -a regcode-sles=
It takes several minutes
You can do it also do it in GUI via YAST. See page NOVELL Registering and Updating SUSE Linux Enterprise 10 on how to do it with YAST. You generally do not need to do anything on Novell site other then create account with the email address used.
Edit /etc/group by appending primary and secondary administrators to wheel group (do not overcrowd the group)
Edit /etc/sudoers and uncomment the line in the line
%wheel ALL=(ALL) NOPASSWD: ALL
Note: this is preferred method of controlling root access as linux does not
Next you need to configure kernel parameters. Configuring kernel parameters should not be done blindly based on recommendations of Oracle installation guide. For larger servers the recommendations are too small and can degrade performance. You should change only parameters that are below minimum value recommended by Oracle in the quote below. First get current values by running something like:
/sbin/sysctl -a | egrep "kernel.shmall
Here is a relevant quote from Oracle installation guide:
Configuring Kernel Parameters
Verify that the kernel parameters shown in the following table are set to values greater than or equal to the minimum value shown. If the current value for any parameter is higher than the value listed in this table, then do not change the value of that parameter. The procedure following the table describes how to verify and set the values.
The kernel parameter and shell limit values shown in the following section are minimum values only. For production database systems, Oracle recommends that you tune these values to optimize the performance of the system. Refer to the operating system documentation for more information about tuning kernel parameters.
Minimum of the following values:
· Half the size of the memory
· 4GB - 1 byte
Note: The minimum value required for shmmax is 0.5 GB. However, Oracle recommends that you set the value of shmmax to 2.0 GB for optimum performance of the system.
512 * PROCESSES
To display the current value specified for these kernel parameters, and to change them if necessary, use the following steps:
· Enter the commands shown in the following table to display the current values of the kernel parameters, make a note of these values and identify any values that you must change:
semmsl, semmns, semopm, and semmni
# /sbin/sysctl -a | grep sem
This command displays the value of the semaphore parameters in the order listed.
shmall, shmmax, and shmmni
# /sbin/sysctl -a | grep shm
This command displays the details of the shared memory segment sizes.
# /sbin/sysctl -a | grep file-max
This command displays the maximum number of file handles.
# /sbin/sysctl -a | grep ip_local_port_range
This command displays a range of port numbers.
# /sbin/sysctl -a | grep rmem_default
# /sbin/sysctl -a | grep rmem_max
# /sbin/sysctl -a | grep wmem_default
# /sbin/sysctl -a | grep wmem_max
# /sbin/sysctl -a | grep tcp_wmem
# /sbin/sysctl -a | grep tcp_rmem
· If the value of any kernel parameter is different from the minimum value, then complete the following procedure:
Using any text editor, create or edit the /etc/sysctl.conf file, and add or edit lines similar to the following:
Include lines only for the kernel parameter values that you want to change. For the semaphore parameters (kernel.sem), you must specify all four values. However, if any of the current values are larger than the minimum value, then specify the larger value.
fs.file-max = 512 * PROCESSES
kernel.shmall = 2097152
kernel.shmmax = 2147483648
kernel.shmmni = 4096
kernel.sem = 250 32000 100 128
net.ipv4.ip_local_port_range = 1024 65000
net.core.rmem_default = 4194304
net.core.rmem_max = 4194304
net.core.wmem_default = 262144
net.core.wmem_max = 262144
net.ipv4.tcp_wmem = 262144 262144 262144
net.ipv4.tcp_rmem = 4194304 4194304 4194304
The minimum value required for shmmax is 0.5 GB. However, Oracle recommends that you set the value of shmmax to 2.0 GB for optimum performance of the system.
By specifying the values in the /etc/sysctl.conf file, they persist when you restart the system. However, on SUSE Linux Enterprise Server systems, enter the following command to ensure that the system reads the /etc/sysctl.conf file when it restarts:
# /sbin/chkconfig boot.sysctl on
Enter the following command to change the current values of the kernel parameters:
# /sbin/sysctl -p
Review the output from this command to verify that the values are correct. If the values are incorrect, edit the /etc/sysctl.conf file, then enter this command again.
Enter the command /sbin/sysctl -a to confirm that the values are set correctly.
On SUSE systems only, enter the following command to cause the system to read the /etc/sysctl.conf file when it restarts:
# /sbin/chkconfig boot.sysctl on
On SUSE systems only, you must enter the GID of the oinstall group as the value for the parameter /proc/sys/vm/hugetlb_shm_group. Doing this grants members of oinstall a group permission to create shared memory segments.
For example, where the oinstall group GID is 501:
# echo 501 > /proc/sys/vm/hugetlb_shm_group
After running this command, use vi to add the following text to /etc/sysctl.conf, and enable the boot.sysctl script to run on system restart:
Only one group can be defined as the vm.hugetlb_shm_group.
After updating the values of kernel parameters in the /etc/sysctl.conf file, either restart the computer, or run the command sysctl -p to make the changes in the /etc/sysctl.conf file available in the active kernel memory.
Setting Shell Limits for the oracle User
To improve the performance of the software, you must increase the following shell limits for the oracle user:
Item in limits.conf
Maximum number of open file descriptors
Maximum number of processes available to a single user
To increase the shell limits:
Add the following lines to the /etc/security/limits.conf file:
oracle soft nproc 2047
oracle hard nproc 16384
oracle soft nofile 1024
oracle hard nofile 65536
Add or edit the following line in the /etc/pam.d/login file, if it does not already exist:
session required pam_limits.so
Depending on the oracle user's default shell, make the following changes to the default shell start-up file:
· For the Bourne, Bash, or Korn shell, add the following lines to the /etc/profile file (or the file on SUSE Linux Enterprise Server systems /etc/profile.local):
if [ $USER = "oracle" ]; then
if [ $SHELL = "/bin/ksh" ]; then
ulimit -p 16384
ulimit -n 65536
ulimit -u 16384 -n 65536
· For the C shell (csh or tcsh), add the following lines to the /etc/csh.login file (or the file on SUSE Linux Enterprise Server systems /etc/csh.login.local):
if ( $USER == "oracle" ) then
limit maxproc 16384
limit descriptors 65536
Refer to the "Identifying Required Software Directories" section to continue.
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