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The purpose of this page is to give you some ideas to cope with a variety of problems that will occur when using Unix. To use Unix effectively, you need to not just know the syntax and features of the operating system, but you must develop an attitude of coping with problems and understanding a bit of the worldview that might help you use Unix better. Some of this advice may seem odd or humorous, but it all has the point of conveying some kinds of coping mechanisms that go beyond just knowing the syntax of the commands.
- Remain calm.
Panic will cloud your ability to think through the problem and to come up with solutions. Slow down and calm down. Many times I see that problems arise when students try to type too quickly. Become familiar with your keyboard and how it works; type slowly if you have to. Remember that in Unix, you must type things exactly.
- Know when to quit.
As you type a Unix command at the shell prompt, you will type the wrong symbol. You might try the backspace or delete keys. These may or may not work--the way the backspace and delete keys are mapped to their functions are not always done correctly. This is particularly true when using telnet. If you get some funny characters or strange characters, cancel the command line. Do this by holding down the control key (usually at the lower left-hand corner of a keyboard) and the C key at the same time. That cancels the command. If you don't do this, you may create some strange file or have some strange effect. (Strange characters = possible strange effects.) Be particularly vigilant when you are creating a file name.
- Seek clarity.
If your terminal acts "funny" or your vi editor session is "strange," try this:$ set term=vt100 $ clear
The first command tells your telnet client that it is an old standard type of terminal (vt100); this often clears up strange control characters or if the computer output is not scrolling up on the screen. Then used with the clear command, you get added refreshment--this clears the screen of previous commands and output. This can then help you focus on a new task or way of approaching a problem.
- Don't flirt with deadlines.
In the real world, real deadlines mean either money lost or money gained. In the real world, if you miss a deadline, you may lose your company money and lose your job. If you meet a deadline, you may help your company succeed. If you start your work close to the deadline, you may run into trouble that you might not be able to resolve in time.
- Understand that Unix was written for humans and by humans and thus is a language, full of ambiguity, inconsistencies, history, and culture.
Computers don't need an operating system--you do. Electronic computers just care about high and low voltages. Operating systems like Unix were written by humans for humans to make use of the resources of the computer. Humans are full of all kinds of interesting ideas and these are reflected in the Unix operating system and its flavors. Not all the sequences of commands and options are entirely consistent. There are inconsistencies in syntax from command to command. There are cultural artifacts throughout the operating system that came out of the "geek" culture that gave rise to it-- who else would come up with the "finger" command?
- Understand that Unix and computers are a mystery to be lived, not a problem to be solved.
There will be errors, mistakes, funny things happen. You could spend the rest of your life analyzing exactly what gave rise to a particular error--or you could:
- Take a deep breath and try it again
- Log off and log back in
- Try a different computer
- Get a night's sleep and try tomorrow (but not if your deadline is tonight)
The combination of hardware, networks, operating systems, and software gives rise to a high level of complexity. When problems arise, I have found it is best to try some troubleshooting techniques, then try something else, rather than trying to figure out exactly what went wrong (however, I do read error messages and look for any clues on the screen). Due to the nature of Unix systems, by the time you have found out what went wrong, the system (its hardware or software) will have been changed or "upgraded" (introducing new problems). This is particularly true, I have found, in academic computing systems.
- Speak in a soothing, kind voice to the computer.
This is more for you than for the computer. If you get frustrated and type haphazardly at the keyboard, you are not going to get work done. If you don't read the screen and any error messages, you are going to keep repeating the same mistakes over and over. Thanking the computer for what it does helps you focus on the give-and-take interaction you have with the computer. The soothing voice calms you down also.
- Realize that there are many paths to getting things done.
There are usually many ways to accomplish a task. Don't get too dogmatic about finding the one and only one way to do it, nor get too over-involved in figuring out every way to do something. Most Unix users develop a particular set of habits for using the commands that match their way of thinking. Don't be too concerned if you see others use a different style of Unix interaction--however, you might learn some new things from them. Don't be too insistent on continually pointing out, "you could also do that by..." (particularly if you are standing over their shoulder). You could spend many weeks pointing out alternative ways to do a task. Find a way that works and matches your thinking and then get your work done.
- Make use of your environment.
Think like a castaway on a desert isle who has only what is at his or her disposal to survive. If you are on an Internet-connected computer, you have access to range of online help resources, some of which are available right from the command line (although don't think too hard about the "man" pages--I don't think there are many humans alive who understand these fully). If you are on a computer which has a window system (such as Microsoft Windows or X Window System), bring up several windows at the same time:
- A window that shows a Unix command prompt where you can type in commands (this would be the telnet client; in an X Window System environment, it would be an xterm)
- A Web browser showing task information about what you are supposed to (this would be the assignment description)
- Another Web browser that shows reference information
- Perhaps another Web browser that shows more or alternate reference information
Keep all of these windows up while working until you get your task done. Don't be afraid to bring up another Web browser, and keep the Web browser showing task information or reference information up. I've seen many students go through the trouble of bringing up a Web browser, following links to the assignment description, looking up a requirement for the assignment, then closing that Web browser, only to have to repeat the entire process when they need to look at the assignment description or reference information again. Don't be afraid to have as many windows open at the same time showing different information to get your work done.
- Unix gets work done.
You may think that a command-line operating system like Unix is somehow outdated. After all, a telnet session opened to a Unix shell is pretty plain visually. Its gotta be outdated, right? I have found that this is not the case. When you need to accomplish a large amount of precise work, there is nothing like pipes, filters, shell programming, and computer programs, to accomplish tasks. These can be implemented very efficiently
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