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The Linux Logical Volume Manager (LVM)


Linux Disk Management

Recommended Books

Recommended Links

Recovery of LVM volumes

Recommended Papers

LVM Cheatsheet

Linux Logical Volume Snapshots
Linux Disk Partitioning Operations on Logical Volumes Create a new volume Logical Volume Renaming Moving a volume group to another system LVM Tools Grub Ext3 filesystem
Basic LVM commands Create and mount a partition Get information about free space Extend the partition  Resize the logical partition Shrinking LVM logical volume with ext3/ext4 filesystem Protective partitioning  
Linux Troubleshooting modprobe FATAL could not load modules.dep Controlling LVM Device Scans with Filters Partition labels Software RAID Loopback filesystem Humor Etc


General concepts of logical volume manager (LVM) goes to the long gone era of 40MB drives (Not 40GB,  just forty megabytes) which created a legitimate  desire to create filesystems that span several physical disks. Another driver was the desire to have a capability to change size of existing partitions of the fly. Yet another important "desirable" feature is the ability to create snapshots. See Snapshots.

With the current size of harddrives, when even laptops usually have at least 320GB drives, the usage of LVM on desktop is just additional danger for your data as recovery of data is more complex (especially if you use striping). Also using the second drive you can copy and resize ext3/ext4 partitions  almost as easily as with LVM using imaging programs such as Acronis.  The only important and useful thing provided LVM on desktop are snapshots. In you know how to use them or want to learn, LVM can be a valuable asset. Otherwise avoid it.

But LVM still has an important place in the server environment, where the ability to do things on the fly that are impossible with regular partitions represents a great value.  And the ability to resize partitions on the fly is still very important on the server, especially if you have highly dynamic setup.  LVM is also a must, if you use multipath (situation typical when you use SAN).  Otherwise naming of partitions with Linux device-mapper is plain vanilla bizarre and you would curse Linus Torvalds way too often ;-). 

But, there is no free lunch, and because of this you generally should limit LMV to cases were it provides an additional value and first of all for only those partitions size of which change often and unpredictably. Static partitions (especially root partition) are much better off without LVM. 

Excessive zeal of using LVM when you don't need it can badly burn you, as recovery of data with LVM after corruption is more (in case of striping much more) difficult and time consuming. 

A Short Historical Note

The Linux LVM implementation is similar to the HP-UX LVM implementation although actual code probably has more in common with AIX implementation. Both of them are derivatives of VxFS, the Veritas filesystem. It was originally developed by VERITAS Software as a proprietary, closed source product. Dan Koren is cited as one of the original developers of VxFS. This product was first released in 1991, the same year as Linux was born.  Current version (Veritas was acquired by Symantec, the company famous for destroying most of acquired products :-) supports built-in deduplication, compression in primary storage and migration across operating systems without downtime.

The Veritas filesystem became almost a standard part of Solaris (since at least 1993) as it was very widely used as a primary filesystem to the extent that most of large servers have it installed and knowledge of VxFS was a requirement for any Solaris sysadmin job. Despite tremendous popularity it was not licensed by Sun and organizations need to pay license fee to Veritas, a huge blunder of Sun brass. Later it was licensed and integrated into HP-UX (via OEM agreement as a primary filesystem; one of the few thing that HP-UX did right ;-), AIX and SCO UNIX.  Unlike Solaris users of those OSes can use it for free.

Veritas Volume Manager code also has been used (in extensively modified form and without command line utilities) in Windows.

Linux LVM was not an original project, but a plain vanilla reimplementation. It was originally written (adapted from IBM code?) in 1998 by Heinz Mauelshagen. Some code was donated by IBM [IBM pitches its open source side]. It is unclear if it's still used. See Enterprise Volume Management System - Wikipedia

IBM has donated technology, code and skills to the Linux community, Kloeckner said, citing the company's donation of the Logical Volume Manager and its Journaling File System.

Matthew O'Keefe who from 1990 to May 2000, taught and performed research in storage systems and parallel simulation software as a professor of electrical and computer engineering at the University of Minnesota founded Sistina Software in May of 2000 to develop storage infrastructure software for Linux, including the Linux Logical Volume Manager (LVM). They created LVM2. Sistina was acquired by Red Hat in December 2003 and code was released under GPL. LVM2 is still the version used today both in RHEL and SLES. 

The danger of excessive zeal

The quality and architectural integrity of the current implementation of LVM is low and reflects low quality of Linux I/O filesystems layer in general.  Recovery utilities in case of severe malfunction are limited. Linux LVM is the source of many difficult to resolve problem, including, but not limited to situation when production server became unbootable after regular patches (yes that did happened in SLES). One example of excessive zeal is putting root partition on LVM

For a regular sysadmin who does not have much LVM experience, the sense of desperation and cold down the spine in case LVM-based partition goes south on an important production server dampen all the advantages that LVM provides. You can find pretty interesting and opinionated tidbits about such situations on the Net. For example, emotional statement in the discussion thread dev-dm-0?:

I only use those for mounting flash drives, and mapping encrypted partitions. Sorry, I don't do LVM anymore, after a small problem lost me 300GB of data. Its much easier to backup.

It is important to understand that LVM adds additional layer of complexity and greatly complicates recovery of corrupted data. As such it makes quality of backup it its regularity paramount.  In other words daily backups are a must.

So my recommendation is to avoid using it due to fashion, especially on OS partitions where you do not need flexibility it provides.  You should have real reasons to install it. RHEL installer now suggests it as a default option for some unknown for me reason -- probably because Red Hat is now member of S&P500 and as member of this privileged club that includes a lot of financial companies. And as bad example is more easily emulated then good. Red Hat now probably does not care one bit about its customers, like most financial companies ;-).

So use it only for data partitions,  unless you do need some of the functions provided. OS partitions are pretty static and with the current size of harddrives it is easy to oversize them so that even significant changes does not affect initial setup. And use it on the part of the drive not indiscriminately for all partitions.  Just add 4-8GB to each based on the size of already installed similar server and you generally will be fine. In particular /var should not be over specified as older logs can always be moved to other volume using cron job.

One of the most serious problems with LVM is that recovery of LVM-controlled partitions is more complex and time consuming. It helps if installation DVD rescue mode automatically recognizes LVM group. This is the case for Suse. See

Cases where LVM is really essential

I never understood the rational of using LVM on home PCs servers or any servers for which reboot and some downtime is not a problem. You voluntarily introduce complex and not very reliable subsystem  that threaten your data, the threat that can be mitigated only by religiously making backups in best enterprise style (and buying corresponding equipment such as RAID 1 enclosures and controllers, which are not cheap) . The question arise: for the sake of what ?

So the first rule is that LVM makes sense mostly in enterprise environment where that ability to extend partition on the fly without shutting server down (and other similar features provided by LVM) is an essential feature and reliability of components is usually higher that in home hardware or "make IT cheap" startups.  Among cases when LVM is essential are the following:

All-in-all current LVM is a pretty convoluted implementation of three tier storage hierarchy (physical volumes, logical volumes, partitions). Such an implementation both from architectural and from efficiency standpoints is somewhat inferior to integrated solutions like ZFS.

Danger of putting root partition under LVM

Putting the root partition under LVM is a risky decision and you may pay the price unless you are a LVM expert. In large enterprise environment if the partition is not on SAN or NAS usually extension of partition means adding a new pair of hardrives. In such cases creating cpio archive of the partition, recreation of partitions and restoring the content is a better deal as such cases happen once in several years. Another path to avoid LVM is to start with it, optimize size of the partitions based on actual usage, and then move all content to the second pair of drives without LVM, modify /etc/fstab and replace original drives with the new pair.

Putting root filesystem under LVM often happens, if the first partition is a service partition (for example Dell Service partition). In this case swap partition and boot partition take another two primary partitions and extended is the last one and it is usually put completely under LVM. In this case it is better to allocate SWAP partition on a different volume or to a file (with the current size of RAM it is rarely used on servers) so that the root partition is a primary partition.

If you have root system on LVM volume you need to train yourself to use recovery disk and mount those partitions. It also helps to have a separate backup on CD or other media of /etc/lvm. Among other things it contains the file with the structure of your LVM volume, for example /etc/lvm/backup/vg01

Don't put operating system partitions on the same logical volume groups as data

LVM can't do operations with logical volumes when they are active. That means that you increase flexibility of your environment if you put you "unmountable" partitions on a different logical volume group. Root and /var partitions are generally unmountable. /tmp is close to that too.

Low quality of documentation is a serious problem

LVM2 is identical in Red Hat and Suse although it has different GUI interface for managing volumes. The installers for both Red Hat and Suse are LVM-aware.

Although Linux volume manager works OK and is pretty reliable, documentation sucks badly for a commercial product. The most readable documentation that I have found is the article by Klaus Heinrich Kiwi Logical volume management published at IBM Developer Works on September 11, 2007. A good cheatsheet is available from RedHat.  I slightly reformatted and adapted it. See modified version LVM Cheatsheet

The most readable documentation that I have found is the article by Klaus Heinrich Kiwi Logical volume management published at IBM Developer Works on September 11, 2007. Unfortunately, it is now outdated...

Good cheatsheet is available from RedHat - LVM cheatsheet

Moreover in RHEL GUI interface is almost unusable as the left pane cannot be enlarged. YAST in Suse 10 and 11 was a much better deal.


The LVM hierarchy includes Physical Volume (PV) (typically a hard disk or partition, though it may well just be a device that 'looks' like a hard disk e.g. a RAID device). Volume Group (VG) (the new virtual disk that can contain several physical disks) and Logical Volumes (LV) -- the equivalent of a disk partition in a non-LVM system. The Volume Group is the highest level abstraction used within the LVM.

    hda1   hdc1      (PV:s on partitions or whole disks)                        
       \   /                                                                    
        \ /                                                                     
       diskvg        (VG)                                                       
       /  |  \                                                                  
      /   |   \                                                                 
  usrlv syslv varlv (LV:s)
    |      |     |                                                              
 ext3    ext3   xfs (filesystems)

The lowest level in the LVM storage hierarchy is the Physical Volume (PV). A PV is a single device or partition and is created with the command: pvcreate device. This step initializes a partition for later use. During this step each physical volume is divided chunks of data, known as physical extents, these extents have the same size as the logical extents for the volume group.

Multiple Physical Volumes (initialized partitions) are merged into a Volume Group (VG). This is done with the command: vgcreate volume_name device {device}. This step also registers volume_name in the LVM kernel module and therefore it is made accessible to the kernel I/O layer.

first you need to create pv volume with command pvcreate

Then you can create volume group:

vgcreate test-volume /dev/hda2  

A Volume Group is pool from which Logical Volumes (LV) can be allocated. LV is the equivalent of a disk partition in a non-LVM system. The LV is visible as a standard block device; as such the LV can contain a file system (eg. /home). Creating an LV is done with lvcreate command

Here is summary of terminology used:

LVM Utilities Classification

LVM exposes its functionality via set of command line utilities or GUI interface. We will discuss command line utilities. They provide a much wider spectrum of operations then GUI. They can be classified into several categories:

  1. Getting the map of the LVM environment
  2. Utilities for operations on Logical Volumes

Getting the map of the LVM environment

When you first get to the new to you server, or the server with which you did not work for a while the first thing is to create a map of the LVM environment. This might help to prevent errors or blunders in subsequent work.

There are three commands that can help you in this task:

All those commands have man pages that provide some information how to navigated the maze of volumes on the particular server.  Quality of man pages is low so you better print them and read, annotate and highlight relevant information. At least for me this way it is easier to find relevant information about the capabilities provided.

Operations on Logical Volumes

Often the size of partition you create during installation proves to be suboptimal. And you face with a difficult decision whether to reinstall the OS to make it better. With LVM you can do this operation "on the fly" without shutting down the system and booting from the recovery disk of Knoppix. This is one of the most important advantages of LVM.

More space may be added to a VG by adding new devices with the command: vgextend. The following is adapted from A Walkthrough of the LVM for Linux :

Operations on LVM Logical volumes (virtual partitions)

One of the most important advantages of LVM is that LVM allows sysadmin to perform pretty powerful "partition acrobatics". Moreover it can be performed on the fly, if server is low loaded (which is typical situation for most servers at night). While LVs was bound to a particular PV (psychical partition or disk), you can move an entire LV from one PV to another, even while the disk is mounted and in use!

How to create and mount a LVM partition

  1. Log to root. Create the partition with lvcreate
    lvcreate -L 5G -n data vg02
    Logical  volume "data" created
  2. Format partition
    mkfs -t ext3 /dev/vg02/data 
  3. Make mount point and mount it
    mkdir /data
    mount /dev/vg02/data /data/
  4. Check results
    df -h /data
    Filesystem Size Used Avail Use% Mounted on /dev/mapper/test--volume-data 50.0G 33M 5.0G 1% /data
  5. Add it to /etc/fstab

You can create shell function to simplify this task if you need to create many similar partitions like is often the case with Oracle databases. For example:

# Create oracle archive filesystem
# Parameters:
# 1 - name of archive
# 2 - size in gigabytes
# 3 - name of logical volume (default lv0)
function make_archive
 mkdir -p  /oracle/$1/archive
 chown oracle:dba /oracle/$1/archive
 lvcreate -L ${2}G -n archive vg0
 mkfs -t ext3 /dev/vg0/archive
 echo "/dev/$3/archive /oracle/$1/archive ext2 defaults 1 2" >> /etc/fstab
 mount /oracle/$1/archive # that will check the mount point if fstab
 df -k
See also  LVM Cheatsheet

How to extend and resize an LVM partition on the fly

A file system on LVM partition may be extended.  For example:

lvextend -L +80G /dev/mapper/vg00-sge
  Extending logical volume sge to 90.00 GB
  Logical volume sge successfully resized 

Here is a typical df map of a server with volume manager installed. As you can see all partitions except /boot partition are referred vi path /dev/mapper/VolGroup00-LogVolxx where xx is two digit number:

# df -l
Filesystem           1K-blocks      Used Available Use% Mounted on
/dev/cciss/c0d0p3     31738420   4497848  25602344  15% /
/dev/mapper/vg00-var  15870920    351348  14700372   3% /var
/dev/cciss/c0d0p2     99188500   3149924  90918664   4% /home
/dev/mapper/vg00-tmp   7935392    320524   7205268   5% /tmp
/dev/cciss/c0d0p1       497829     31672    440455   7% /boot
tmpfs                  3051112         0   3051112   0% /dev/shm
/dev/mapper/vg00-sge  10321208   8225504   1571416  84% /sge

After extending the volume group and the logical volume, it is possible to resize the file system on the fly. This is done using resize2fs.

Let's get a DF map of the server first:

# df -k
Filesystem           1K-blocks      Used Available Use% Mounted on
/dev/cciss/c0d0p3     31738420   4497848  25602344  15% /
/dev/mapper/vg00-var  15870920    351364  14700356   3% /var
/dev/cciss/c0d0p2     99188500   3149924  90918664   4% /home
/dev/mapper/vg00-tmp   7935392    320524   7205268   5% /tmp
/dev/cciss/c0d0p1       497829     31672    440455   7% /boot
tmpfs                  3051112         0   3051112   0% /dev/shm
/dev/mapper/vg00-sge  10321208   7272668   2524252  75% /sge

Now we can perform resizing (it's better first to backup data just in case, but this step is omitted for brevity):

# resize2fs /dev/mapper/vg00-sge
resize2fs 1.39 (29-May-2006)
Filesystem at /dev/mapper/vg00-sge is mounted on /sge; on-line resizing required
Performing an on-line resize of /dev/mapper/vg00-sge to 23592960 (4k) blocks.
The filesystem on /dev/mapper/vg00-sge is now 23592960 blocks long. 

Now let's check results via DF map:

#df -k
Filesystem           1K-blocks      Used Available Use% Mounted on
/dev/cciss/c0d0p3     31738420   4497848  25602344  15% /
/dev/mapper/vg00-var  15870920    351368  14700352   3% /var
/dev/cciss/c0d0p2     99188500   3149924  90918664   4% /home
/dev/mapper/vg00-tmp   7935392    320524   7205268   5% /tmp
/dev/cciss/c0d0p1       497829     31672    440455   7% /boot
tmpfs                  3051112         0   3051112   0% /dev/shm
/dev/mapper/vg00-sge  92891128   7285756  80887804   9% /sge 

For more information see Resizing the file system

How to move LVM partition

How do I move my LVM 250 GB root partition to a new 120GB hard disk?

Dennis Schma

I have the following situation:

My current Ubuntu installation is running from an external HDD (250 GB) because I was to lazy to buy an new internal hdd. Now i've got a new internal (120GB) and i want to move everything to the internal. Installing Ubuntu new is out of disscussion because its to peronalized.

Luckily (i hope so) the root partition is partitioned with LVM, so i hope i can move the partition to the smaller internal HDD.

Is this possible? And where do i find help?

As you suspect, this is extremely elegant to do using lvm



First, if you used the whole 250GB disk for your current installation, you'll need to shrink it to fit the 120GB disk. You can only shrink an ext4 filesystem while it's unmounted, so you'll need to boot off an Ubuntu live system (CD or USB), or a specialized maintenance live system such as GParted live. You can use resize2fs or GParted to resize the existing filesystem.

Once you've shrunk the filesystem(s) of your existing installation to fit on the new disk, you can do the rest of the move with the filesystem mounted if you like. If the existing filesystem fits on the new disk, you can do the transfer without unmounting anything or rebooting.

In the following description, I'll show how to move from the physical volume /dev/sdb1 to the physical volume /dev/sda1, with an existing volume group called oldvg. Be sure to adjust the disk letters and partition numbers to match your system.

To do a live transfer:

  1. Partition the new disk, using the partitioning tool of your choice (cfdisk, fdisk, parted, …). See e.g. How do I add an additional hard drive?
  2. Create a physical volume on the new disk: pvcreate /dev/sda1
  3. Add this physical volume to the existing volume group containing the logical volume(s) you want to move: vgextend oldvg /dev/sda1
  4. Move the logical volumes from one physical volume to another: pvmove /dev/sdb1 /dev/sda1
  5. Split the existing volume group in two: vgsplit oldvg newvg /dev/sda1

Another method is to make the existing logical volume(s) a mirror volume with lvconvert --mirror, set up a mirror on the new disk, then split the mirrors with lvconvert --splitmirrors. This way, you end up with two copies of your data, and after the split each copy leads its own life.

After you've done the copy, you'll need to make the new disk bootable. Mount the filesystem for this. Assuming it's mounted on /mnt, run these commands as root:

chroot /mnt
# if the name of the volume group has changed, edit /etc/fstab
grub-install /dev/sda

Alternatively, you might be able to use Clonezilla. This is a powerful disk manipulation and cloning tool, and I think it covers your situation, but I have no experience with it.

How to remove LVM logical volume (virtual partition)

Let's say we no longer need /backup. We can remove it and place its PEs back in the empty pool for the Volume Group. This can be done in three steps:

Here is a quote from RHEL/CentOS documentation

4.4.6. Removing Logical Volumes

To remove an inactive logical volume, use the lvremove command. You must close a logical volume with the umount command before it can be removed. In addition, in a clustered environment you must deactivate a logical volume before it can be removed.

If the logical volume is currently mounted, unmount the volume before removing it.

The following command removes the logical volume /dev/testvg/testlv. from the volume group testvg. Note that in this case the logical volume has not been deactivated.

[root@tng3-1 lvm]# lvremove /dev/testvg/testlv
Do you really want to remove active logical volume "testlv"? [y/n]: y
  Logical volume "testlv" successfully removed

You could explicitly deactivate the logical volume before removing it with the lvchange -an command, in which case you would not see the prompt verifying whether you want to remove an active logical volume.

Use command lvremove to remove a logical volume from a logical volume group, after unmounting it

lvremove [-A/--autobackup y/n] [-d/--debug] [-f/--force] [-h/-?/--help]
         [-t/--test] [-v/--verbose] LogicalVolumePath [LogicalVolumePath...]

lvremove removes one or more logical volumes. Confirmation will be requested before deactivating any active logical volume prior to removal. Logical volumes cannot be deactivated or removed while they are open (e.g. if they contain a mounted filesystem).


-f, --force Remove active logical volumes without confirmation.

For example:

How to create a snapshot

When you create a snapshot, you create a new Logical Volume to act as a clone of the original Logical Volume. The snapshot volume initially does not use any space, but as changes are made to the original volume, the changed blocks are copied to the snapshot volume before they are changed, in order to preserve them. This means that the more changes you make to the origin, the more space the snapshot needs. If the snapshot volume uses all of the space allocated to it, then the snapshot is broken and can not be used any more, leaving you only with the modified origin. The lvs command will tell you how much space has been used in a snapshot Logical Volume. If it starts to get full, you might want to extend it with the lvextend command. To create a snapshot of the bar Logical Volume and name it snap, run:

lvcreate -s -n snap -L 5g foo/bar 

This will create a snapshot named snap of the original Logical Volume bar and allocate 5 GB of space for it. Since the snapshot volume only stores the ares of the disk that have changed since it was created, it can be much smaller than the original volume.

While you have the snapshot, you can mount it if you wish and will see the original filesystem as it appeared when you made the snapshot. In the above example you would mount the /dev/foo/snap device. You can modify the snapshot without affecting the original, and the original without affecting the snapshot.

If you take a snapshot of your root Logical Volume, and then upgrade some packages, or to the next whole distribution release, and then decide it isn't working out, you can merge the snapshot back into the origin volume, effectively reverting to the state at the time you made the snapshot:

sudo lvconvert --merge foo/snap

If the origin volume of foo/snap is in use, it will inform you that the merge will take place the next time the volumes are activated. If this is the root volume, then you will need to reboot for this to happen. At the next boot, the volume will be activated and the merge will begin in the background, so your system will boot up as if you had never made the changes since the snapshot was created, and the actual data movement will take place in the background while you work.

Other useful LVM operations

Consult the man pages for more details on these other useful LVM operations:

Resiliency to renumbering of physical disks

LVM identifies PVs by UUID, not by device name. Each disk (PV) is labeled with a UUID, which uniquely identifies it to the system.

vgscan identifies this after a new disk is added that changes your drive numbering. Most linux distributions run vgscan in the LVM startup scripts to cope with this on reboot after a hardware addition. If you're doing a hot-add, you'll have to run this by hand. On the other hand, if your VG is activated and being used, the renumbering should not affect it at all. It's only the activation that needs the identifier, and the worst case scenario is that the activation will fail without a vgscan with a complaint about a missing PV.

The failure or removal of a drive that LVM is currently using will cause problems with current use and future activations of the VG that was using it.

Top updates

Softpanorama Switchboard
Softpanorama Search


Old News ;-)

Quick HOWTO Ch27 Expanding Disk Capacity

Linux Home Networking

Determine The Partition Types

You have to change each LVM partition used to be of type 8e (Linux LVM). You can test this with the fdisk -l command. Here is an example using /dev/hde that shows your target partitions are of the incorrect type.

sh-2.05b# fdisk -l /dev/hde
Disk /dev/hde: 4311 MB, 4311982080 bytes
16 heads, 63 sectors/track, 8355 cylinders
Units = cylinders of 1008 * 512 = 516096 bytes
   Device Boot    Start       End    Blocks   Id  System
/dev/hde1             1      4088   2060320+  fd  Linux raid autodetect
/dev/hde2          4089      5713    819000   83  Linux
/dev/hde3          5714      6607    450576   83  Linux
/dev/hde4          6608      8355    880992    5  Extended
/dev/hde5          6608      7500    450040+  83  Linux


You can change the partition type using fdisk with the disk name as its argument. Use it to modify both partitions /dev/hde5 and /dev/hdf1. The fdisk examples that follow are for /dev/hde5; repeat them for /dev/hdf1.

sh-2.05b# fdisk /dev/hde
The number of cylinders for this disk is set to 8355.
There is nothing wrong with that, but this is larger than 1024,
and could in certain setups cause problems with:
1) software that runs at boot time (e.g., old versions of LILO)
2) booting and partitioning software from other OSs
   (e.g., DOS FDISK, OS/2 FDISK)
Command (m for help):

Set The ID Type To 8e

You now need to set the partition types to the LVM value of 8e. Partitions /dev/hde5 and /dev/hdf1 are the fifth and sixth partitions on disk /dev/hde. Modify their type using the t command, and then specify the partition number and type code. You can also use the L command to get a full listing of ID types in case you forget.

Command (m for help): t
Partition number (1-6): 5
Hex code (type L to list codes): 8e
Changed system type of partition 5 to 8e (Linux LVM)
Command (m for help): t
Partition number (1-6): 6
Hex code (type L to list codes): 8e
Changed system type of partition 6 to 8e (Linux LVM)
Command (m for help):

Make Sure The Change Occurred

Use the p command to get the new proposed partition table.

Command (m for help): p
Disk /dev/hde: 4311 MB, 4311982080 bytes
16 heads, 63 sectors/track, 8355 cylinders
Units = cylinders of 1008 * 512 = 516096 bytes
   Device Boot    Start       End    Blocks   Id  System
/dev/hde1             1      4088   2060320+  fd  Linux raid autodetect
/dev/hde2          4089      5713    819000   83  Linux
/dev/hde3          5714      6607    450576   83  Linux
/dev/hde4          6608      8355    880992    5  Extended
/dev/hde5          6608      7500    450040+  8e  Linux LVM
Command (m for help):

Save The Partition Changes

Use the w command to permanently save the changes to disk /dev/hde.

Command (m for help): w
The partition table has been altered!
Calling ioctl() to re-read partition table.
WARNING: Re-reading the partition table failed with error 16: Device or resource busy.
The kernel still uses the old table.
The new table will be used at the next reboot.
Syncing disks.

The error above will occur if any of the other partitions on the disk is mounted. This shouldn't be grave as you are already in single user mode in which most of the system's processes that would be accessing the partition have been shutdown.

Define Each Physical Volume

After modifying the partition tables of /dev/hde and /dev/hdf, initialize the target partitions with the pvcreate command. This wipes out all the data on them in preparation for the next step. If you haven't backed up your data yet, do it now!

sh-2.05b# pvcreate /dev/hde5 /dev/hdf1
pvcreate -- physical volume "/dev/hde5" successfully created
pvcreate -- physical volume "/dev/hdf1" successfully created

Create A Volume Group For the PVs

Use the vgcreate command to combine the two physical volumes into a single unit called a volume group. The LVM software effectively tricks the operating system into thinking the volume group is a new hard disk. In the example, the volume group is called lvm-hde.

sh-2.05b# vgcreate lvm-hde /dev/hdf1 /dev/hde5
Volume group "lvm-hde" successfully created

Therefore, the vgcreate syntax uses the name of the volume group as the first argument followed by the partitions that it will be comprised of as all subsequent arguments.

Run VGscan

The next step is to verify that Linux can find your new LVM disk partitions. To do this, use the vgscan command.

sh-2.05b# vgscan
vgscan -- reading all physical volumes (this may take a while...)
Found volume group "lvm-hde" using metadata type lvm2

Create A Logical Volume From The Volume Group

Now you're ready to partition the volume group into logical volumes with the lvcreate command. Like hard disks, which are divided into blocks of data, logical volumes are divided into units called physical extents (PEs).

You'll have to know the number of available PEs before creating the logical volume. This is done with the vgdisplay command using the new lvm-hde volume group as the argument.

sh-2.05b# vgdisplay lvm-hde
--- Volume group ---
VG Name               lvm-hde
VG Access             read/write
VG Status             available/resizable
VG #                  0
MAX LV                256
Cur LV                0
Open LV               0
MAX LV Size           255.99 GB
Max PV                256
Cur PV                2
Act PV                2
VG Size               848 MB
PE Size               4 MB
Total PE              212
Alloc PE / Size       0 / 0
Free  PE / Size       212 / 848 MB
VG UUID               W7bgLB-lAFW-wtKi-wZET-jDJF-8VYD-snUaSZ

As you can see, 212 PEs are available as free. You can now use all 212 of them to create a logical volume named lvm0 from volume group lvm-hde.

sh-2.05b# lvcreate -l 212 lvm-hde -n lvm0
Logical volume "lvm0" created

Note: You can also define percentages of the volume group to be used. The first example defines the use of 100% of the volume group's free space and the second example specifies using 50% of the total volume group.

sh-2.05b# lvcreate -l 100%FREE -n lvm0 lvm-hde
sh-2.05b# lvcreate -l 50%VG -n lvm0 lvm-hde

Format The Logical Volume

After the logical volume is created, you can format it as if it were a regular partition. In this case, use the -t switch to specify to the mkfs formatting program that you want a type ext3 partition.

sh-2.05b# mkfs -t ext3 /dev/lvm-hde/lvm0
mke2fs 1.32 (09-Nov-2002)
Filesystem label=
OS type: Linux
Block size=4096 (log=2)
Fragment size=4096 (log=2)
108640 inodes, 217088 blocks
10854 blocks (5.00%) reserved for the super user
First data block=0
7 block groups
32768 blocks per group, 32768 fragments per group
15520 inodes per group
Superblock backups stored on blocks:
        32768, 98304, 163840
Writing inode tables: done
Creating journal (4096 blocks): done
Writing superblocks and filesystem accounting information: done
This filesystem will be automatically checked every 38 mounts or
180 days, whichever comes first.  Use tune2fs -c or -i to override.

Create A Mount Point

When you formatted the /dev/hde5 partition, you lost the /home directory. Now you have to recreate /home on which you'll later mount your new logical volume.

sh-2.05b# mkdir /home

Update The /etc/fstab File

The /etc/fstab file lists all the partitions that need to be automatically mounted when the system boots. This snippet configures the newly labeled partition to be mounted on the /home mount point.

/dev/lvm-hde/lvm0   /home      ext3    defaults        1 2

The /dev/hde5 and /dev/hdf1 partitions are replaced by the combined /lvm0 logical volume. You, therefore, don't want the old partitions to be mounted again. Make sure that any reference to them in this file has either been commented a # character at the beginning of each line or deleted entirely.

#/dev/hde5       /data1        ext3    defaults        1 2
#/dev/hdf1       /data2        ext3    defaults        1 2

Mount The Volume

The mount -a command reads the /etc/fstab file and mounts all the devices that haven't been mounted already. After mounting, test the volume by listing its directory contents. It should just contain the lost+found directory

sh-2.05b# mount -a
sh-2.05b# ls /home

Restore Your Data

You can now restore your backed up data to /home.

How to Manage and Use LVM (Logical Volume Management) in Ubuntu

Create New Snapshot

To create a snapshot of lvstuff use the lvcreate command like before but use the -s flag.

lvcreate -L512M -s -n lvstuffbackup /dev/vgpool/lvstuff

Here we created a logical volume with only 512 MB because the drive isn’t being actively used. The 512 MB will store any new writes while we make our backup.

Mount New Snapshot

Just like before we need to create a mount point and mount the new snapshot so we can copy files from it.

mkdir /mnt/lvstuffbackup
mount /dev/vgpool/lvstuffbackup /mnt/lvstuffbackup

Copy Snapshot and Delete Logical Volume

All you have left to do is copy all of the files from /mnt/lvstuffbackup/ to an external hard drive or tar it up so it is all in one file.

Note: tar -c will create an archive and -f will say the location and file name of the archive. For help with the tar command use man tar in the terminal.

tar -cf /home/rothgar/Backup/lvstuff-ss /mnt/lvstuffbackup/

Remember that while the backup is taking place all of the files that would be written to lvstuff are being tracked in the temporary logical volume we created earlier. Make sure you have enough free space while the backup is happening.

Once the backup finishes, unmount the volume and remove the temporary snapshot.

umount /mnt/lvstuffbackup
lvremove /dev/vgpool/lvstuffbackup/

Deleting a Logical Volume

To delete a logical volume you need to first make sure the volume is unmounted, and then you can use lvremove to delete it. You can also remove a volume group once the logical volumes have been deleted and a physical volume after the volume group is deleted.

Here are all the commands using the volumes and groups we’ve created.

umount /mnt/lvstuff
lvremove /dev/vgpool/lvstuff
vgremove vgpool
pvremove /dev/sdb1 /dev/sdc1

That should cover most of what you need to know to use LVM. If you’ve got some experience on the topic, be sure to share your wisdom in the comments.

A simple introduction to working with LVM

In this example hda1, hda2, and hda3 are all physical volumes. We'll initialize hda3 as a physical volume:

root@lappy:~# pvcreate /dev/hda3

If you wanted to combine several disks, or partitions you could do the same for those:

root@lappy:~# pvcreate /dev/hdb
root@lappy:~# pvcreate /dev/hdc

Once we've initialised the partitions, or drives, we will create a volume group which is built up of them:

root@lappy:~# vgcreate skx-vol /dev/hda3

Here "skx-vol" is the name of the volume group. (If you wanted to create a single volume spanning two disks you'd run "vgcreate skx-vol /dev/hdb /dev/hdc".)

If you've done this correctly you'll be able to see it included in the output of vgscan:

root@lappy:~# vgscan
  Reading all physical volumes.  This may take a while...
  Found volume group "skx-vol" using metadata type lvm2

Now that we have a volume group (called skx-vol) we can actually start using it.

Working with logical volumes

What we really want to do is create logical volumes which we can mount and actually use. In the future if we run out of space on this volume we can resize it to gain more storage. Depending on the filesystem you've chosen you can even do this on the fly!

For test purposes we'll create a small volume with the name 'test':

root@lappy:~# lvcreate -n test --size 1g skx-vol
Logical volume "test" created

This command creates a volume of size 1Gb with the name test hosted on the LVM volume group skx-vol.

The logical volume will now be accessible via /dev/skx-vol/test, and may be formatted and mounted just like any other partition:

root@lappy:~# mkfs.ext3 /dev/skx-vol/test
root@lappy:~# mkdir /home/test
root@lappy:~# mount /dev/skx-vol/test  /home/test

Unix-Linux Administration - Logical Volume Management Guide

Adapted from the LVM How-to page
from The Linux Documentation Project website.

LVM (Logical Volume Management) Overview:

... ... ...


When creating a volume group from one or more physical volumes, you must specify the size of the "extents" of each of the physical volumes that make up the VG. Each extent is a single contiguous chunk of disk space, typically 4M in size, but can range from 8K to 16G in powers of 2 only. (Extents are analogous to disk blocks or clusters.) The significance of this is that the size of logical volumes are specified as a number of extents. Logical volumes can thus grow and shrink in increments of the extent size. A volume group's extent size cannot be changed after it is set.

The system internally numbers the extents for both logical and physical volumes. These are called logical extents (or LEs) and physical extents (or PEs), respectively. When a logical volume is created a mapping is defined between logical extents (which are logically numbered sequentially starting at zero) and physical extents (which are also numbered sequentially).

To provide acceptable performance the extent size must be a multiple of the actual disk cluster size (i.e., the size of the smallest chunk of data that can be accessed in a single disk I/O operation). In addition some applications (such as Oracle database) have performance that is very sensitive to the extent size. So setting this correctly also depends on what the storage will be used for, and is considered part of the system administrator's job of tuning the system.

... ... ...

Linear and Striped Mapping:

Let's suppose we have a volume group called VG1, and this volume group has a physical extent size of 4M. Suppose too this volume group is composed of one disk partition /dev/hda1 and one whole disk /dev/hdb. These will become physical volumes PV1 and PV2 (more meaningful names for a particular scenario can be given if desired).

The PVs are different sizes and we get 99 (4M) extents in PV1 and 248 extents in PV2, for a total of 347 extents in VG1. Now any number of LVs of any size can be created from the VG, as long as the total number of extents of all LVs sums to no more than 347. To make the LVs appear the same as regular disk partitions to the filesystem software, the logical extents are numbered sequentially within the LV. However some of these LEs may be stored in the PEs on PV1 and others on PV2. For instance LE[1] of some LV in VG1 could map onto PE[51] of PV1, and thus data written to the first 4M of the LV is in fact written to the 51st extent of PV1.

When creating LVs an administrator can choose between two general strategies for mapping logical extents onto physical extents:

  1. Linear mapping will assign a range of PE's to an area of an LV in order (e.g., LE 1–99 map to PV1's PEs, and LE 100–347 map onto PV2's PEs).
  2. Striped mapping will interleave the disk blocks of the logical extents across a number of physical volumes. You can decide the number of PVs to stripe across (the stripe set size), as well as the size of each stripe.

When using striped mapping, all PVs in the same stripe set need to be the same size. So in our example the LV can be no more than 198 (99 + 99) extents in size. The remaining extents in PV2 can be used for some other LVs, using linear mapping.

The size of the stripes is independent of the extent size, but must be a power of 2 between 4K and 512K. (This value n is specified as a power of 2 in this formula: (2^n) × 1024 bytes, where 2 ≤ n ≤ 9.) The stripe size should also be a multiple of the disk sector size, and finally the extent size should be a multiple of this stripe size. If you don't do this, you will end up with fragmented extents (as the last bit of space in the extent will be unusable).

Tables 2 and 3 below illustrate the differences between linear and striped mapping. Suppose you use a stripe size of 4K, an extent size of 12K, and a stripe set of 3 PVs (PVa, PVb, and PVc), each of which is 100 extents. Then the mapping for an LV ( whose extents we'll call LV1, LV2, ...) to PVs (whose extents we'll call PVa1, PVa2, ..., PVb1, PVb2, ..., PVc1, PVc2, ...) might look something like the following. (In this table the notation means volume_name extent_number . stripe_number):

linear and striped mappings
Example of Linear Mapping
Logical Extents Physical Extents
LV1 PVa1
LV2 PVa2
LV3 PVa3
LV4 PVa4
... ...
LV99 PVa99
LV100 PVb1
LV101 PVb2
... ...
LV199 PVb99
LV200 PVc1
LV201 PVc2
... ...
Example of Striped Mapping
Logical Extents Physical Extents
LV1.1 PVa1.1
LV1.2 PVb1.1
LV1.3 PVc1.1
LV2.1 PVa1.2
LV2.2 PVb1.2
LV2.3 PVc1.2
LV3.1 PVa1.3
LV3.2 PVa1.3
LV3.3 PVa1.3
LV4.1 PVa2.1
LV4.2 PVb2.1
LV4.3 PVc2.1
... ...

Tables 2 and 3: Linear versus Striped Mapping

In certain situations striping can improve the performance of the logical volume but it can be complex to manage. However note that striped mapping is useless and will in fact hurt performance, unless the PVs used in the stripe set are from different disks, preferably using different controllers.

(In version 1 of LVM LVs created using striping cannot be extended past the PVs on which they were originally created. In the current version (LVM 2) striped LVs can be extended by concatenating another set of devices onto the end of the first set. However this could lead to a situation where (for example) a single LV ends up as a 2 stripe set, concatenated with a linear (non-striped) set, and further concatenated with a 4 stripe set!


A wonderful facility provided by LVM is a snapshot. This allows an administrator to create a new logical volume which is an exact copy of an existing logical volume (called the original), frozen at some point in time. This copy is read-only. Typically this would be used when (for instance) a backup needs to be performed on the logical volume but you don't want to halt a live system that is changing the data. When done with the snapshot the system administrator can just unmount it and then remove it. This facility does require that the snapshot be made at a time when the data on the logical volume is in a consistent state, but the time the original LV must be off-line is much less than a normal backup would take to complete.

In addition the copy typically only needs about 20% or less of the disk space of the original. Essentially, when the snapshot is made nothing is copied. However as the original changes, the updated disk blocks are first copied to the snapshot disk area before being written with the changes. The more changes are made to the original, the more disk space the snapshot will need.

When creating logical volumes to be used for snapshots, you must specify the chunk size. This is the size of the data block copied from the original to the snapshot volume. For good performance this should be set to the size of the data blocks written by the applications using the original volume. While this chunk size is independent of both the extent size and the stripe size (if striping is used), it is likely that the disk block (or cluster or page) size, the stripe size, and the chunk size should all be the same. Note the chunk size must be a power of 2 (like the stripe size), between 4K and 1M. (The extent size should be a multiple of this size.)

You should remove snapshot volumes as soon as you are finished with them, because they take a copy of all data written to the original volume and this can hurt performance. In addition, if the snapshot volume fills up errors will occur.

LVM Administration — Commands and Procedures:

The lvm command permits the administrator to perform all LVM operations using this one interactive command, which includes built-in help and will remember command line arguments used from previous commands for the current command. However each LVM command is also available as a stand-alone command (that can be scripted). These are discussed briefly below, organized by task. See the man page for the commands (or use the built-in help of lvm) for complete details.

... ... ...

Format Physical Volumes (PVs)

To initialize a disk or disk partition as a physical volume you just run the "pvcreate" command on the whole disk. For example:

  pvcreate /dev/hdb

This creates a volume group descriptor at the start of the second IDE disk. You can initialize several disks and/or partitions at once. Just list all the disks and partitions on the command line you wish to format as PVs.

Sometimes this procedure may not work correctly, depending on how the disk (or partition) was previously formatted. If you get an error that LVM can't initialize a disk with a partition table on it, first make sure that the disk you are operating on is the correct one! Once you have confirmed that /dev/hdb is the disk you really want to reformat, run the following dd command to erase the old partition table:

# Warning DANGEROUS!
# The following commands will destroy the partition table on the
# disk being operated on.  Be very sure it is the correct disk!
dd if=/dev/zero of=/dev/hdb bs=1k count=1 blockdev \
    --rereadpt /dev/hdb

For partitions run "pvcreate" on the partition:

    pvcreate /dev/hdb1

This creates a volume group descriptor at the start of the /dev/hdb1 partition. (Note that if using LVM version 1 on PCs with DOS partitions, you must first set the partition type to "0x8e" using fdisk or some other similar program.)

Create Volume Groups (VGs)

Use the "vgcreate" program to group selected PVs into VGs, and to optionally set the extent size (the default is 4MB). The following command creates a volume group named "VG1" from two disk partitions from different disks:

    vgcreate VG1 /dev/hda1 /dev/hdb1

Modern systems may use "devfs" or some similar system, which creates symlinks in /dev for detected disks. With such systems names like "/dev/hda1" are actually the symlinks to the real names. You can use either the symlink or the real name in the LVM commands, however the older version of LVM demanded you use the real device names, such as /dev/ide/host0/bus0/target0/lun0/part1 and /dev/ide/host0/bus0/target1/lun0/part1.

You can also specify the extent size with this command using the "-s size" option, if the 4Mb default not what you want. The size is a value followed by one of k (for kilobytes), m (megabytes), g (gigabytes), or t (tetrabytes). In addition you can put some limits on the number of physical or logical volumes the volume can have. You may want to change the extent size for performance, administrative convenience, or to support very large logical volumes. (Note there may be kernel limits and/or application limits on the size of LVs and files on your system. For example Linux 2.4 kernel has a max size of 2TB.)

The "vgcreate" command adds some information to the headers of the included PVs. However the kernel modules needed to use the VGs as disks aren't loaded yet, and thus the kernel doesn't "see" the VGs you created. To make the VGs visible you must activate them. Only active volume groups are subject to changes and allow access to their logical volumes.

To activate a single volume group VG1, use the command:

    vgchange -a y /dev/VG1

("-a" is the same as "--available".) To active all volume groups on the system use:

    vgchange -a y

... ... ...

Create and Use a Snapshot

To create a snapshot of some existing LV, a form of the lvcreate command is used:

root# lvcreate size option -s -n name existing_LV

where size is as discussed previously, "-s" (or "--snapshot") indicates a snapshot LV, "-n name" (or "--name name") says to call the snapshot LV name. The only option allowed is "-c chunk_size" (or "--chunksize chunk_size"), where chunk_size is specified as a power of 2 in this formula: (2^chunk_size) × 1024 bytes, where 2 ≤ chunk_size ≤ 10.)

Suppose you have a volume group VG1 with a logical volume LV1 you wish to backup using a snapshot. you can estimate the time the backup will take, and the amount of disk writes that will take place during that time (plus a generous fudge factor), say 300MB. Then you would run the command:

root# lvcreate -l 300m -s -n backup LV1

to create a snapshot logical volume named /dev/VG1/backup which has read-only access to the contents of the original logical volume named /dev/VG1/LV1 at point in time the snapshot was created. Assuming the original logical volume contains a file system you now mount the snapshot logical volume on some (empty) directory, then backup the mounted snapshot while the original filesystem continues to get updated. When finished, unmount the snapshot and delete it (or it will continue to grow as LV1 changes, and eventually run out of space).

Note: If the snapshot is of an XFS filesystem, the xfs_freeze command should be used to quiesce the filesystem before creating the snapshot (if the filesystem is mounted):

/root# xfs_freeze -f /mnt/point;
/root# lvcreate -L 300M -s -n backup /dev/VG1/LV1
/root# xfs_freeze -u /mnt/point
Warning	Full snapshot are automatically disabled

Now create a mount-point (an empty directory) and mount the volume:

/root# mkdir /mnt/dbbackup
/root# mount /dev/VG1/backup /mnt/dbbackup
mount: block device /dev/ops/dbbackup is write-protected, mounting read-only

If you are using XFS as the filesystem you will need to add the "nouuid" option to the mount command as follows:

/root# mount /dev/VG1/backup /mnt/dbbackup -o nouuid,ro

Do the backup, say by using tar to some "DDS4" or "DAT" tape backup device:

/root# tar -cf /dev/rmt0 /mnt/dbbackup
tar: Removing leading `/' from member names

When the backup has finished you unmount the volume and remove it from the system:

root# umount /mnt/dbbackup
root# lvremove /dev/VG1/backup
lvremove -- do you really want to remove "/dev/VG1/backup"? [y/n]: y
lvremove -- doing automatic backup of volume group "VG1"
lvremove -- logical volume "/dev/VG1/backup" successfully removed

Examining LVM Information

To see information about some VG use:

vgdisplay some_volume_group
vgs some_volume_group

To see information about some PV use the command:

pvdisplay some_disk_or_partition # e.g., /dev/hda1
pvs some_disk_or_partition

To see information about some LV use:

lvdisplay some-logical-volume
lvs some-logical-volume

The man pages for these commands provides further details.

Grow VGs, LVs, and Filesystems

To grow a filesystem, you must install a new hard disk (unless you have free space available), format it as a PV,add that PV to your VG, then add the space to your LV, and finally use the filesystem tools to grow it. (Not all filesystem allow or come with tools to grow and shrink them!)

VGs are resizable (spelled in Linux as "resizeable") by adding or removing PVs from them. However by default they are created as fixed in size. To mark a VG as resizable use the command:

root# vgchange -x y  #or --resizeable y

Once this is done add a PV (say "hdb2") to some VG (say "VG1") with the command:

root# vgextend VG1 /dev/hdb2

Next, extend an LV with the "lvextend" command. This command works almost the same as the "lvcreate" command, but with a few different options. When specifying how much to increase the size of the LV, you can either specify how much to grow the LV with "+size" or you can specify the new (absolute) size (by omitting the plus sign). So to extend the LV "LV1" on VG "VG1" by 2GB, use:

root# lvextend -L +2G /dev/VG1/LV1

You could also use:

root# lvresize -L +2G /dev/VG1/LV1

It would be a good idea to use the same mapping as the original LV, or you will have strange performance issues! Also note this command can be used to extend a snapshot volume if necessary.

After you have extended the logical volume the last step is to increase the file system size. How you do this depends on the file system you are using. Most filesystem types come with their own utilities to grow/shrink filesystems, if they allow that. These utilities usually grow to fill the entire partition or LV, so there is no need to specify the filesystem size.

Some common filesystem utilities are (assume we are expanding the /home filesystem in LV1 on VG1):

Shrink VGs, LVs, and Filesystems

To shrink a filesystem, you perform the same steps for growing one but in reverse order. You first shrink the filesystem, then remove the space from the LV (and put it back into the VG). Other LVs in the same VG can now use that space. To use it in another VG, you must remove the corresponding PV from the one VG and add it to the other VG.

To shrink a LV you must first shrink the filesystem in that LV. This can be done with the resize2fs for EXT2/3, or resize_reiserfs for ReiserFS (doing this off-line is safer but not required). There are similar tools for other filesystem types. Here's an example of shrinking /home by 1 GB:

# df
Filesystem            Size  Used Avail Use% Mounted on
/dev/sda1             145M   16M  122M  12% /boot
/dev/mapper/vg01-lv01  49G  3.7G   42G   9% /home
# umount /home
# fsck -f /home # required!
fsck 1.38 (30-Jun-2005)
e2fsck 1.38 (30-Jun-2005)
Pass 1: Checking inodes, blocks, and sizes
Pass 2: Checking directory structure
Pass 3: Checking directory connectivity
Pass 4: Checking reference counts
Pass 5: Checking group summary information
/home: 32503/6406144 files (0.3% non-contiguous), 1160448/12845056 blocks
# resize2fs -p /dev/vg01/lv01 48G
resize2fs 1.38 (30-Jun-2005)
Resizing the filesystem on /dev/vg01/lv01 to 12799788 (4k) blocks.
Begin pass 3 (max = 9)
The filesystem on /dev/vg01/lv01 is now 12799788 blocks long.

Currently XFS and JFS filesystem types do not support shrinking. If a newer version of these filesystems will support this, mount may have been updated to support these filesystem types. (And if not a new tool may be released.) For such filesystems you can resize them the hard way: Backup the data using some archive tool (e.g., cpio, tar, star, or you can copy the data to some other disk). Then delete the filesystem in the LV, then shrink the LV, then recreate the new (smaller) filesystem, and finally restore the data.

Once the filesystem has been shrunk it is time to shrink the logical volume. You can use either the lvreduce command or the lvresize command. Continuing from the example above:

# lvresize -L -1G /dev/vg01/lv01
  Rounding up size to full physical extent 96.00 MB
  WARNING: Reducing active logical volume to 48 GB
  THIS MAY DESTROY YOUR DATA (filesystem etc.)
Do you really want to reduce lv01? [y/n]: y
  Reducing logical volume lv01 to 48 GB
  Logical volume lv01 successfully resized
# mount /home

To shrink a VG (say "VG1"), a PV (say "hdc") can be removed from it if none of that PV's extents (the PEs) are in use by any LV. Run the command:

root# vgreduce VG1 /dev/hdc

You might want to do this to upgrade or replace a worn-out disk. If the PV is in use by some LV, you must first migrate the data to another available PV within the same VG. To move all the data from a PV (say "hdb2") to any unused, large enough PV within that VG, use the command:

root# pvmove /dev/hdb2

Delete LVs and VGs

A logical volume (say "LV3" on the volume group "VG2") must be unmounted before it can be removed. The steps for this are simple:

root# umount /dev/VG2/LV3
root# lvremove /dev/VG2/LV3

Before a volume group (say "VG2") is removed you must first deactivate it. This is done with the command:

root# vgchange -a n VG2

Now the VG can be removed. This of course will destroy all LVs within it. The various PVs that made up that VG can then be re-assigned to some other VGs. Remove (a non-active) volume group with:

root# vgremove VG2

Summary and Examples

In the following examples assume that LVM2 is installed and up to date, and the boot scripts have been modified already if needed. The first example includes some commentary and some command output; the second is much shorter but uses the long option names just for fun.

Home directory Example

In this example we will create a logical volume to hold the "/home" partition for a multi-media development system. The system will use a standard EXT3 filesystem of 60 GB, built using 3 25GB SCSI disks (and no hardware RAID). Since multi-media uses large files it makes sense to use stripe mapping and read-ahead. We will call the volume group "vg1" and the logical volume "home":

  1. Initialize the disks as PVs:
    /root# pvcreate /dev/sda /dev/sdb /dev/sdc
  2. Create a Volume Group, then check it's size:
    /root# vgcreate vg1 /dev/sda /dev/sdb /dev/sdc
    /root# vgdisplay
    --- Volume Group ---
    VG Name	          vg1
    VG Access             read/write
    VG Status             available/resizable
    VG #                  1
    MAX LV                256
    Cur LV                0
    Open LV               0
    MAX LV Size           255.99 GB
    Max PV                256
    Cur PV                3
    Act PV                3
    VG Size               73.45 GB
    PE Size               4 MB
    Total PE              18803
    Alloc PE / Size       0 / 0
    Free  PE / Size       18803/ 73.45 GB
    VG UUID               nP2PY5-5TOS-hLx0-FDu0-2a6N-f37x-0BME0Y
  3. Create a 60 GB logical volume, with stripe set of 3 PVs and stripe size of 4 (which shows 2^4 KB = 16KB):
    /root# lvcreate -i 3 -I 4 -L 60G -n home vg1
    lvcreate -- rounding 62614560 KB to stripe boundary size 62614560 KB / 18803 PE
    lvcreate -- doing automatic backup of "vg1"
    lvcreate -- logical volume "/dev/vg1/home" successfully created
  4. Create an EXT3 filesystem in the new LV:
    /root# mkfs -t ext3 /dev/vg1/home
  5. Test the new FS:
    /root# mount /dev/vg1/home /mnt
    /root# df | grep /mnt
    /root# umount /dev/vg1/home
  6. Update /etc/fstab with the revised entry for /home.
  7. Finally, don't forget to update the system journal.

Oracle Database Example

In this example we will create 2 LVs for an Oracle database. Oracle manages its own striping and read-head/caching, so we won't use these LVM features. However using hardware RAID is useful, so we will use two RAID 10 disks, hdb and hdc. The tables will use one logical volume called "tables" on one disk and the indexes and control files will be on a second LV called "indexes" on the other disk. Both LVs will exist in the VG called "db". Both filesystems will be XFS, for good performance for large database files:

/root# pvcreate /dev/hdb /dev/hdc
/root# vgcreate db /dev/hdb /dev/hdc
/root# lvcreate --size 200G --name tables db
/root# lvcreate --size 200G --name indexes db
/root# mkfs -t xfs /dev/db/tables
/root# mkfs -t xfs /dev/db/indexes
/root# vi /etc/fstab
/root# vi ~/system-journal
Send comments and questions to
Last updated by Wayne Pollock on 02/19/2015 06:01:18.

[SOLVED] Merging Logical Volume Groups

10-21-2010 |



I am very new to LVM, as well as not especially experienced at linux, and have some questions that I'm hoping are rather simple, but please let me know if I'm misunderstanding anything about how lvm works or if there's any guidance you can give me.

A few months back I set up a server running FC10 and tried creating Logical Groups during the the initial setup. We've realized that we are not using all the available space on the physical drive, and I realized that for some reason (I'm thinking this might have been the default?), we initially created two Logical Groups (VolGroup00 and VolGroup01) and it appears two Logical volumes in each (LogVol00 and LogVol01). LogVol00 in VolGroup00 is mapped to /, and the other Group was actually unused.

I figure that it would be simplest to just use all this space mapped to /, so I thought the thing to do would be to simply merge VolGroup01 to VolGroup00. I tried this:

[root@office mapper]# vgmerge VolGroup00 VolGroup01
Logical volumes in "VolGroup01" must be inactive

So after a bit of research, I tried this:

[root@office mapper]# vgchange -a n VolGroup01
Can't deactivate volume group "VolGroup01" with 1 open logical volume(s)

So apparently There's an open volume, but I don't know how to go about closing it. I removed the LogVol00 from that group, but LogVol01 won't budge.

[root@office mapper]# lvremove VolGroup01
Can't remove open logical volume "LogVol01"

So how do I go about closing this Volume? At one point, there was some output that told me LogVol01 was being used as swap space. How do I handle that?

Thanks in advance!


You cannot delete LVs when they are active or make any VG changes with active LVs.

Here are high level steps of what you could do after taking a backup of your data:

  1. Disable and remove swap (see here)..
  2. Unmount and remove LV0 and LV1 from vg0 with umount/lvremove
  3. Remove vg0 with vgremove
  4. Unmount LV0 and LV1 from VG0 with umount
  5. Extend VG0 with any available PVs if necessary
  6. Mount LV0 and LV1 on VG0 with mount
  7. Create and enable swap (see here)

Note: You could also merge the VGs instead of step 3 above. Of course you will have to unmount volumes in VG0 prior to doing that.

Basically you are left with VG0 which contains LV0 and LV1 .......

....or you could simply backup your data, rebuild the server to your liking and restore the data!

[Jul 23, 2012] Extend LVM partition

To extend a LVM partition for Eg. say /usr

follow the below given steps

boot the system using a live cd

lvextend --size +2G -n /dev/localvg/usrlv
e2fsck -f /dev/localvg/usrlv
resize2fs /dev/localvg/usrlv
e2fsck -f /dev/localvg/usrlv


Hi rconan,

If your volume gorup has free space then simply you can run lvextend.

if your volume-gorup has no space and you have free space on you HDD then you can follow steps suggested by cmisip.

A link provide how to extend VG. after that you can extend LV.


[Sep 14, 2011] Using the Multipathed storage with LVM

Now that the multipath is configured, you need to perform disk management to make them available for use. If your original install was on LVM, you may want to add the new disks to the existing volume group and create some new logical volumes for use. If your original install was on regular disk partitions, you may want to create new volume groups and logical volumes for use. In both cases, you might want to partition the volume groups and automate the mounting of these new partitions to certain mount points.

About this task

The following example illustrates how the above can be achieved. For detailed information about LVM administration, please consult: Red Hat LVM Administrator's Guide at or SLES10 SP2 Storage Administration Guide at

Starting with an existing Linux environment on a blade, and a multipath zone configuration that will allow the blade to access some storage, here are a set of generic steps to make use of the new storage:


  1. Determine which disks are not multipathed disks. From step 1 of previous section With existing configuration, the output of df and fdisk -l should indicate which disks are already in use before multipath was setup. In this example, sda is the only disk exists before multipath was setup.
  2. Create and/or open /etc/multipath.conf and blacklist the local disk.
    • For a SLES10 machine:
      cp /usr/share/doc/packages/multipath-
      tools/multipath.conf.synthetic /etc/multipath.conf
      The /usr/share/doc/packages/multipath-tools/multipath.conf.annotated file can be used as a reference to further determine how to configure your multipathing environment.
    • For a RHEL5 machine:

      Edit the /etc/multipath.conf that has already been created by default. Related documentations can be found in the /usr/share/doc/device-mapper-multipath-0.4.7/ directory.

  3. Open the /etc/multipath.conf file, and edit the file to black list disks that are not meant to be multipathed. In this example, sda is blacklisted.
    blacklist {
    	devnode "^sda"
  4. Enable and activate the multipath daemon(s).

    On both RHEL and SLES, the commands are:

    chkconfig multipathd on

    Additionally, on a RHEL system, this command is required:

    chkconfig mdmpd on
  5. Reboot the blade

    Note: Note: if the machine is not rebooted, the latest configuration may not be detected.

  6. Check if multipathd daemon is running by issuing:
    service mdmpd status

    Additionally, if you are running a RHEL system, check if mdmpd daemon is running:

    service multipathd status
  7. Run the command multipath -ll to verify that the disk(s) are now properly recognized as multipath devices.
    multipath -ll
    mpath2 (350010b900004b868) dm-3 IBM-ESXS,GNA073C3ESTT0Z
    \_ round-robin 0 [prio=1][active]
     \_ 1:0:1:0 sdc 8:32  [active][ready]
    \_ round-robin 0 [prio=1][enabled]
     \_ 1:0:3:0 sde 8:64  [active][ready]
    mpath1 (35000cca0071acd29) dm-2 IBM-ESXS,VPA073C3-ETS10
    \_ round-robin 0 [prio=1][active]
     \_ 1:0:0:0 sdb 8:16  [active][ready]
    \_ round-robin 0 [prio=1][enabled]
     \_ 1:0:2:0 sdd 8:48  [active][ready] 

    As expected, two sets of paths are detected - two paths in each set. From examining the above output, notice that sdc and sde are actually the same physical disk, accessible from the blade via two different devices. Similarly in the case of sdb and sdd. Note that the device names are dm-2 and dm-3.

  8. If your disks are new, skip this step. Optionally, if you have previous data or partition table, use the following command to erase the partition table.
    dd if=/dev/zero of=/dev/dm-X bs=8k count=100 

    X is the device number as shown in step 9. Be very careful when doing this step as it is destructive. Your data will not be able to be recovered if you erase the partition table. In the test environment, both the disks will be used in the existing volume group.

    dd if=/dev/zero of=/dev/dm-2 bs=8k count=100
    dd if=/dev/zero of=/dev/dm-3 bs=8k count=100
    Note: This step will erase your disks
  9. Create a new physical volume with each disk by entering the following command:
    pvcreate /dev/dm-X

    In our environment:

    pvcreate /dev/dm-2
    pvcreate /dev/dm-3
  10. Run lvm pvdisplay to see if the physical volumes are displayed correctly. If at any time in this LV management process, you would like to view the status of existing related entities like physical volume (pv), volume group (vg), and logical volume (lv), issue the corresponding command:
    lvm pvdisplay
    lvm vgdisplay
    lvm lvdisplay
  11. If the new entity you just created or changed could not be found, you may want to issue the corresponding command to scan for the device:
  12. Run the vgscan command to show any existing volume groups. On a RHEL system, the installer creates VolGroup00 by default if another partitioning scheme is not chosen. On a SLES system, no volume groups exist. The following shows an output of an existing volume group VolGroup00.
    Reading all physical volumes.  This may take a while...
    Found volume group "VolGroup00" using metadata type lvm2 
  13. Add the physical volume(s) to an existing volume group using the vgextend command. In our environment, add /dev/dm-2 and /dev/dm-3 created in step 11 to the existing volume group VolGroup00 found in step 14, using the command:
    vgextend VolGroup00 /dev/dm-2 /dev/dm-3
    Volume Group “VolGroup00” successfully extended
  14. If there is no existing volume group, create a new volume group using the vgcreate command. For example, to create a new volume group VolGroup00 with the physical volumes /dev/dm-2 and /dev/dm-3, run this command:
    vgcreate VolGroup00 /dev/dm-2 /dev/dm-3
    Volume group "VolGroup00" successfully created

[Sep 14, 2010] Resizing Linux partitions, Part 2 Advanced resizing by Roderick W. Smith,

Simple partition resizing operations, such as those described in Part 1 of this series, usually conclude successfully. Sometimes, though, you need to do something different or troubleshoot problems. This article covers some of these situations. The first topic is LVM configuration and how it interacts with partition resizing. The second topic is troubleshooting techniques. Although a complete description of all the problems that can occur when resizing partitions might fill a book, a few basic principles can help you work through many common problems. Finally, this article describes some alternatives to partition resizing, should the problems you encounter prove insurmountable.

Resizing LVMs

LVM is a disk allocation technique that supplements or replaces traditional partitions. In an LVM configuration, one or more partitions, or occasionally entire disks, are assigned as physical volumes in a volume group, which in turn is broken down into logical volumes. File systems are then created on logical volumes, which are treated much like partitions in a conventional configuration. This approach to disk allocation adds complexity, but the benefit is flexibility. An LVM configuration makes it possible to combine disk space from several small disks into one big logical volume. More important for the topic of partition resizing, logical volumes can be created, deleted, and resized much like files on a file system; you needn't be concerned with partition start points, only with their absolute size.

Note: I don't attempt to describe how to set up an LVM in this article. If you don't already use an LVM configuration, you can convert your system to use one, but you should consult other documentation, such as the Linux LVM HOWTO (see Resources), to learn how to do so.

Resizing physical volumes

If you've resized non-LVM partitions, as described in Part 1 of this series, and want to add the space to your LVM configuration, you have two choices:

Unfortunately, the GParted (also known as Gnome Partition Editor) tool described in Part 1 of this series does not support resizing LVM partitions. Therefore, the easiest way to add space to your volume group is to create a new partition in the free space and add it as a new physical volume to your existing volume group.

Although GParted can't directly create an LVM partition, you can do so with one of the following tools:

If you use parted, you can use the set command to turn on the lvm flag, as in set 1 lvm on to flag partition 1 as an LVM partition. Using fdisk, you should use the t command to set the partition's type code to 8e. You do the same with gdisk, except that its type code for LVM partitions is 8e00.

In any of these cases, you must use the pvcreate command to set up the basic LVM data structures on the partition and then vgextend to add the partition to the volume group. For instance, to add /dev/sda1 to the existing MyGroup volume group, you type the following commands:

pvcreate /dev/sda1
vgextend MyGroup /dev/sda1

With these changes finished, you should be able to extend the logical volumes in your volume group, as described shortly.

Resizing logical volumes

For file systems, resizing logical volumes can be simpler than resizing partitions because LVM obviates the need to set aside contiguous sets of numbered sectors in the form of partitions. Resizing the logical volume itself is accomplished by means of the lvresize command. This command takes a number of options (consult its man page for details), but the most important is -L, which takes a new size or a change in size, a change being denoted by a leading plus (+) or minus (-) sign. You must also offer a path to the logical volume. For instance, suppose you want to add 5 gibibytes (GiB) to the size of the usr logical volume in the MyGroup group. You could do so as follows:

lvresize -L +5G /dev/mapper/MyGroup-usr

This command adjusts the size of the specified logical volume. Keep in mind, however, that this change is much like a change to a partition alone. That is, the size of the file system contained in the logical volume is not altered. To adjust the file system, you must use a file system-specific tool, such as resize2fs, resizereiserfs, xfs_growfs, or the resize mount option when mounting Journaled File System (JFS). When used without size options, these tools all resize the file system to fill the new logical volume size, which is convenient when growing a logical volume.

If you want to shrink a logical volume, the task is a bit more complex. You must first resize the file system (using resize2fs or similar tools) and then shrink the logical volume to match the new size. Because of the potential for a damaging error should you accidentally set the logical volume size too small, I recommend first shrinking the file system to something significantly smaller than your target size, then resizing the logical volume to the correct new size, and then resizing the file system again to increase its size, relying on the auto-sizing feature to have the file system exactly fill the new logical volume size.

Remember also that, although you can shrink most Linux-native file systems, you can't shrink XFS or JFS. If you need to shrink a logical volume containing one of these file systems, you may have to create a new smaller logical volume, copy the first one's contents to the new volume, juggle your mount points, and then delete the original. If you lack sufficient free space to do this, you may be forced to use a backup as an intermediate step.

Using GUI LVM tools

Although the text-mode tools just described get the job done, they can be intimidating. If you prefer to work with graphical user interface (GUI) tools, at least two are available for LVM operations:

Of the two, system-config-lvm provides a somewhat simpler and friendlier user interface; however, either will get the job done. Figure 1 shows system-config-lvm in action. To resize a logical volume, you click its name in the left panel, then click the Edit Properties button that appears in the middle panel. You can then use a slider to adjust the volume's size.

Figure 1. GUI tools make resizing logical volumes relatively easy
Troubleshooting problems

Unfortunately, partition resizing operations sometimes don't work as expected. Most commonly, the resizing software reports an error, frequently with a cryptic message. Although there are numerous possible causes of such problems, you can overcome a great many of them by applying a few simple workarounds, such as fixing file system problems and breaking a complex resizing operation down into several parts.

Fixing file system problems

One common cause of resizing failures is a damaged file system. All production file systems include file system recovery tools that enable you to fix such problems, so running them on a file system prior to resizing it can often make for a smoother resizing operation.

In Linux, the file system check tool is called fsck, and you call it by passing it the device filename associated with the file system you want to check, as in fsck /dev/sda1 to check /dev/sda1. The fsck utility, however, is mainly a front-end to file system-specific tools, such as e2fsck (for ext2fs, ext3fs, and ext4fs). You can often gain access to more advanced options by calling the file system-specific tool directly. The -f option to e2fsck, for instance, forces it to check the device even if the file system appears to be clean. This option may be necessary to uncover corruption that's not obvious in a cursory examination. Check the documentation for your file system-specific fsck helper program to learn about its options.

In most cases, it's necessary to run fsck or its helper program on an unmounted file system. Thus, you may need to do this from an emergency boot disc, as described in Part 1 of this series.

If you run into problems with a non-Linux file system, you may be able to use fsck to check it; however, you may also need to boot into the file system's native operating system to do the job properly. In particular, Microsoft® Windows® New Technology File System (NTFS) has only rudimentary maintenance tools in Linux. You must use the Windows CHKDSK utility to do a proper job of checking NTFS. You may need to run this utility several times, until it reports no more problems with the disk. The Linux ntfsfix utility performs what few checks are possible in Linux and then flags the file system for automatic checking the next time Windows boots.

Although not a file system integrity issue per se, disk fragmentation is another issue that might need attention. You can sometimes eliminate problems by performing a disk defragmenting operation prior to a resizing operation. This task is seldom necessary (and is usually not possible) with Linux native file systems; however, it may help with File Allocation Table (FAT) or NTFS partitions.

Breaking the operation into parts

If you enter a number of resizing and moving operations into GParted and the operation fails, you can try entering just one operation at a time and then immediately clicking the Apply button. You might still run into problems, but you may at least be able to perform other operations that aren't dependent on the one that causes problems. Depending on the details, you may be able to achieve at least some of your overall goals or find some other way to work around the problem.

In some cases, you may be able to split the resizing operation across multiple utilities. For instance, you may be able to use a Windows or Mac OS X utility to resize FAT, NTFS, or Hierarchical File System Plus (HFS+) partitions. Although GParted is the most user-friendly way to resize partitions in Linux, if just one operation is causing problems, using an underlying text-mode utility, such as resize2fs, may provide you with better diagnostic output or even succeed where GParted fails. Keep in mind, however, that most text-mode tools resize either partitions or file systems, but not both; you must combine both types of tools to resize a partition and its file system. The GNU Parted utility is an exception to this rule; like its GUI cousin, GParted, Parted resizes partitions and their contained file systems simultaneously.

Going to plan B

Sometimes an attempt to resize your partitions just doesn't work. Perhaps a file system has errors that can't be easily resolved, or maybe you need to shrink a file system (such as XFS or JFS) that can't be shrunk. In these cases, you must move on to an alternative, such as relocating directories in your existing partition structure, performing a backup-repartition-restore operation, or adding more disk space.

Relocating directories without repartitioning

Sometimes you can relocate directories without actually repartitioning the disk. The trick is to use symbolic links to point from one location to another, even across partitions. For instance, suppose you're using a Gentoo system, which can consume vast quantities of disk space in the /usr/portage and /var/tmp/portage directories. If you didn't consider these needs when setting up your system, you might run out of space. You might, however, have space available on a separate /home partition. To use this space for Portage, you can create one or more directories in /home, copy the contents of /usr/portage or /var/tmp/portage to the new directories, delete the original directories, and create symbolic links in place of the originals that point to the new subdirectories of /home.

This approach can be effective and is convenient on a small scale; however, it does create a somewhat non-standard system, and it removes many of the advantages of using separate partitions. Thus, I recommend using this approach sparingly and preferably only on a short-term basis—for instance, as a stop-gap measure while you wait for a new hard disk to arrive or on a system you plan to retire in a month or two.

Backing up, repartitioning, and restoring

Prior to the development of file system resizing tools, the only practical way to repartition a disk was to back up its contents, repartition (creating new empty file systems), and restore the backup to the repartitioned disk. This approach continues to work, but of course it's less convenient than using GParted to repartition nondestructively. On the other hand, for safety it's best to create a backup before resizing partitions. So to be safe, you have to do half of this job anyway.

In today's world, an external hard drive is often used as a backup medium. You can buy terabyte external disks for under $100, and after your partition juggling you can use them to back up your important files, to transfer large files between systems, or in other ways. Alternatively, you can use recordable DVDs, tape units, or network servers as backup systems.

Backup software can include old standbys such as tar or newer tools such as Clonezilla. Operational details vary depending on the software and the backup medium, so you should consult the backup software's documentation for details.

If you need to modify your Linux boot partition or any partition that's required for basic root (superuser) access, you need to perform these operations from an emergency boot system. Part 1 of this series described such systems.

Adding disk space

Adding a disk can be a viable alternative to repartitioning, and in some cases, adding disk space may be preferable. Disk capacities continue to increase, and a newer disk is likely to be more reliable than one that's several years old.

If you choose to replace an existing disk with a newer one, you should be able to transfer your existing system to the new disk with a tool such as Clonezilla or by using older tools, such as fdisk and tar. You may need to reinstall your boot loader, and, for this task, a boot using a tool such as the Super Grub Disk may be helpful. You can boot your system using this CD-based boot loader, then use grub-install or a similar tool to reinstall the GRand Unified Bootloader (GRUB) to your new hard disk.

If you buy a new disk to supplement, rather than replace, your existing disk, you need to decide what, if any, data to transfer to the new disk. You should partition the new disk using fdisk, GParted, or some other tool, transfer files to the new partitions, and then permanently mount the new disk's partitions in your existing directory tree by editing /etc/fstab appropriately. Remember to delete any files you transfer to the new disk from the old disk. If you don't, they'll continue to consume disk space on the old disk, even if you mount the new disk to take over the original files' directories.


However you do it, altering a working system's disk allocation can be an anxiety-inducing task, and for good reason: Many things can go wrong. If such changes are necessary, though, you'll find that your system is more usable after you make your changes. With a reduced risk of disk-full errors, you can get on with actually using your system for its intended task. The process of resizing your partitions can also help familiarize you with GParted and other disk utilities, as well as with the optimum sizes for various partitions. All of this can be useful knowledge the next time you install a new Linux system.

[May 14, 2010] Restoring LVM Volumes with Acronis True Image

Knowledge Base

You need to back up logical volumes of LVM and ordinary (non-LVM) partitions. There is no need to back up physical volumes of LVM, as they are backed up sector-by-sector and there is no guarantee that it will work after the restore.

The listed Acronis products recognize logical LVM volumes as Dynamic or GPT volumes.

Logical LVM volumes can be restored as non-LVM (regular) partitions in Acronis Rescue Mode. Logical LVM volumes can be restored on top of existing LVM volumes. See LVM Volumes Acronis True Image 9.1 Server for Linux Supports or LVM Volumes Supported by Acronis True Image Echo.


Restoring LVM volumes as non-LVMs
  1. Restore partitions by one with Acronis backup software.
  2. Do not forget to make the boot partition Active (/ or /boot if available).
  3. Make the system bootable
    1. Boot from Linux Distribution Rescue CD.
    2. Enter rescue mode.
    3. Mount the restored root(/) partition. If the rescue CD mounted partitions automatically, skip to the next step.

      Most distributions will try to mount the system partitions as designated in /etc/fstab of the restored system. Since there are no LVMs available, this process is likely to fail. This is why you might need to mount the restored partitions manually:

      Enter the following command:

      #cat /proc/partitions

      You will get the list of recognized partitions:

      major minor #blocks name
      8 0 8388608 sda
      8 1 104391 sda1
      8 2 8281507 sda2

      Mount the root(/) partition:

      #mount -t [fs_type] [device] [system_mount_point]

      In the example below /dev/sda2 is root, because it was restored as second primary partition on SATA disk

      #mount -t ext3 /dev/sda2 /mnt/sysimage

    4. Mount /boot if it was not mounted automatically:

      #mount -t [fs_type] /dev/[device] /[system_mount_point]/boot


      #mount -t ext3 /dev/sda1 /mnt/sysimage/boot

    5. chroot to the mounted / of the restored partition:

      #chroot [mount_point]

    6. Mount /proc in chroot

      #mount -t proc proc /proc

    7. Create hard disk devices in /dev if it was not populated automatically.

      Check existing partitions with cat /proc/partitions and create appropriate devices for them:

      #/sbin/MAKEDEV [device]

    8. Edit /etc/fstab on the restored partition:

      Replace all entries of /dev/VolGroupXX/LogVolXX with appropriate /dev/[device]. You can find which device you need to mount in cat /proc/partitions.

    9. Edit grub.conf

      Open /boot/grub/grub.conf and edit it to replace /dev/VolGroupXX/LogVolXX with appropriate /dev/[device]

    10. Reactivate GRUB

      Run the following command to re-activate GRUB automatically:

      #grub-install /dev/[device]

    11. Make sure the system boots fine.

Restoring LVM volumes on prepared LVMs

  1. Prepare the LVM volumes
    • Boot from Acronis Bootable Media;
    • Press F11 after the Starting Acronis Loader... message appears and you get to the selection screen of the program;
    • After you get the Linux Kernel Settings prompt, remove the word quiet and click OK;
    • Select the Full version menu item to boot. Wait for # prompt to appear;
    • List the partitions you have on the hard disk:

      #fdisk -l

      This will give not only the list of partitions on the hard drive, but also the name of the device associated with the hard disk.

    • Start creating partitions using fdisk:

      #fdisk [device]

      where [device] is the name of the device associated with the hard disk

    • Create physical volumes for LVMs:

      #lvm pvcreate [partition]

      for example, #lvm pvcreate /dev/sda2

    • Create LVM group

      #lvm vgcreate [name] [device]

      where [name] is a name of the Volume Group you create; and [device] is the name of the device associated with the partition you want to add to the Volume Group

      for example, #lvm vgcreate VolGroup00 /dev/sda2

    • Create LVM volumes inside the group:

      #lvm lvcreate –L[size] -n[name] [VolumeGroup]

      where [size] is the size of the Volume being created (e.g. 4G); [name] is the name of the Volume being created; [VolumeGroup] is the name of the Volume Group where we want to place the volume

      For example, #lvm lvcreate -L6G -nLogVol00 VolGroup00

    • Activate the created LVM:

      #lvm vgchange -ay

    • Start Acronis product:


  2. Restore partitions
    • Restore partitions from your backup archive to the created LVM volumes

[Feb 9, 2009] USB Hard Drive in RAID1

January 31, 2008 |

This concept works just as for an internal hard drive. Although, USB drives seem to not remain part of the array after a reboot, therefore to use a USB device in a RAID1 setup, you will have to leave the drive connected, and the computer running. Another tactic is to occasionally sync your USB drive to the array, and shut down the USB drive after synchronization. Either tactic is effective.

You can create a quick script to add the USB partitions to the RAID1.

The first thing to do when synchronizing is to add the partition:

sudo mdadm --add /dev/md0 /dev/sdb1

I have 4 partitions therefore my script contains 4 add commands.

Then grow the arrays to fit the number of devices:

sudo mdadm --grow /dev/md0 --raid-devices=3

After growing the array your USB drive will magically sync USB is substantially slower than SATA or PATA. Anything over 100 Gigabytes will take some time. My 149 Gigabyte /home partition takes about an hour and a half to synchronize. Once its synced I do not experience any apparent difference in system performance.

[Jan 9, 2009] Linux lvm

15.12.2008 |

This article describes a basic logic behind a Linux logical volume manager by showing real examples of configuration and usage. Despite the fact that Debian Linux will be used for this tutorial, you can also apply the same command line syntax with other Linux distributions such as Red Hat, Mandriva, SuSe Linux and others.

[Nov 12, 2008] /dev/dm-0

fdisk -l output in case you are using LVM contains many messages like Disk /dev/dm-0 doesn't contain a valid partition table

This has been very helpful to me. I found this thread by Goggle on dm-0 because I also got the no partition table error message.

Here is what I think:

When the programs fdisk and sfdisk are run with the option -l and no argument, e.g. # /sbin/fdisk -l

they look for all devices that can have cylinders, heads, sectors, etc. If they find such a device, they output that information to standard output and they output the partition table to standard output. If there is no partition table, they have an error message (also standard output).

One can see this by piping to 'less', e.g.
# /sbin/fdisk -l | less

/dev/dm-0 ... /dev/dm3 on my fedora C5 system seem to be device mappers
associated with LVM.

RAID might also require device mappers.

[Aug 26, 2008] Moving LVM volumes to a different volume group by Sander Marechal

2008-08-25 |

I went with SystemRescueCD which comes with both mdadm and LVM out-of-the-box.

The system layout is quite simple. /dev/sda1 and /dev/sdb1 make up a 500 GB mdadm RAID1 volume. This RAID volume contains an LVM volume group called “3ware”, named so because in my old server it was connected to my 3ware RAID card. It contains a single logical volume called “media”. The original 80 GB disk is on /dev/sdc1 which contains an LVM volume group called “linuxvg”. Inside that volume group are three volumes: “boot”, “root” and “swap”. Goal: Move linuxvg-root and linuxvg-boot to the 3ware volume group. Additional goal: Rename 3ware to linuxvg. The latter is more for aesthetic reasons but as a bonus it also means that there is no need to fiddle with grub or fstab settings after the move.

Before starting SystemRescueCD and start moving things around there are a few things that need to be done first. Start by making a copy of /etc/mdadm/mdadm.conf because you will need it later. Also, because the machine will be booting from the RAID array I need to install grub to those two disks.

# grub-install /dev/sda
# grub-install /dev/sdb

Now it’s time to boot into SystemRescueCD. I start off by copying /etc/mdadm/mdadm.conf back and starting the RAID1 array. This command scans for all the arrays defined in mdadm.conf and tries to start them.

# mdadm --assemble --scan

Next I need to make a couple of changes to /etc/lvm/lvm.conf. If I were to scan for LVM volume groups at this point, it would find the 3ware group three times: once in /dev/md0, /dev/sda1 and /dev/sdb1. So I adjust the filter setting in lvm.conf so it will not scan /dev/sda1 and /dev/sdb1.

filter = [ "r|/dev/cdrom|", "r|/dev/sd[ab]1|" ]

LVM can now scan the hard drives and find all the volume groups.

# vgscan

I disable the volume groups so that I can rename them. linuxvg becomes linuxold and 3ware becomes the new linuxvg. Then I re-enable the volume groups.

# vgchange -a n
# vgrename linuxvg linuxold
# vgrename 3ware linuxvg
# vgchange -a y

Now I can create a new logical volume in the 500 Gb volume group for my boot partition and create an ext3 filesystem in it.

# lvcreate --name boot --size 512MB linuxvg
# mkfs.ext3 /dev/mapper/linuxvg-boot

I create mount points to mount the original boot partition and the new boot partition and then use rsync to copy all the data. Don’t use cp for this! Rsync with the -ah option will preserve all soft links, hard links and file permissions while cp does not. If you do not want to use rsync you could also use the dd command to transfer the data directly from block device to block device.

# mkdir /mnt/src /mnt/dst
# mount -t ext3 /dev/mapper/linuxold-boot /mnt/src
# mount -t ext3 /dev/mapper/linuxvg-boot /mnt/dst
# rsync -avh /mnt/src/ /mnt/dst/
# umount /mnt/src /mnt/dst

Rinse and repeat to copy over the root filesystem.

# lvcreate --name root --size 40960MB linuxvg
# mkfs.ext3 /dev/mapper/linuxvg-root
# mount -t ext3 /dev/mapper/linuxold-root /mnt/src
# mount -t ext3 /dev/mapper/linuxvg-root /mnt/dst
# rsync -avh /mnt/src/ /mnt/dst/
# umount /mnt/src /mnt/dst

There's no sense in copying the swap volume. Simply create a new one.

# lvcreate --name swap --size 1024MB linuxvg
# mkswap /dev/mapper/linuxvg-swap

And that's it. I rebooted into Debian Lenny to make sure that everything worked and I removed the 80 GB disk from my server. While this wans’t particularly hard, I do hope that the maintainers of LVM create an lvmove command to make this even easier.

[Aug 15, 2008] Linux RAID Smackdown Crush RAID 5 with RAID 10


Creating RAID 10

No Linux installer that I know of supports RAID 10, so we have to jump through some extra hoops to set it up in a fresh installation. This is my favorite layout for RAID systems:

One way is to use your Linux installer to create the RAID 1 array and the swap partitions, then boot into the new filesystem and create the RAID 10 array. This works, but then you have to move /home, /var, /tmp, and whatever you else you want there, which means copying files and editing /etc/fstab. I get tired thinking about it.

Another way is to prepare your arrays and logical volumes in advance and then install your new system over them, and that is what we are going to do. You need a bootable live Linux that includes mdadm, LVM2 and GParted, unless you're a crusty old command-line commando that doesn't need any sissy GUIs, and are happy with fdisk. Two that I know have all of these are Knoppix and SystemRescueCD; I used SystemRescueCD.

Step one is to partition all of your drives identically. The partition sizes in my example system are small for faster testing; on a production system the 2nd primary partition would be as large as possible:

The first partition on each drive must be marked as bootable, and the first two partitions must be marked as "fd Linux raid auto" in fdisk. In GParted, use Partition -> Manage Flags.

Now you can create your RAID arrays with the mdadm command. This command creates the RAID1 array for the root filesystem:

# mdadm -v --create /dev/md0 --level=raid1 --raid-devices=2 /dev/hda1 /dev/sda1
mdadm: layout defaults to n1
mdadm: chunk size defaults to 64K
mdadm: size set to 3076352K
mdadm: array /dev/md0 started.

This will take some time, which cat /proc/mdstat will tell you:

Personalities : 'linear' 'raid0' 'raid1' 'raid6' 'raid5' 'raid4' 'multipath' 'raid10' md0 : active raid10 sda1'1' hda1'0'
3076352 blocks 2 near-copies '2/2' 'UU'
'====>................' resync = 21.8% (673152/3076352) finish=3.2min speed=12471K/sec

This command creates the RAID 10 array:

# mdadm -v --create /dev/md1 --level=raid10 --raid-devices=2 /dev/hda2 /dev/sda2

Naturally you want to be very careful with your drive names, and give mdadm time to finish. It will tell you when it's done:

RAID10 conf printout:
--- wd: rd:2
disk 0, wo:0, o:1, dev:hda2
disk 1, wo:0, o:1, dev:sda2

mdadm --detail /dev/md0 displays detailed information on your arrays.

Create LVM Group and Volumes

Now we'll put a LVM group and volumes on /dev/md1. I use vg- for volume group names and lv- for the logical volumes in the volume groups. Using descriptive names, like lv-home, will save your sanity later when you're creating filesystems and mountpoints. The -L option specifies the size of the volume:

# pvcreate /dev/md1
# vgcreate vg-server1 /dev/md1
# lvcreate -L4g -nlv-home vg-server1
# lvcreate -L2g -nlv-var vg-server1
# lvcreate -L1g -nlv-tmp vg-server1

You'll get confirmations for every command, and you can use vgdisplay and lvdisplay to see the fruits of your labors. Use vgdisplay to see how much space is left.

Getting E-mail notifications when MD devices fail

I use the MD (multiple device) logical volume manager to mirror the boot devices on the Linux servers I support. When I first started using MD, the mdadm utility was not available to manage and monitor MD devices. Since disk failures are relatively common in large shops, I used the shell script from my SysAdmin article Monitoring and Managing Linux Software RAID to send E-mail when a device entered the failed state. While reading through the mdadm(8) manual page, I came across the “–monitor” and “–mail” options. These options can be used to monitor the operational state of the MD devices in a server, and generate E-mail notifications if a problem is detected. E-mail notification support can be enabled by running mdadm with the “–monitor” option to monitor devices, the “–daemonise” option to create a daemon process, and the “–mail” option to generate E-mail:

$ /sbin/mdadm –monitor –scan –daemonise –mail=root@localhost

Once mdadm is daemonized, an E-mail similar to the following will be sent each time a failure is detected:

From: mdadm monitoring 
To: root@localhost.localdomain
Subject: Fail event on /dev/md1:biscuit

This is an automatically generated mail message from mdadm
running on biscuit

A Fail event had been detected on md device /dev/md1.

Faithfully yours, etc.

I digs me some mdadm!

Linux LVM silliness

While attempting to create a 2-way LVM mirror this weekend on my Fedora Core 5 workstation, I received the following error:

$ lvcreate -L1024 -m 1 vgdata

  Not enough PVs with free space available for parallel allocation.
  Consider --alloc anywhere if desperate.

Since the two devices were initialized specifically for this purpose and contained no other data, I was confused by this error message. After scouring Google for answers, I found a post that indicated that I needed a log LV for this to work, and the log LV had to be on it’s own disk. I am not sure about most people, but who on earth orders a box with three disks? Ugh!

Posted by matty, filed under Linux LVM. Date: May 3, 2006, 9:50 pm | 2 Comments

[linux-lvm] Raid 0+1

Hi all,

I am working on a project to evaluate LVM2 against Veritas Volume
Manager for a new Linux deployment. I am trying to get a Raid 0+1
solution working and I'm struggling.

So far, this is where I am:

1. I created 8GB partitions on 4 disks, sdb, sdc, sdd and sde, and set
their partition types to 8e with fdisk

2. I then ran vgscan, follwed by pvcreate /dev/sdb1, /dev/sdc1,
/dev/sdd1, /dev/sde1

3. Next, I created 2 volume groups as follows:
vgcreate StripedData1 /dev/sdb1 /dev/sdc1
vgcreate StripedData2 /dev/sdd1 /dev/sde1

4. Next, I created 2 volumes, one in each group as follows:
lvcreate -i 2 -I 64 -n Data1 -L 6G StripedData1
lvcreate -i 2 -I 64 -n Data2 -L 6G StripedData2
Now I have 2 striped volumes, but no redundancy. This is where I think
things start to go wrong.

5. I now create a raid device, /dev/md0 consisting of these two
volumes. I run mkraid on this, create a file system, and mount it on
/Data1. This all works fine, and I have a 6GB filesystem on /Data1

Now I need to be able to resize this whole solution, and I'm not sure
if the way I've built it caters for what I need to do...

I unmount /Data1 and use lvextend to extend the 2 volumes from 6GB to
7.5GB. This succeeds. Now even though both of the volumes that make up
/dev/md0 are extended, I cannot resize /dev/md0 using resize2fs

Can anyone advise me how I can achieve what I'm looking for here ? I'm
guessing maybe I did things the wrong way around, but I can't find a
solution that will give me both striping and mirroring :(

Thanks in advance,

Wayne Pascoe


1. Latest Version
2. Disclaimer
3. Contributors
1. What is LVM?
2. What is Logical Volume Management?
2.1. Why would I want it?
2.2. Benefits of Logical Volume Management on a Small System
2.3. Benefits of Logical Volume Management on a Large System
3. Anatomy of LVM
3.1. volume group (VG)
3.2. physical volume (PV)
3.3. logical volume (LV)
3.4. physical extent (PE)</ mapping modes (linear/striped)
3.8. Snapshots
4. Frequently Asked Questions
4.1. LVM 2 FAQ
4.2. LVM 1 FAQ
5. Acquiring LVM
5.1. Download the source
5.2. Download the development source via CVS
5.3. Before You Begin
5.4. Initial Setup
5.5. Checking Out Source Code
5.6. Code Updates
5.7. Starting a Project
5.8. Hacking the Code
5.9. Conflicts
6. Building the kernel modules
6.1. Building the device-mapper module
6.2. Build the LVM 1 kernel module
7. LVM 1 Boot time scripts
7.1. Caldera
7.2. Debian
7.3. Mandrake
7.4. Redhat
7.5. Slackware
7.6. SuSE
8. LVM 2 Boot Time Scripts
9. Building LVM from the Source
9.1. Make LVM library and tools
9.2. Install LVM library and tools
9.3. Removing LVM library and tools
10. Transitioning from previous versions of LVM to LVM 1.0.8
10.1. Upgrading to LVM 1.0.8 with a non-LVM root partition
10.2. Upgrading to LVM 1.0.8 with an LVM root partition and initrd
11. Common Tasks
11.1. Initializing disks or disk partitions
11.2. Creating a volume group
11.3. Activating a volume group
11.4. Removing a volume group
11.5. Adding physical volumes to a volume group
11.6. Removing physical volumes from a volume group
11.7. Creating a logical volume
11.8. Removing a logical volume
11.9. Extending a logical volume
11.10. Reducing a logical volume
11.11. Migrating data off of a physical volume
12. Disk partitioning
12.1. Multiple partitions on the same disk
12.2. Sun disk labels
13. Recipes
13.1. Setting up LVM on three SCSI disks
13.2. Setting up LVM on three SCSI disks with striping
13.3. Add a new disk to a multi-disk SCSI system
13.4. Taking a Backup Using Snapshots
13.5. Removing an Old Disk
13.6. Moving a volume group to another system
13.7. Splitting a volume group
13.8. Converting a root filesystem to LVM 1
13.9. Recover physical volume metadata
A. Dangerous Operations
A.1. Restoring the VG UUIDs using uuid_fixer
A.2. Sharing LVM volumes
B. Reporting Errors and Bugs
C. Contact and Links
C.1. Mail lists
C.2. Links
D. GNU Free Documentation License
D.12. ADDENDUM: How to use this License for your documents

The Linux and Unix Menagerie LVM Quick Command Reference For Linux And Unix

1. LVM Basic relationships. A quick run-down on how the different parts are related

Physical volume - This consists of one, or many, partitions (or physical extent groups) on a physical drive.
Volume group - This is composed of one or more physical volumes and contains one or more logical volumes.
Logical volume - This is contained within a volume group.

2. LVM creation commands (These commands are used to initialize, or create, new logical objects) - Note that we have yet to explore these fully, as they can be used to do much more than we've demonstrated so far in our simple setup.

pvcreate - Used to create physical volumes.
vgcreate - Used to create volume groups.
lvcreate - Used to create logical volumes.

3. LVM monitoring and display commands (These commands are used to discover, and display the properties of, existing logical objects). Note that some of these commands include cross-referenced information. For instance, pvdisplay includes information about volume groups associated with the physical volume.

pvscan - Used to scan the OS for physical volumes.
vgscan - Used to scan the OS for volume groups.
lvscan - Used to scan the OS for logical volumes.
pvdisplay - Used to display information about physical volumes.
vgdisplay - Used to display information about volume groups.
lvdisplay - Used to display information about logical volumes.

4. LVM destruction or removal commands (These commands are used to ensure that logical objects are not allocable anymore and/or remove them entirely) Note, again, that we haven't fully explored the possibilities with these commands either. The "change" commands in particular are good for a lot more than just prepping a logical object for destruction.

pvchange - Used to change the status of a physical volume.
vgchange - Used to change the status of a volume group.
lvchange - Used to change the status of a logical volume.
pvremove - Used to wipe the disk label of a physical drive so that LVM does not recognize it as a physical volume.
vgremove - Used to remove a volume group.
lvremove - Used to remove a logical volume.

5. Manipulation commands (These commands allow you to play around with your existing logical objects. We haven't posted on "any" of these commands yet - Some of them can be extremely dangerous to goof with for no reason)

pvextend - Used to add physical devices (or partition(s) of same) to a physical volume.
pvreduce - Used to remove physical devices (or partition(s) of same) from a physical volume.
vgextend - Used to add new physical disk (or partition(s) of same) to a volume group.
vgreduce - Used to remove physical disk (or partition(s) of same) from a volume group.
lvextend - Used to increase the size of a logical volume.
lvreduce - Used to decrease the size of a logical volume.

[Jun 19, 2011] Monitoring and Display Commands For LVM On Linux And Unix

The Linux and Unix Menagerie

Physical Volumes:

The two commands we'll be using here are pvscan and pvdisplay.

pvscan, as with all of the following commands, pretty much does what the name implies. It scans your system for LVM physical volumes. When used straight-up, it will list out all the physical volumes it can find on the system, including those "not" associated with volume groups (output truncated to save on space):

host # pvscan
pvscan -- reading all physical volumes (this may take a while...)
pvscan -- ACTIVE PV "/dev/hda1" is in no VG [512 MB]
pvscan -- ACTIVE PV "/dev/hdd1" of VG "vg01"[512 MB / 266 MB free]
Next, we'll use pvdisplay to display our only physical volume:

host # pvdisplay /dev/hdd1 <-- Note that you can leave the /dev/hdd1, or any specification, off of the command line if you want to display all of your physical volumes. We just happen to know we only have one and are being particular ;)

PV Name /dev/hdd1
VG Name vg01
PV Size 512 MB

Other output should include whether or not the physical volume is allocatable (or "can be used" ;), total physical extents (see our post on getting started with LVM for a little more information on PE's), free physical extents, allocated physical extents and the physical volume's UUID (Identifier).

Volume Groups:

The two commands we'll be using here are vgscan and vgdisplay.

vgscan will report on all existing volume groups, as well as create a file (generally) called /etc/lvmtab (Some versions will create an /etc/lvmtab.d directory as well):

host # vgscan
vgscan -- reading all physical volumes (this may take a while...)
vgscan -- found active volume group "vg01"

vgdisplay can be used to check on the state and condition of our volume group(s). Again, we're specifying our volume group on the command line, but this is not necessary:

host # vgdisplay vg01
VG Name vg01
VG Size 246 MB

this command gives even more effusive output. Everything from the maximum logical volumes the volume group can contain (including how many it currently does and how many of those are open), separate (yet similar) information with regards to the physical volumes it can encompass, all of the information you've come to expect about the physical extents and, of course, each volume's UUID.

The Linux Logical Volume Manager by Heinz Mauelshagen and Matthew O'Keefe

Storage technology plays a critical role in increasing the performance, availability, and manageability of Linux servers. One of the most important new developments in the Linux 2.6 kernel—on which the Red Hat® Enterprise Linux® 4 kernel is based—is the Linux Logical Volume Manager, version 2 (or LVM 2). It combines a more consistent and robust internal design with important new features including volume mirroring and clustering, yet it is upwardly compatible with the original Logical Volume Manager 1 (LVM 1) commands and metadata. This article summarizes the basic principles behind the LVM and provide examples of basic operations to be performed with it.


Logical volume management is a widely-used technique for deploying logical rather than physical storage. With LVM, "logical" partitions can span across physical hard drives and can be resized (unlike traditional ext3 "raw" partitions). A physical disk is divided into one or more physical volumes (Pvs), and logical volume groups (VGs) are created by combining PVs as shown in Figure 1. LVM internal organization. Notice the VGs can be an aggregate of PVs from multiple physical disks.

Figure 2. Mapping logical extents to physical extents shows how the logical volumes are mapped onto physical volumes. Each PV consists of a number of fixed-size physical extents (PEs); similarly, each LV consists of a number of fixed-size logical extents (LEs). (LEs and PEs are always the same size, the default in LVM 2 is 4 MB.) An LV is created by mapping logical extents to physical extents, so that references to logical block numbers are resolved to physical block numbers. These mappings can be constructed to achieve particular performance, scalability, or availability goals.

For example, multiple PVs can be connected together to create a single large logical volume as shown in Figure 3. LVM linear mapping. This approach, known as a linear mapping, allows a file system or database larger than a single volume to be created using two physical disks. An alternative approach is a striped mapping, in which stripes (groups of contiguous physical extents) from alternate PVs are mapped to a single LV, as shown in Figure 4. LVM striped mapping. The striped mapping allows a single logical volume to nearly achieve the combined performance of two PVs and is used quite often to achieve high-bandwidth disk transfers.

Figure 4. LVM striped mapping (4 physical extents per stripe)

Through these different types of logical-to-physical mappings, LVM can achieve four important advantages over raw physical partitions:

  1. Logical volumes can be resized while they are mounted and accessible by the database or file system, removing the downtime associated with adding or deleting storage from a Linux server
  2. Data from one (potentially faulty or damaged) physical device may be relocated to another device that is newer, faster or more resilient, while the original volume remains online and accessible
  3. Logical volumes can be constructed by aggregating physical devices to increase performance (via disk striping) or redundancy (via disk mirroring and I/O multipathing)
  4. Logical volume snapshots can be created to represent the exact state of the volume at a certain point-in-time, allowing accurate backups to proceed simultaneously with regular system operation

Basic LVM commands

Initializing disks or disk partitions

To use LVM, partitions and whole disks must first be converted into physical volumes (PVs) using the pvcreate command. For example, to convert /dev/hda and /dev/hdb into PVs use the following commands:

pvcreate /dev/hda pvcreate /dev/hdb 

If a Linux partition is to be converted make sure that it is given partition type 0x8E using fdisk, then use pvcreate:

pvcreate /dev/hda1

Creating a volume group

Once you have one or more physical volumes created, you can create a volume group from these PVs using the vgcreate command. The following command:

vgcreate volume_group_one /dev/hda /dev/hdb

creates a new VG called volume_group_one with two disks, /dev/hda and /dev/hdb, and 4 MB PEs. If both /dev/hda and /dev/hdb are 128 GB in size, then the VG volume_group_one will have a total of 2**16 physical extents that can be allocated to logical volumes.

Additional PVs can be added to this volume group using the vgextend command. The following commands convert /dev/hdc into a PV and then adds that PV to volume_group_one:

pvcreate /dev/hdc vgextend volume_group_one /dev/hdc 

This same PV can be removed from volume_group_one by the vgreduce command:

vgreduce volume_group_one /dev/hdc 

Note that any logical volumes using physical extents from PV /dev/hdc will be removed as well. This raises the issue of how we create an LV within a volume group in the first place.

Creating a logical volume

We use the lvcreate command to create a new logical volume using the free physical extents in the VG pool. Continuing our example using VG volume_group_one (with two PVs /dev/hda and /dev/hdb and a total capacity of 256 GB), we could allocate nearly all the PEs in the volume group to a single linear LV called logical_volume_one with the following LVM command:

lvcreate -n logical_volume_one --size 255G volume_group_one

Instead of specifying the LV size in GB we could also specify it in terms of logical extents. First we use vgdisplay to determine the number of PEs in the volume_group_one:

vgdisplay volume_group_one | grep "Total PE" 

which returns

Total PE 65536 

Then the following lvcreate command will create a logical volume with 65536 logical extents and fill the volume group completely:

lvcreate -n logical_volume_one -l 65536 volume_group_one 

To create a 1500MB linear LV named logical_volume_one and its block device special file /dev/volume_group_one/logical_volume_one use the following command:

lvcreate -L1500 -n logical_volume_one volume_group_one 

The lvcreate command uses linear mappings by default.

Striped mappings can also be created with lvcreate. For example, to create a 255 GB large logical volume with two stripes and stripe size of 4 KB the following command can be used:

lvcreate -i2 -I4 --size 255G -n logical_volume_one_striped volume_group_one 

It is possible to allocate a logical volume from a specific physical volume in the VG by specifying the PV or PVs at the end of the lvcreate command. If you want the logical volume to be allocated from a specific physical volume in the volume group, specify the PV or PVs at the end of the lvcreate command line. For example, this command:

lvcreate -i2 -I4 -L128G -n logical_volume_one_striped volume_group_one /dev/hda /dev/hdb 

creates a striped LV named logical_volume_one that is striped across two PVs (/dev/hda and /dev/hdb) with stripe size 4 KB and 128 GB in size.

An LV can be removed from a VG through the lvremove command, but first the LV must be unmounted:

umount /dev/volume_group_one/logical_volume_one lvremove /dev/volume_group_one/logical_volume_one 

Note that LVM volume groups and underlying logical volumes are included in the device special file directory tree in the /dev directory with the following layout:


so that if we had two volume groups myvg0 and myvg2 and eatt>, six device special files would be created:

/dev/myvg0/lv01 /dev/myvg0/lv02 /dev/myvg0/lv03 /dev/myvg2/lv01 /dev/myvg2/lv02 /dev/myvg2/lv03 

Extending a logical volume

An LV can be extended by using the lvextend command. You can specify either an absolute size for the extended LV or how much additional storage you want to add to the LVM. For example:

lvextend -L120G /dev/myvg/homevol 

will extend LV /dev/myvg/homevol to 12 GB, while

lvextend -L+10G /dev/myvg/homevol 

will extend LV /dev/myvg/homevol by an additional 10 GB. Once a logical volume has been extended, the underlying file system can be expanded to exploit the additional storage now available on the LV. With Red Hat Enterprise Linux 4, it is possible to expand both the ext3fs and GFS file systems online, without bringing the system down. (The ext3 file system can be shrunk or expanded offline using the ext2resize command.) To resize ext3fs, the following command

ext2online /dev/myvg/homevol 

will extend the ext3 file system to completely fill the LV, /dev/myvg/homevol, on which it resides.

The file system specified by device (partition, loop device, or logical volume) or mount point must currently be mounted, and it will be enlarged to fill the device, by default. If an optional size parameter is specified, then this size will be used instead.

Recommended Links

Softpanorama hot topic of the month

Softpanorama Recommended

Please visit nixCraft site. It has material well worth your visit.

Dr. Nikolai Bezroukov






Expanding Linux Partitions with LVM - FedoraNEWS.ORG

Recommended Papers



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ABUSE: IPs or network segments from which we detect a stream of probes might be blocked for no less then 90 days. Multiple types of probes increase this period.  


Groupthink : Two Party System as Polyarchy : Corruption of Regulators : Bureaucracies : Understanding Micromanagers and Control Freaks : Toxic Managers :   Harvard Mafia : Diplomatic Communication : Surviving a Bad Performance Review : Insufficient Retirement Funds as Immanent Problem of Neoliberal Regime : PseudoScience : Who Rules America : Neoliberalism  : The Iron Law of Oligarchy : Libertarian Philosophy


War and Peace : Skeptical Finance : John Kenneth Galbraith :Talleyrand : Oscar Wilde : Otto Von Bismarck : Keynes : George Carlin : Skeptics : Propaganda  : SE quotes : Language Design and Programming Quotes : Random IT-related quotesSomerset Maugham : Marcus Aurelius : Kurt Vonnegut : Eric Hoffer : Winston Churchill : Napoleon Bonaparte : Ambrose BierceBernard Shaw : Mark Twain Quotes


Vol 25, No.12 (December, 2013) Rational Fools vs. Efficient Crooks The efficient markets hypothesis : Political Skeptic Bulletin, 2013 : Unemployment Bulletin, 2010 :  Vol 23, No.10 (October, 2011) An observation about corporate security departments : Slightly Skeptical Euromaydan Chronicles, June 2014 : Greenspan legacy bulletin, 2008 : Vol 25, No.10 (October, 2013) Cryptolocker Trojan (Win32/Crilock.A) : Vol 25, No.08 (August, 2013) Cloud providers as intelligence collection hubs : Financial Humor Bulletin, 2010 : Inequality Bulletin, 2009 : Financial Humor Bulletin, 2008 : Copyleft Problems Bulletin, 2004 : Financial Humor Bulletin, 2011 : Energy Bulletin, 2010 : Malware Protection Bulletin, 2010 : Vol 26, No.1 (January, 2013) Object-Oriented Cult : Political Skeptic Bulletin, 2011 : Vol 23, No.11 (November, 2011) Softpanorama classification of sysadmin horror stories : Vol 25, No.05 (May, 2013) Corporate bullshit as a communication method  : Vol 25, No.06 (June, 2013) A Note on the Relationship of Brooks Law and Conway Law


Fifty glorious years (1950-2000): the triumph of the US computer engineering : Donald Knuth : TAoCP and its Influence of Computer Science : Richard Stallman : Linus Torvalds  : Larry Wall  : John K. Ousterhout : CTSS : Multix OS Unix History : Unix shell history : VI editor : History of pipes concept : Solaris : MS DOSProgramming Languages History : PL/1 : Simula 67 : C : History of GCC developmentScripting Languages : Perl history   : OS History : Mail : DNS : SSH : CPU Instruction Sets : SPARC systems 1987-2006 : Norton Commander : Norton Utilities : Norton Ghost : Frontpage history : Malware Defense History : GNU Screen : OSS early history

Classic books:

The Peter Principle : Parkinson Law : 1984 : The Mythical Man-MonthHow to Solve It by George Polya : The Art of Computer Programming : The Elements of Programming Style : The Unix Hater’s Handbook : The Jargon file : The True Believer : Programming Pearls : The Good Soldier Svejk : The Power Elite

Most popular humor pages:

Manifest of the Softpanorama IT Slacker Society : Ten Commandments of the IT Slackers Society : Computer Humor Collection : BSD Logo Story : The Cuckoo's Egg : IT Slang : C++ Humor : ARE YOU A BBS ADDICT? : The Perl Purity Test : Object oriented programmers of all nations : Financial Humor : Financial Humor Bulletin, 2008 : Financial Humor Bulletin, 2010 : The Most Comprehensive Collection of Editor-related Humor : Programming Language Humor : Goldman Sachs related humor : Greenspan humor : C Humor : Scripting Humor : Real Programmers Humor : Web Humor : GPL-related Humor : OFM Humor : Politically Incorrect Humor : IDS Humor : "Linux Sucks" Humor : Russian Musical Humor : Best Russian Programmer Humor : Microsoft plans to buy Catholic Church : Richard Stallman Related Humor : Admin Humor : Perl-related Humor : Linus Torvalds Related humor : PseudoScience Related Humor : Networking Humor : Shell Humor : Financial Humor Bulletin, 2011 : Financial Humor Bulletin, 2012 : Financial Humor Bulletin, 2013 : Java Humor : Software Engineering Humor : Sun Solaris Related Humor : Education Humor : IBM Humor : Assembler-related Humor : VIM Humor : Computer Viruses Humor : Bright tomorrow is rescheduled to a day after tomorrow : Classic Computer Humor

The Last but not Least

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Last modified: October 20, 2015