|Home||Switchboard||Unix Administration||Red Hat||TCP/IP Networks||Neoliberalism||Toxic Managers|
|May the source be with you, but remember the KISS principle ;-)|
Routing is the process of forwarding a packet from one computer to another. It is based on an address in the messageís layer-3 header. But thereís more involved than just reading a layer-3 address, though.
The Solaris IP stack maintains a special database called a routing table. When Solaris forwards a packet, it first refers to the routing table to decided where to send the packet. If the host tries to connect to a host which is the same network it just sends packet to the destination (direct routing). If the target host is on another network than host's own, then it sends the data to the router (indirect routing). Often only one router is defined as the 'default gateway'. In this case from the hostís point of view it outsources all the processing of "non-local" packets to this gateway. If there is no default gateway and the router doesnít find an entry in its routing table that matches the destination network address, the router discards the packet.
The Solaris route command enables manual manipulation of the route table. The routing table contains a list of networks that the router knows it can send packets to, and states over which link to send the packets. These can be static routes, (entered by a system administrator) they can be default routes (a special static route to send unknown destination IP addresses to), or they can be dynamically discovered routes, found using a routing protocol. In case of dynamic routing routers talk to each other and share information about networks they are connected to. That sounds scary and it really is. It also creates the infinite possibilities of misunderstanding. At the same time, dynamic routing takes the building of the routing table out of your hands and puts it into the hands of specific routing protocol. Your job then becomes the monitoring of the routing tables to make sure that the routers are playing nicely with each other. See Routing for more details.
Route command gives the possibility to specify static routes. The syntax of the command is somewhat complicated:
route [-fn] add | delete | get [net|host|default] [destination] [gateway]
With keywords add and delete the default for optional [net|host|default] troika is host.
Here are some examples that might help to learn the intricacies of the command:
As we already discussed there are two types of routing:
A default route is a route table entry that allows a host to define default routers to use if no other specific route is available. The default routers must be reliable. There is no need to define every reachable network. All indirectly connected packet destinations go to the default router.
A default router is identified by entries in /etc/defaultrouter. It contains hostname or IP address entries that correspond to one or more routers. Upon rebooting, this prevents the startup script (/etc/rc2.d/S69inet) from launching the in.routed and in.rdisc dynamic router processes. Default route table entries may also be added by the in.rdisc daemon.
Advantages of default routing are:
Disadvantages of default routing:
Q1. Which command manipulates the routing table ?
Q2: Command to add a route to server1 via router1:
A: route add host server1 router1
Q3. Which command will add a route to the network 22.214.171.124 via 126.96.36.199 ?
A: route add net 188.8.131.52 184.108.40.206
Q4. Which command would delete a route to host server1 via router1 ?
A: route delete host server1 router1
Q5. Which command will delete the route to the network 220.127.116.11 via 18.104.22.168 ?
A: route delete net 22.214.171.124 126.96.36.199
Q6. Which command will remove all entries from the routing table ?
A: route flush
Q7. Which command allows you to monitor the routing requests that are not getting resolved from the routing table ?
A7: route monitor
Q8. Which script starts the in.named daemon ?
A: Depend on the Solaris version:
Groupthink : Two Party System as Polyarchy : Corruption of Regulators : Bureaucracies : Understanding Micromanagers and Control Freaks : Toxic Managers : Harvard Mafia : Diplomatic Communication : Surviving a Bad Performance Review : Insufficient Retirement Funds as Immanent Problem of Neoliberal Regime : PseudoScience : Who Rules America : Neoliberalism : The Iron Law of Oligarchy : Libertarian Philosophy
War and Peace : Skeptical Finance : John Kenneth Galbraith :Talleyrand : Oscar Wilde : Otto Von Bismarck : Keynes : George Carlin : Skeptics : Propaganda : SE quotes : Language Design and Programming Quotes : Random IT-related quotes : Somerset Maugham : Marcus Aurelius : Kurt Vonnegut : Eric Hoffer : Winston Churchill : Napoleon Bonaparte : Ambrose Bierce : Bernard Shaw : Mark Twain Quotes
Vol 25, No.12 (December, 2013) Rational Fools vs. Efficient Crooks The efficient markets hypothesis : Political Skeptic Bulletin, 2013 : Unemployment Bulletin, 2010 : Vol 23, No.10 (October, 2011) An observation about corporate security departments : Slightly Skeptical Euromaydan Chronicles, June 2014 : Greenspan legacy bulletin, 2008 : Vol 25, No.10 (October, 2013) Cryptolocker Trojan (Win32/Crilock.A) : Vol 25, No.08 (August, 2013) Cloud providers as intelligence collection hubs : Financial Humor Bulletin, 2010 : Inequality Bulletin, 2009 : Financial Humor Bulletin, 2008 : Copyleft Problems Bulletin, 2004 : Financial Humor Bulletin, 2011 : Energy Bulletin, 2010 : Malware Protection Bulletin, 2010 : Vol 26, No.1 (January, 2013) Object-Oriented Cult : Political Skeptic Bulletin, 2011 : Vol 23, No.11 (November, 2011) Softpanorama classification of sysadmin horror stories : Vol 25, No.05 (May, 2013) Corporate bullshit as a communication method : Vol 25, No.06 (June, 2013) A Note on the Relationship of Brooks Law and Conway Law
Fifty glorious years (1950-2000): the triumph of the US computer engineering : Donald Knuth : TAoCP and its Influence of Computer Science : Richard Stallman : Linus Torvalds : Larry Wall : John K. Ousterhout : CTSS : Multix OS Unix History : Unix shell history : VI editor : History of pipes concept : Solaris : MS DOS : Programming Languages History : PL/1 : Simula 67 : C : History of GCC development : Scripting Languages : Perl history : OS History : Mail : DNS : SSH : CPU Instruction Sets : SPARC systems 1987-2006 : Norton Commander : Norton Utilities : Norton Ghost : Frontpage history : Malware Defense History : GNU Screen : OSS early history
The Peter Principle : Parkinson Law : 1984 : The Mythical Man-Month : How to Solve It by George Polya : The Art of Computer Programming : The Elements of Programming Style : The Unix Haterís Handbook : The Jargon file : The True Believer : Programming Pearls : The Good Soldier Svejk : The Power Elite
Most popular humor pages:
Manifest of the Softpanorama IT Slacker Society : Ten Commandments of the IT Slackers Society : Computer Humor Collection : BSD Logo Story : The Cuckoo's Egg : IT Slang : C++ Humor : ARE YOU A BBS ADDICT? : The Perl Purity Test : Object oriented programmers of all nations : Financial Humor : Financial Humor Bulletin, 2008 : Financial Humor Bulletin, 2010 : The Most Comprehensive Collection of Editor-related Humor : Programming Language Humor : Goldman Sachs related humor : Greenspan humor : C Humor : Scripting Humor : Real Programmers Humor : Web Humor : GPL-related Humor : OFM Humor : Politically Incorrect Humor : IDS Humor : "Linux Sucks" Humor : Russian Musical Humor : Best Russian Programmer Humor : Microsoft plans to buy Catholic Church : Richard Stallman Related Humor : Admin Humor : Perl-related Humor : Linus Torvalds Related humor : PseudoScience Related Humor : Networking Humor : Shell Humor : Financial Humor Bulletin, 2011 : Financial Humor Bulletin, 2012 : Financial Humor Bulletin, 2013 : Java Humor : Software Engineering Humor : Sun Solaris Related Humor : Education Humor : IBM Humor : Assembler-related Humor : VIM Humor : Computer Viruses Humor : Bright tomorrow is rescheduled to a day after tomorrow : Classic Computer Humor
The Last but not Least
Copyright © 1996-2018 by Dr. Nikolai Bezroukov. www.softpanorama.org was initially created as a service to the (now defunct) UN Sustainable Development Networking Programme (SDNP) in the author free time and without any remuneration. This document is an industrial compilation designed and created exclusively for educational use and is distributed under the Softpanorama Content License. Original materials copyright belong to respective owners. Quotes are made for educational purposes only in compliance with the fair use doctrine.
FAIR USE NOTICE This site contains copyrighted material the use of which has not always been specifically authorized by the copyright owner. We are making such material available to advance understanding of computer science, IT technology, economic, scientific, and social issues. We believe this constitutes a 'fair use' of any such copyrighted material as provided by section 107 of the US Copyright Law according to which such material can be distributed without profit exclusively for research and educational purposes.
This is a Spartan WHYFF (We Help You For Free) site written by people for whom English is not a native language. Grammar and spelling errors should be expected. The site contain some broken links as it develops like a living tree...
|You can use PayPal to make a contribution, supporting development of this site and speed up access. In case softpanorama.org is down you can use the at softpanorama.info|
The statements, views and opinions presented on this web page are those of the author (or referenced source) and are not endorsed by, nor do they necessarily reflect, the opinions of the author present and former employers, SDNP or any other organization the author may be associated with. We do not warrant the correctness of the information provided or its fitness for any purpose.
Last modified: March 23, 2010