Softpanorama

May the source be with you, but remember the KISS principle ;-)
Contents Bulletin Scripting in shell and Perl Network troubleshooting History Humor

Solaris DNS Server Installation and Administration

News See Also Recommended Books Recommended Links Tutorials FAQs RFCs
Load balancing
via DNS
Troubleshooting DNS Tools

DNS Security

 Random Findings Humor Etc

Solaris uses an open source DNS implementation called BIND (Berkeley Internet Name Domain) as its DNS daemon. BIND (Berkeley Internet Name Domain) is the oldest implementation of the DNS protocol that can be traced to original BSD systems.

Contrary to popular urban myth Paul Vixie did nit write the original BIND.  As Kevin Oberman recollected:

The first BIND version (4.3?) was written by the CSRG at UC Berkeley by Kevin Dunlap who was on loan to CSRG by Digital (who also employed Paul at that time). When Paul took over support of BIND at about 4.4, it was a horrid mess and rapidly moving toward death. After some fixes and clean-up of the code, the first real BIND from Paul was 4.8. ISC (including Paul) wrote BIND 8. BIND 9 was contracted out to Nominum and one of the stipulations was that the existing code base could not be used at all and another was that the team that wrote BIND 8 should not work on BIND 9. For that (and other) reason, Paul did not write any of BIND 9

In his comment to the letter Paul Vixie clarified some facts: 

> Well, Paul Vixie wrote bind

nope.  kevin dunlap and other folks at U C Berkeley wrote BIND originally. all i did was fork the code base at 4.8.3, produce King James BIND, then BIND 4.9 through BIND 8.1, and along the way co-founded ISC with rick adams.  also along the way i won the "most cert advisories by a single author" award (which noone has been willing to try to take away from me) and stopped coding.  i'm pleased to announce that BIND9 has no code from BIND8 or BIND4 in it, and also no code from me in it.

--- oberman@es.net ("Kevin Oberman") writes:

> Paul Vixie did NOT write the original BIND. The first BIND version
> (4.3?) was written by the CSRG at UC Berkeley by Kevin Dunlap who was on
> loan to CSRG by Digital (who also employed Paul at that time).

no, i was employed by Digital later, long after kevin dunlap had moved on.

> When Paul took over support of BIND at about 4.4,

4.8.3.

> it was a horrid mess and rapidly moving toward death.

and there were other code forks besides mine.  what distinguished my work
was that i merged in every change i could understand from every other fork.
(that's why i called it King James BIND, for you literary history buffs.)

> After some fixes and clean-up of the
> code, the first real BIND from Paul was 4.8.

4.9.

> ISC (including Paul) wrote BIND 8.

john gilmore and bob halley had a LOT to do with the creation of BIND8 btw.
(john also taught me to use CVS rather than RCS, to my great betterment,
and he wrote some early DNSSEC code, and negotiated a licensing deal between
RSADSI and ISC... he's an unsung hero in the BIND revolution.)

> BIND 9 was contracted out to Nominum

internet engines.  Which later became nominum.

> and one of the stipulations was that the existing code base could not be
> used at all and another was that the team that wrote BIND 8 should not
> work on BIND 9.

actually, bob halley worked on both BIND8 and BIND9.

> For that (and other) reason, Paul did not write any of BIND 9.

yea, verily.

--- david.conrad@nominum.com (David Conrad) writes:

> However, I don't speak authoritatively (pun intended) on BIND.

and yet, for the record, i agree with everything drc said in his note today.
--
Paul Vixie
 

The source code is licensed under BSD license and includes implementation of:

When you are working with BIND it's evident how old it is and how people who developed various packages for it were unable to understand the "spirit of Unix" and come with kluges that contradict Unix philosophy, but for some reason stay with us for decades.  Actually first implementations of DNS servers were for the TOPS-20 operating system in 1983.

Still BIND is a pretty vivid demonstration of inability of designers of Unix packages to grasp the spirit of Unix :-) And while the general DNS architecture is sound the BIND implementation was (until version 9 let's hope) a very questionable security-wise. Administration-wise it continues to be challenging to say the least.  IMHO administration was done unnecessary complex by configuration files that are far from being human-friendly and have subtle interdependencies that for some unexplainable reason need to be resolved manually (many scripts exist for this purpose and at least couple of them should probably be used by every non-masochistic DNS admin). 

The structure of DNS configuration files can serve as a good example of how old data-related mini-languages survive in software packages. And they can be quite horrible mess even if the code written by above average programmers. Even in Bind 9  the configuration files remain very cumbersome and their maintenance time consuming and error prone.

Currently the second (or third) generation of Unix administrators needs to suffer from all those unnecessary complexity. In a sense BIND is the greatest failure of open source programming model. Despite its critical role in Internet infrastructure BIND 4 and 8 were probably one of the most "security-challenged" open source applications widely deployed. At least until version 9 was released. For decades it was pretty unusual not have a bind exploit each second quarter. Not that all of those exploit were really dangerous, but still the feeling was that one needs to upgrade and countless hours were spend on countless upgrade of bind by each organization with its own nameserver.

BIND's complexity provided a windows opportunity for book publishers and I believe O'Reilly got a neat revenue from selling four editions of BIND book.

Alternative implementations of DNS servers exist including several open source packages but none get the same level of prominence as original BIND. Of alternative free packages only D. J. Bernstein's djbdns got some traction due to it significantly higher level of security: it is sometimes called "Continuous DNS service without continual software upgrades" :-)

As of Jan 2006 current versions from Internet Systems Consortium, Inc. are

You should recompile those versions using Studio 11 or download the latest precompiled version from Solaris freeware site. It does not make sense to preserve the version that comes with Solaris 9 or 10.  

In Solaris the daemon in.named is by default placed in /usr/sbin/ . It is stared during system boot if the /etc/named.conf file exists. When configuring nameserver, you need to supply the following information in your /etc/named.conf and files that it refers to (so called DNS resource records)  

There are two major versions of BIND daemon: version 8 and version 9. Solaris 9 uses BIND 8.x.x implementation. Solaris 10 uses 9.x.x implementation.

/etc/named.conf configuration file determines if the server is a primary, secondary, or cache-only name server. It also specifies the zones over which the server has authority and which data files it should read to get its initial data.

The/etc/named.conf file consists of statements possibly separated by blank lines. Each statement should end with a semicolon. Some statements can contain a block of statements in curvy brackets. Again, each statement in the block is terminated with a semicolon.

There are several major types of named.conf statements. Four are used in the example below:

  1. options Controls global server configuration options and sets default values for other statements.

  2. zone Defines a zone. Selectively applies options on a per-zone basis, rather than to all zones.

  3. file Defines an include file that contains so called called DNS resource records. Is used to break up the configuration into more easily managed chunks.

  4. type Sets designated type associated with a server.

Here is an example of the BIND configuration file /etc/named. conf and its relationship to name server data files.

options {
   DIRECTORY "/var/named";
};

zone "." in {
   type hint;
   file "named.root";
};

zone "softpanorama.org" in {
   type master;
   file "softpanorama.org.zone";
};

zone "10.10.10.in-addr.arpa" in {
   type master;
   file "softpanorama.org.rzone";
};

zone "127.in-addr.arpa" in {
   type master;
   file "loopback-domain-info";
};

Other statements include:

  1. acl Defines a named IP address match list used for access control. The address match list designates one or more IP addresses or IP prefixes. The named IP address match list must be defined by an acl statement before it can be used elsewhere. No forward references are allowed.
  2. key Specifies a key ID used for authentication and authorization on a particular name server.
  3. logging Specifies the information the server logs and the destination of log messages.

Dr. Nikolai Bezroukov

Top Visited
Switchboard
Latest
Past week
Past month

NEWS CONTENTS

Old News ;-)

2007 2006 2005 2004 2003 2002 and earlier

[Nov 19, 2007] Novel Course 3074_Sample/Configure a DNS Server

The configuration of each DNS server type is slightly different. In this objective the following is discussed:

[Aug 30, 2006] A community-submitted Tech Tip, Implementing a DNS Server on the Solaris 8 OS, offers suggestions for setup on both SPARC and x86 platforms. -- pretty poor and very basic.

[Jan 27, 2006] DNS Server Setup Template for the Solaris Operating Environment

June 2000 | Sun

You never know when the set up for a trade show, demo, lab, or other project might come to a loggerhead because someone needs a robust internet domain name server (DNS). The function of the DNS is to act as the server that client applications contact to resolve an IP address from the host name. The IP address is then used by network routers to send data packets to the remote server.

In reverse mode, the DNS can also resolve host names when given an IP address. Many UNIX applications use this method to perform security checks, Address Resolution Protocol (ARP), or Reverse Address Resolution Protocol (RARP) to verify that the host name data and IP address do indeed match. For example, if you try to Telnet or FTP to a Solaris host from a renegade laptop using a valid but unresolvable IP address on the LAN, you may notice that it can take up to 60 seconds to receive the login prompt. You can fix this delay by simply adding an entry for host name and IP address into the maps on the primary network DNS.

Setting up a DNS from scratch can be complicated. Although you can read the man pages and generate valid map files from scratch, it is not very efficient. A better way is to follow an example template provided in the next section.

Unpacking Instructions

Download this template to a work directory, such as /var. To unpack the file, at the command line type:

    zcat name.tar.Z | tar xvf -

Fast Installation Overview

For quick installation, do the following:

  1. Determine what type of DNS you want and what support information you need from your network provider, such as global caching DNS.
  2. Edit the named.* files you need. For releases prior to Solaris 7, use named.boot, named.local, named.cache, named.mydomain, and named.mydomain.rev. For Solaris 7 and Solaris 8, the map files are the same, but edit the named.conf instead of named.boot.
  3. Edit the /etc/resolv.conf file. It should look like the following:
        domain mydomain.com
        nameserver 127.0.0.1     ;if DNS server runs on this host
        nameserver 129.200.9.1   ;if this is a remote client

  4. Create a symbolic link in /etc/ to either the named.boot or named.conf file and start the DNS (/usr/sbin/in.named).
  5. You can verify the DNS is working properly by running some queries to test forward and reverse resolution.

Detailed Installation

  1. Determine what kind of DNS you need.

    If you are at a trade show and without Internet access, you need to be a primary.

    If you are at a trade show and have Internet access, find the ISP and ask whether they have (a) a world resolvable caching DNS and (b) a primary for the show floor.

    • If they have (a) but not (b), you will need to be a primary for this subnet. Any reputable ISP will have at least (a).
    • If they have both (a) and (b), but are unreliable for (b), you should be a secondary.
    • If (b) does not have a complete map or maps, you may need to create your own primary for that subnet.

    If you are just starting a new subnet (e.g. you are at a startup company and the person who knows anything about network administration is the IT person), then you probably want to be your own primary for the subnet. You should talk it over with your ISP. If your ISP is responsive and reliable, and doesn't mind that you constantly re-assign IP addresses and hosts, you should use them as your primary. Otherwise, if you are planning to do some very complicated DHCP, IP address sharing, NAT, or network customization, you probably should be your own primary. In other words, if you want your network to be resolvable and routable outside of your network, you may want to arrange with your ISP to give you primary domain DNS control for your subnet and have the ISP act as a "secondary" to your subnet domain. This configuration is common at many large universities. For example, each department or college group manages its own subnet within a large Class A or B network. The institution's top level DNS is actually a secondary for the various smaller subnet primaries.

    If you need to resolve Internet host names outside of the corporate network, but have an inadequate primary DNS on your network, you should become a secondary DNS for your local subnet. You can also add a forwarders entry to the corporate top-level gateway DNS so that you can resolve IP addresses outside of the corporate network. Other people can then configure their hosts to use your DNS as their default to use these features.

  2. If you are running Solaris 7 or Solaris 8, examine the named.conf file. Each file is self explanatory and you can copy the /etc/hosts file and add Authoritative records (A) and pointer records (PTR) to your maps.

    Note: For Solaris 7 users who are familiar with BIND8 (old) format named.boot files and want to convert them to the new BIND9 format named.conf files, you can run the /usr/sbin/named-bootconf -i infile -o outfile utility.

    Edit all the files you need, usually:

    Mandatory files
    named.boot or named.conf (depending on OS version)
    named.cache
    named.local

    Optional files (for primary DNS)
    named.mydomain
    named.mydomain.rev
    [other reverse or forward maps]

    You may have multiple forward and reverse maps because this DNS may be supporting multiple domain names and subnets.

  3. Edit the /etc/resolv.conf file. It should look like the following:
        domain mydomain.com
        nameserver 127.0.0.1     ;if DNS server runs on this host
        nameserver 129.200.9.1   ;if this is a remote client

    You can have multiple DNS entries in the resolv.conf file. Each entry is searched in top-to-bottom order until the server responds, or times out. Therefore, you should put the server that is the most robust and responds the fastest at the top of the list. When a DNS is successfully queried, it is general practice for the client to use only that server for querying, even if the DNS responds that there are no entries. If the DNS you configured to use on the client is not resolving all of the hosts you know exist, you should contact the administrator for that DNS or simply change to a server that can resolve all the names. If a DNS server is down, you may experience a long wait before the client application fails and switches to use the next DNS. This can vary from 15 to 60 seconds per DNS entry in the resolv.conf file. If you are experiencing DNS resolution delays repeatedly and have access to another server, you should change the resolv.conf file to use another DNS.

  4. Create a symbolic link in /etc/ to either the named.boot or named.conf file. For example, if you unpacked the file in /var/named on a Solaris 2.6 system, type at the command line:
        ln -s /var/named/named.boot /etc/named.boot

    Start the DNS server by typing:

        /usr/sbin/in.named
  5. Test the DNS by running some queries to test forward and reverse resolution. You can use the following forward test:
        /usr/sbin/nslookup myhost

    A sample response looks like:

        Server: localhost
        Address: 127.0.0.1
     
        Name: myhost.mydomain.com
        Address: 129.200.9.1

    You should repeat your test using an IP address instead:

        /usr/sbin/nslookup 129.200.9.2

    A sample response looks like:

        Server: localhost
        Address: 127.0.0.1
     
        Name: myhost2.mydomain.com
        Address: 129.200.9.2

    If the DNS is set up to resolve Internet addresses, you can test this by typing:

        /usr/sbin/nslookup nuc.berkeley.edu

    A sample response looks like:

        Server: localhost
        Address: 127.0.0.1
     
        Non-authoritative answer:
    
        Name: nuc.berkeley.edu
        Address: 128.32.142.96
Disclaimer

This template is supplied "AS IS" without support or warranties.

[Jan 27, 2006] currentversions from Internet Systems Consortium, Inc.

docs.sun.com Solaris 10 What's New

BIND 9 is new in the Solaris Express 8/04 release. In the Solaris 10 3/05 release, the BIND version was upgraded to BIND version 9.2.4.

BIND is an open source implementation of DNS. BIND is developed by the Internet Systems Consortium (ISC). BIND allows DNS clients and applications to query DNS servers for the IPv4 and IPv6 networks. BIND includes two main components: a stub resolver API, resolver(3resolv), and the DNS name server with various DNS tools.

BIND enables DNS clients to connect to IPv6 DNS servers by using IPv6 transport. BIND provides a complete DNS client-server solution for IPv6 networks.

BIND 9.2.4 is a redesign of the DNS name server and tools by the Internet Systems Consortium (ISC). The BIND version 9.2.4 nameserver and tools are available in the Solaris 10 OS.

BIND 8.x-to-BIND 9 migration information is available in the System Administration Guide: Naming and Directory Services (DNS, NIS, and LDAP). Additional information and documentation about BIND 9 is also available on the ISC web site at http://www.isc.org. For information about IPv6 support, see the System Administration Guide: IP Services.

Reference

Internet Systems Consortium, Inc.

BIND 9 Administrator Reference Manual

BIND FAQ from Nominum Home of DNS inventor. Paul Mockapetris, the inventor of the domain name system, is chief scientist and chairman of the board at Nominum.

Ask Mr DNS facility on the Acme site is a searchable DNS/BIND FAQ + list archive

Simple DNS Configuration Example (RIPE-192)
Probably the quickest way to get going, if you are using BIND 8 on Unix. Just cut and paste the examples and make a few changes for a working setup.
FAQ
FAQ document for the newsgroup comp.protocols.tcp-ip.domains by Chris Peckham. Here is a local copy of the most recently posted text version. You could also try a DNS book, DNSRD tips or Ask Mr. DNS.
FAQ for microsoft.public.windowsnt.dns
FAQ document for the Microsoft newsgroup microsoft.public.windowsnt.dns.
Linux DNS HOWTO
How to set up DNS on Linux, by Nicolai Langfeldt. There are some small problems with this document, but it has some useful tips.

Tutorials

DNS Server Setup Template for the Solaris Operating Environment

Everything Solaris/DNS for dummies

Name Service and Resolver Configuration discusses named and bind configuration. From The Network Administrators' Guide by Olaf Kirch/Andrew Anderson.
Setting up a basic DNS server for a domain by Craig Richmond
Good tutorial document, now somewhat out of date. Part of the BIND distribution.
BOG
Name Server Operations Guide for BIND by Paul Vixie (originally by Kevin J Dunlap and Michael J Karels). Generally known as the BOG; part of the BIND distribution. Here are local HTML (conversion by Graeme Cox), PostScript and text copies. For BIND 4.x
Dealing with Lame Delegations by Bryan Beecher Describes the lamers tool to detect and flag lame delegations.
DNS Demystified by Al Berg Short operational overview.
DNS for Internet Administrators by András Salamon Slides for one-day DNS course, from October 1996.
The Internet Cookbook: DNS by Robert J. Kohlhepp
Examples of building a DNS, with sample database files; from a series of articles in Network Computing Online, February 1997.
Features of BIND 8.2 by Cricket Liu
Summary of new features of BIND 8.2, by the author of the standard cricket book. 14-Jan-2000
Hedrick
`Keeping track of names and information: the domain system', Section 5 of Introducti on to the Internet Protocols by Charles L. Hedrick. This is a well-known paper from 1987, made available in HTML by Steven E. Newton.
Passive DNS Replication
Describes building partial zone files based on observing the query traffic at a third party name server, by Florian Weimer.
Setting Up Your Own DNS by Gary Kessler
Thorough practical overview.
Style Guide for Zone Files by Paul Vixie
The recommended style for manually maintained zone files, from the maintainer of BIND. Highly recommended.
A Survey of DNS Tools by Cricket Liu
A comparison of nslookup, dig, host, doc, dnswalk, dnsparse and h2n. Slides presented in February 1993.
10 DNS Errors That Will Kill Your Network by Bill Boswell
Common DNS errors in Microsoft Windows environments. Many of these problems are not specific to Windows. (checked 07-Sep-2004)
Tricks of the BIND Trade by Cricket Liu
Slides presented in February 1993. Some of the material is out of date for recent BIND versions.
Webmonkey's quick overview
Very quick overview of DNS from Webmonkey.
What is a domain? by Mark R. Horton
Introductory paper, similar to but easier to read than the fundamental RFCs. Part of the BIND distribution.

http://cramsession.brainbuzz.com/cramsession/microsoft/win2knet_infra/guide.asp

Spitzner, Lance. "DNS Access." 26 January 2000.
URL: http://www.enteract.com/~lspitz/rules/rule6.html (21 July, 2000).

Gray, Damon. "The "IN-ADDR.ARPA" domain and it's relation to DNS."
URL: http://www.wednet.edu/network/whitepapers/in-addr.arpa.domain-whitepaper.html (23 July, 2000).

DNS HOWTO -- Nicolai Langfeldt janl@math.uio.no HOWTO become a totally small time DNS admin.

1. Preamble

2. Introduction.

3. A caching only name server.

4. A simple domain.

5. A real domain example

6. Maintenance

7. Converting from version 4 to version 8

8. Questions and Answers

9. How to become a bigger time DNS admin.


Index of pubdocsunix-tutorials courses


RFCs

Nice collection can be found at Nominum-Resources-Standards Information-DNS RFCs

See also DNS related RFCs, DNS RFCs.

Search for RFCs is available at Internet Requests for Comments (RFC)

Major RFCs

Worth reading for zone administrators:

Reference documents about protocols and administrative rules:

Full list (from DNS related RFCs):

RFC 805
Computer Mail Meeting Notes by J. Postel
The decision to introduce DNS-type names for mail addressing. Feb-1982
RFC 811
Hostnames Server by K. Harrenstien, V. White and E. Feinler
The original centralized hostname lookup server. Mar-1982
RFC 819
The Domain Naming Convention for Internet User Applications by Z. Su and J. Postel
Documents the original structural ideas of DNS. Aug-1982
RFC 882 obsoleted by RFC 1034. Nov-1983
RFC 883 obsoleted by RFC 1034. Nov-1983
RFC 920
Domain Requirements by J. Postel and J. Reynolds
Administrative document about domains. Will become historical shortly. Oct-1984
RFC 973 obsoleted by RFC 1034. Jan-1986
RFC 974
Mail Routing and the Domain System by Craig Partridge
Describes MX record processing. Jan-1986
RFC 1032
Domain Administrator's Guide by M. Stahl
Explains role of domain administrator. Nov-1987
RFC 1033 updated by RFC 1912.
Domain Administrators Operations Guide by M. Lottor
How-to guide, now somewhat out of date. Nov-1987
RFC 1034 updated by RFC 1101.
Domain Names--Concepts and Facilities by P. Mockapetris
Reference guide, covers just about everything. Nov-1987
RFC 1035 updated by RFC 1706.
Domain Names--Implementation and Specification by P. Mockapetris
Mechanics of the DNS. An HTML version with graphic illustrations is available (thanks to Russ Nelson). A local copy is also available. Nov-1987
RFC 1101 updates RFC 1034.
DNS Encoding of Network Names and Other Types by P. Mockapetris
How to add network names and netmasks to the DNS. Apr-1989
RFC 1122
Requirements for Internet Hosts -- Communication Layers edited by R. Braden
Not directly related to DNS, but section 4 discusses UDP and TCP issues that have important low-level effects on DNS. Oct-1989
RFC 1123
Requirements for Internet Hosts -- Application and Support edited by R. Braden
Includes chapter 6, about DNS. Oct-1989
RFC 1178
Choosing a Name for Your Computer by D. Libes
Good advice to keep in mind when naming computers. Aug-1990
RFC 1183
New DNS RR Definitions by C. Everhart, L. Mamakos and R. Ullmann and edited by P. Mockapetris
New resource records, not widely used. Oct-1990
RFC 1348 updates RFC 1035, obsoleted by RFC 1706. Jul-1992
RFC 1464
Using the Domain Name System To Store Arbitrary String Attributes by R. Rosenbaum
Using TXT records to store arbitrary strings in the DNS. May-1993
RFC 1480
The US Domain by A. Cooper and J. Postel
Policies and procedures related to the .US top-level domain. Jun-1993
RFC 1535
A Security Problem and Proposed Correction With Widely Deployed DNS Software by E. Gavron
Highlights subversion possibilities with default resolver search lists. Oct-1993
RFC 1536
Common DNS Implementation Errors and Suggested Fixes by A. Kumar, J. Postel, C. Neuman, P. Danzig and S. Miller
What to fix and how to fix it, for developers. Oct-1993
RFC 1537 obsoleted by RFC 1912. Oct-1993
RFC 1591
Domain Name System Structure and Delegation by J. Postel
Administrative details about the DNS name space. Mar-1994
RFC 1611
DNS Server MIB Extensions by R. Austein and J. Saperia
Interfacing SNMP to the server side of DNS, waiting to be implemented. May-1994
RFC 1612
DNS Resolver MIB Extensions by R. Austein and J. Saperia
Interfacing SNMP to the client side of DNS, waiting to be implemented. May-1994
RFC 1637 obsoletes RFC 1348, obsoleted by RFC 1706. Jun-1994
RFC 1664 obsoleted by RFC 2163.
Using the Internet DNS to Distribute RFC1327 Mail Address Mapping Tables by C. Allocchio, A. Bonito, B. Cole, S. Giordano and R. Hagens
Mapping information for converting between X.400 and SMTP addressing into the DNS. Aug-1994
RFC 1706 obsoletes RFC 1348 and RFC 1637.
DNS NSAP Resource Records by B. Manning and R. Colella
How to add OSI-style NSAPs to the DNS using PTR records. Oct-1994
RFC 1712 obsoleted by RFC 1876.
DNS Encoding of Geographical Location by C. Farrell, M. Schulze, S. Pleitner and D. Baldoni
Paul Vixie wrote: `deprecated and retracted by its authors but the RFC editors accidentally published it anyway'. Nov-1994
RFC 1713
Tools for DNS debugging by A. Romao
Overview of some DNS tools. An HTML version is available. Nov-1994
RFC 1794
DNS Support for Load Balancing by T. Brisco
DNS support for balancing loads of many types. Apr-1995
RFC 1811 obsoleted by RFC 1816. Jun-1995
RFC 1816 obsoletes RFC 1811, obsoleted by RFC 2146. Aug-1995
RFC 1876 obsoletes RFC 1712.
A Means for Expressing Location Information in the Domain Name System by C. Davis, P. Vixie, T. Goodwin and I. Dickinson
Geographical location DNS records. Jan-1996
RFC 1884
IP Version 6 Addressing Architecture edited by R. Hinden and S. Deering
All about IPv6 addresses. Dec-1995
RFC 1886
DNS Extensions to support IP version 6 by S. Thomson and C. Huitema
Backward-compatible IPv6 DNS extensions, including new AAAA record type and new domain IP6.INT. Dec-1995
RFC 1912 obsoletes RFC 1537.
Common DNS Operational and Configuration Errors by D. Barr
Errors and common practice in operation of servers and format of data. An HTML version is available. Feb-1996
RFC 1956
Registration in the MIL Domain by D. Engebretson and R. Plzak
Describes the registration policy of the US Department of Defense domain. Jun-1996
RFC 1982
Serial Number Arithmetic by R. Elz and R. Bush
Defines how serial numbers are compared to determine if a zone has been updated. Aug-1996
RFC 1995
Incremental Zone Transfer in DNS by M. Ohta
A mechanism for use with NOTIFY which allows transferring only that part of the zone that changed. Aug-1996
RFC 1996
Notify: a mechanism for prompt notification of authority zone changes by P. Vixie
Describes new NOTIFY opcode for advising slave servers that the master's data has been changed. Aug-1996
RFC 2010
Operational Criteria for Root Name Servers by B. Manning and P. Vixie
Requirements for root name servers. Oct-1996
RFC 2052
A DNS RR for specifying the location of services (DNS SRV) by A. Gulbrandsen and P. Vixie
Generalised MX records for services other than mail. Oct-1996
RFC 2053
The AM (Armenia) Domain by E. Der-Danieliantz
Procedures for registering in the AM TLD. Oct-1996
RFC 2065
Domain Name System Security Extensions by D. Eastlake, 3rd and C. Kaufman
Digital signatures for data integrity and authentication in the DNS. An HTML version is available. Jan-1997
RFC 2136
Dynamic Updates in the Domain Name System (DNS UPDATE) by P. Vixie (editor), S. Thomson, Y. Rekhter and J. Bound
Atomic record-level addition and deletion of DNS information: WINS done properly. Apr-1997
RFC 2137
Secure Domain Name System Dynamic Update by D. Eastlake 3rd
Security for dynamic updates. Apr-1997
RFC 2146 obsoletes RFC 1816.
U.S. Government Internet Domain Names by Federal Networking Council
Registration procedures in the .GOV top-level domain, and first steps in the migration to .FED.US. May-1997
RFC 2163 obsoletes RFC 1664.
Using the Internet DNS to Distribute MIXER Conformant Global Address Mapping (MCGAM) by C. Allocchio
Update to RFC 1664, on storing information in the DNS for mapping between X.400 and RFC 822 email addressing. Defines new PX record and .X42D.xx second-level domain names for each country-specific TLD xx. Jan-1998
RFC 2168
Resolution of Uniform Resource Identifiers using the Domain Name System by R. Daniel and M. Mealling
Defines NAPTR (Naming Authority Pointer) record type, which maps URI namespace identifiers to domain names. Jun-1997
RFC 2181 updates RFC 1034, RFC 1035 and RFC 1123.
Clarifications to the DNS Specification by R. Elz and R. Bush
Clarifications regarding multi-homed servers, TTLs, zone cuts, SOA records, the TC (truncated) flag, authoritative/canonical names, and valid labels. An HTML version is available.
Jul-1997
RFC 2182 (also BCP 16)
Selection and Operation of Secondary DNS Servers by R. Elz, R. Bush, S. Bradner and M. Patton
How to select secondary servers. An HTML version is available.
Jul-1997
RFC 2219 (also BCP 17)
Use of DNS Aliases for Network Services by M. Hamilton and R. Wright
The IANA name for a protocol should be used as the domain name for the machine that supports that protocol at a site. An HTML version is available.
Oct-1997
RFC 2230
Key Exchange Delegation Record for the DNS by R. Atkinson
KX records for IP security, assuming Secure DNS. KX defines a host willing to act as a key exchanger for a given domain name. An HTML version is available. Nov-1997
RFC 2240
A Legal Basis for Domain Name Allocation by O. Vaughan
Proposes creation of uniform second-level domain names for commercial organisations, within the country-specific TLD's. Besides a bunch of typos, there appears to be very little of note in this document. Nov-1997
RFC 2247
Using Domains in LDAP/X.500 Distinguished Names by S. Kille, M. Wahl, A. Grimstad, R. Huber and S. Sataluri
Representing domain names as distinguished names (using a new X.500 attribute called DC) so that LDAP can contain DNS information. See also ids-dirnaming. An HTML version is available.
Jan-1998
RFC 2308
Negative Caching of DNS Queries (DNS NCACHE) by M. Andrews
Recommends that negative caching (the caching of information about non-existence of resource records) becomes mandatory in resolvers.
Mar-1998
RFC 2317
Classless IN-ADDR.ARPA delegation by H. Eidnes, G. de Groot and P. Vixie
How to do IN-ADDR.ARPA delegations on arbitrary boundaries, in a way compatible with existing software, by using CNAME records and new zones.
Mar-1998


FAQs


Usenet

comp.protocols.dns.bind Last 50 Messages

comp.protocols.dns.ops Last 50 Messages


Training


Slides

USM Engineering Department -- System Guides DNS The Domain Name Service By Glenn Stevens. Very good slides


Network Ice Corporation. "DNS Zone Transfer." 2000.
URL: http://www.netice.com/advice/intrusions/2000401 (22 July, 2000).

Mr. DNS. "Restricting zone transfers in BIND 4.9.x with the xfernets directive."
URL: http://acmebw.com/askmrdns/00031.htm (22 July, 2000).


Split DNS

Network Ice Corporation. "Split-DNS"
URL: http://www.netice.com/advice/Services/Directory/DNS/split-DNS/default.htm (22 July, 2000).


Load Balancing via DNS

lbnamed -- a Perl script for load balancing. It communicates between a server farm and the DNS server to allow the DNS server to determine which is the best server to handle a request.
DNS Redirect by IP range
Author: Ernesto Vargas (---.z064002177.mia-fl.dsl.cnc.net)
Date: 12-18-00 12:29

I'm looking for a DNS solutions that can redirect to X or Y server depending on there IP address. Something like Akamai...

Any idea?

EV

Reply To This Message
RE: DNS Redirect by IP range
Author: Bishop (---.nnj.adsl.bellatlantic.net)
Date: 12-18-00 20:17

I am not sure of your question - I can't be totally sure of your American-style grammar - but I think I got it.

I think that a DNS server is not what you need. DNS only resolves hosts and IPs back and forth. It's not known as the best way to load-balance.

It sounds like you need some kind of redirector daemon. I use portfwd, but I've heard that smarter people can do redirection with the filtering subsystem itself. I'll leave that up to them, though, and work with what I know. I've not heard of one that does any calculations on-the-fly, but as for statically configured redirectors go, I'm very happy with portfwd. It does 90% of what I want, and I can extend it for the other 10%.

Are you actually looking for one that does load-balancing or one that performs even simple calculations to determine the destination address, or would a static one suffice? If you like static ones, Portfwd's probably at http://sourceforge.net/projects/portfwd

Let me know if I misinterpreted your use of 'there'. After all, I wasn't born in this country and am only learning American.

- bishop

Reply To This Message
RE: DNS Redirect by IP range
Author: j (---.texaco.com)
Date: 12-19-00 10:44

ipchains can do the redirect for you based on the ip.

Reply To This Message
RE: DNS Redirect by IP range
Author: None (---.rit.reuters.com)
Date: 12-20-00 07:54

The best I can say is to try dnrd (Domain Name Relay daemon) at,
http://members.home.net/garsh/dnrd/
as I think that has a lot of hope of adding smart logic to DNS.
Once I work out my status re: Open Source and my employer
then I to would like to direct DNS requests based on the source
IP address. Your request may be similar.

////

Reply To This Message
RE: DNS Redirect by IP range
Author: iserlohn (---.rchmd1.bc.wave.home.com)
Date: 12-25-00 02:53

You need EDDIE!!!!

Here's a short excerpt (from freshmeat) -
Eddie acts as a high availability WAN and LAN clustering tool for web servers (including Apache). It provides load balancing at two levels (DNS and LAN), failover redundancy, and admission control to maintain quality of service levels.

Last time I check it allowed different DNS responses depending on IP.

http://eddie.sourceforge.net


Etc

FAIR USE NOTICE This site contains copyrighted material the use of which has not always been specifically authorized by the copyright owner. We are making such material available in our efforts to advance understanding of environmental, political, human rights, economic, democracy, scientific, and social justice issues, etc. We believe this constitutes a 'fair use' of any such copyrighted material as provided for in section 107 of the US Copyright Law. In accordance with Title 17 U.S.C. Section 107, the material on this site is distributed without profit exclusivly for research and educational purposes.   If you wish to use copyrighted material from this site for purposes of your own that go beyond 'fair use', you must obtain permission from the copyright owner. 

ABUSE: IPs or network segments from which we detect a stream of probes might be blocked for no less then 90 days. Multiple types of probes increase this period.  

Society

Groupthink : Two Party System as Polyarchy : Corruption of Regulators : Bureaucracies : Understanding Micromanagers and Control Freaks : Toxic Managers :   Harvard Mafia : Diplomatic Communication : Surviving a Bad Performance Review : Insufficient Retirement Funds as Immanent Problem of Neoliberal Regime : PseudoScience : Who Rules America : Neoliberalism  : The Iron Law of Oligarchy : Libertarian Philosophy

Quotes

War and Peace : Skeptical Finance : John Kenneth Galbraith :Talleyrand : Oscar Wilde : Otto Von Bismarck : Keynes : George Carlin : Skeptics : Propaganda  : SE quotes : Language Design and Programming Quotes : Random IT-related quotesSomerset Maugham : Marcus Aurelius : Kurt Vonnegut : Eric Hoffer : Winston Churchill : Napoleon Bonaparte : Ambrose BierceBernard Shaw : Mark Twain Quotes

Bulletin:

Vol 25, No.12 (December, 2013) Rational Fools vs. Efficient Crooks The efficient markets hypothesis : Political Skeptic Bulletin, 2013 : Unemployment Bulletin, 2010 :  Vol 23, No.10 (October, 2011) An observation about corporate security departments : Slightly Skeptical Euromaydan Chronicles, June 2014 : Greenspan legacy bulletin, 2008 : Vol 25, No.10 (October, 2013) Cryptolocker Trojan (Win32/Crilock.A) : Vol 25, No.08 (August, 2013) Cloud providers as intelligence collection hubs : Financial Humor Bulletin, 2010 : Inequality Bulletin, 2009 : Financial Humor Bulletin, 2008 : Copyleft Problems Bulletin, 2004 : Financial Humor Bulletin, 2011 : Energy Bulletin, 2010 : Malware Protection Bulletin, 2010 : Vol 26, No.1 (January, 2013) Object-Oriented Cult : Political Skeptic Bulletin, 2011 : Vol 23, No.11 (November, 2011) Softpanorama classification of sysadmin horror stories : Vol 25, No.05 (May, 2013) Corporate bullshit as a communication method  : Vol 25, No.06 (June, 2013) A Note on the Relationship of Brooks Law and Conway Law

History:

Fifty glorious years (1950-2000): the triumph of the US computer engineering : Donald Knuth : TAoCP and its Influence of Computer Science : Richard Stallman : Linus Torvalds  : Larry Wall  : John K. Ousterhout : CTSS : Multix OS Unix History : Unix shell history : VI editor : History of pipes concept : Solaris : MS DOSProgramming Languages History : PL/1 : Simula 67 : C : History of GCC developmentScripting Languages : Perl history   : OS History : Mail : DNS : SSH : CPU Instruction Sets : SPARC systems 1987-2006 : Norton Commander : Norton Utilities : Norton Ghost : Frontpage history : Malware Defense History : GNU Screen : OSS early history

Classic books:

The Peter Principle : Parkinson Law : 1984 : The Mythical Man-MonthHow to Solve It by George Polya : The Art of Computer Programming : The Elements of Programming Style : The Unix Hater’s Handbook : The Jargon file : The True Believer : Programming Pearls : The Good Soldier Svejk : The Power Elite

Most popular humor pages:

Manifest of the Softpanorama IT Slacker Society : Ten Commandments of the IT Slackers Society : Computer Humor Collection : BSD Logo Story : The Cuckoo's Egg : IT Slang : C++ Humor : ARE YOU A BBS ADDICT? : The Perl Purity Test : Object oriented programmers of all nations : Financial Humor : Financial Humor Bulletin, 2008 : Financial Humor Bulletin, 2010 : The Most Comprehensive Collection of Editor-related Humor : Programming Language Humor : Goldman Sachs related humor : Greenspan humor : C Humor : Scripting Humor : Real Programmers Humor : Web Humor : GPL-related Humor : OFM Humor : Politically Incorrect Humor : IDS Humor : "Linux Sucks" Humor : Russian Musical Humor : Best Russian Programmer Humor : Microsoft plans to buy Catholic Church : Richard Stallman Related Humor : Admin Humor : Perl-related Humor : Linus Torvalds Related humor : PseudoScience Related Humor : Networking Humor : Shell Humor : Financial Humor Bulletin, 2011 : Financial Humor Bulletin, 2012 : Financial Humor Bulletin, 2013 : Java Humor : Software Engineering Humor : Sun Solaris Related Humor : Education Humor : IBM Humor : Assembler-related Humor : VIM Humor : Computer Viruses Humor : Bright tomorrow is rescheduled to a day after tomorrow : Classic Computer Humor

The Last but not Least


Copyright © 1996-2016 by Dr. Nikolai Bezroukov. www.softpanorama.org was created as a service to the UN Sustainable Development Networking Programme (SDNP) in the author free time. This document is an industrial compilation designed and created exclusively for educational use and is distributed under the Softpanorama Content License.

The site uses AdSense so you need to be aware of Google privacy policy. You you do not want to be tracked by Google please disable Javascript for this site. This site is perfectly usable without Javascript.

Original materials copyright belong to respective owners. Quotes are made for educational purposes only in compliance with the fair use doctrine.

FAIR USE NOTICE This site contains copyrighted material the use of which has not always been specifically authorized by the copyright owner. We are making such material available to advance understanding of computer science, IT technology, economic, scientific, and social issues. We believe this constitutes a 'fair use' of any such copyrighted material as provided by section 107 of the US Copyright Law according to which such material can be distributed without profit exclusively for research and educational purposes.

This is a Spartan WHYFF (We Help You For Free) site written by people for whom English is not a native language. Grammar and spelling errors should be expected. The site contain some broken links as it develops like a living tree...

You can use PayPal to make a contribution, supporting development of this site and speed up access. In case softpanorama.org is down you can use the at softpanorama.info

Disclaimer:

The statements, views and opinions presented on this web page are those of the author (or referenced source) and are not endorsed by, nor do they necessarily reflect, the opinions of the author present and former employers, SDNP or any other organization the author may be associated with. We do not warrant the correctness of the information provided or its fitness for any purpose.

Consulting

DNS, DHCP, IP Address Management Solutions from Men & Mice

Yahoo! - Nominum, Inc. Company Profile

Random Findings

Domain Name System: Proper use reduces intranet administration costs by Anton Holleman
Brief white paper from Origin, supporting the use of DNS instead of services like NIS or WINS. Originally published in Dutch in April 1999.
The InterNIC Lame Delegation Policy
The InterNIC's draft policy to deal with lame delegations for domains that they administer. They are supposed to deregister the domain if all delegated servers are lame for 90 days, but they don't seem to bother. The issues relating to trademarks are highly contentious. See also the DNSRD pages on domain registration and disputes.

Quiz

Q1. FQDN stands for ________________________ ?

A: Fully Qualified Name of Domain

Q2. Which of the following is FQDN ?

a. www.mydomain.com

b. mydomain.com

c. www.mydomain.com.

A: C (the dot at the end is essential for FQDN)

Q3. True/Flase: Relative domain name (RDN) ends with the dot.

A: False

Q4. What is the maximum number of characters you can have in a FQDN ?

A: 255

Q5. True or Flase: domain names can contain the symbol "*" ?

Ans: False

Note: Only alpha numerics and dashes

Q6. _________ servers maintain the top-level zones (com, net, edu).

A: root

Q7. ___________ servers are authoritative for domains they serve.

A: Primary (Master)

Q8. The DNS server configuration file is:

A: /etc/named.conf

Q9. True/Flase: Secondary DNS servers can not be authoritative for any domains .

A: False

Note: They can be authoritative for other domains they serve

Q10. True/False: Secondary DNS Servers can help in load sharing with the primary servers .

A: True

Q11. Secondary servers are defined by the type keyword ______ in the named.conf file .

A: slave

Q12. Name 4 kinds of DNS servers ?

A: Primary, Secondary, Caching-only, Forwarding

Q13. Which 2 kinds of DNS servers can never be authoritative over any domain ?

A: Caching-only and Forwarding

Q14. You have a few PCs at the remote location. Uplink bandwidth is premium. You want to reduce DNS lookup traffic as much as possible. Which should you do ?

A: Setup a forwarding DNS server

Note: such servers build a rich DNS cache which minimize number of off-site queries (queries forwarded to master or secondary server).

Q15. 2 kinds of answers a client can get from any DNS server are:

A: Authoritative and Non-Authoritative

Q16. Non-authoritative answers can be incorrect mostly due to :

A: changes that have not been propagated via updates

Q17. What does the /var/named/named.root file specify ?

A: specifies name of address mapping of root servers

Q18. How does a DNS server find the actual root servers ?

A: by querying the servers listed in the file /var/named/named.root

Q19. Which file has name and IP for all systems in the domain (on a DNS server) ?

A: /var/named/domain.info

Q20. Which file on a DNS server has IP to name resolution ?

A: /var/named/inverse-domain.info

Q21. What does the /var/named/loopback-domain.info file specify ?

A: inverse loopback domain address

Q22. Which file does a workstation consult to find out which DNS servers should be consulted to resolve names ?

A: /etc/resolv.conf

Q23. Which command causes in.named to take a snapshot of its in-memory cached data.

A: pkill –INT in.named

Q24. You you ran pkill –INT in.named, where will it write the snapshot of its in-memory cached data ?

A: /var/named/named_dump.db

Q25. Which command causes in.named to increase its debug level by 1 ?

A: pkill –USR1 in.named

Q26. Which command causes name daemon to return to level 0 (debug) ?

A: pkill –USR2 in.named

Q27. Which command will cause the in.named daemon to reread it's configuration files ?

A: pkill –HUP in.named

Q28. True/False: DNS gives you the ability to restrict queries from machines in a particular zone.

A: True

Q29. True/False: Bind provides the facility to block unauthorized zone transfers.

A: True

Q30. Which tool converts /etc/hosts files to DNS zone files ?

A: h2n

Q31. Which DNS debugging tool allows in-depth debugging of DNS problems ?

A: dig



Etc

FAIR USE NOTICE This site contains copyrighted material the use of which has not always been specifically authorized by the copyright owner. We are making such material available in our efforts to advance understanding of environmental, political, human rights, economic, democracy, scientific, and social justice issues, etc. We believe this constitutes a 'fair use' of any such copyrighted material as provided for in section 107 of the US Copyright Law. In accordance with Title 17 U.S.C. Section 107, the material on this site is distributed without profit exclusivly for research and educational purposes.   If you wish to use copyrighted material from this site for purposes of your own that go beyond 'fair use', you must obtain permission from the copyright owner. 

ABUSE: IPs or network segments from which we detect a stream of probes might be blocked for no less then 90 days. Multiple types of probes increase this period.  

Society

Groupthink : Two Party System as Polyarchy : Corruption of Regulators : Bureaucracies : Understanding Micromanagers and Control Freaks : Toxic Managers :   Harvard Mafia : Diplomatic Communication : Surviving a Bad Performance Review : Insufficient Retirement Funds as Immanent Problem of Neoliberal Regime : PseudoScience : Who Rules America : Neoliberalism  : The Iron Law of Oligarchy : Libertarian Philosophy

Quotes

War and Peace : Skeptical Finance : John Kenneth Galbraith :Talleyrand : Oscar Wilde : Otto Von Bismarck : Keynes : George Carlin : Skeptics : Propaganda  : SE quotes : Language Design and Programming Quotes : Random IT-related quotesSomerset Maugham : Marcus Aurelius : Kurt Vonnegut : Eric Hoffer : Winston Churchill : Napoleon Bonaparte : Ambrose BierceBernard Shaw : Mark Twain Quotes

Bulletin:

Vol 25, No.12 (December, 2013) Rational Fools vs. Efficient Crooks The efficient markets hypothesis : Political Skeptic Bulletin, 2013 : Unemployment Bulletin, 2010 :  Vol 23, No.10 (October, 2011) An observation about corporate security departments : Slightly Skeptical Euromaydan Chronicles, June 2014 : Greenspan legacy bulletin, 2008 : Vol 25, No.10 (October, 2013) Cryptolocker Trojan (Win32/Crilock.A) : Vol 25, No.08 (August, 2013) Cloud providers as intelligence collection hubs : Financial Humor Bulletin, 2010 : Inequality Bulletin, 2009 : Financial Humor Bulletin, 2008 : Copyleft Problems Bulletin, 2004 : Financial Humor Bulletin, 2011 : Energy Bulletin, 2010 : Malware Protection Bulletin, 2010 : Vol 26, No.1 (January, 2013) Object-Oriented Cult : Political Skeptic Bulletin, 2011 : Vol 23, No.11 (November, 2011) Softpanorama classification of sysadmin horror stories : Vol 25, No.05 (May, 2013) Corporate bullshit as a communication method  : Vol 25, No.06 (June, 2013) A Note on the Relationship of Brooks Law and Conway Law

History:

Fifty glorious years (1950-2000): the triumph of the US computer engineering : Donald Knuth : TAoCP and its Influence of Computer Science : Richard Stallman : Linus Torvalds  : Larry Wall  : John K. Ousterhout : CTSS : Multix OS Unix History : Unix shell history : VI editor : History of pipes concept : Solaris : MS DOSProgramming Languages History : PL/1 : Simula 67 : C : History of GCC developmentScripting Languages : Perl history   : OS History : Mail : DNS : SSH : CPU Instruction Sets : SPARC systems 1987-2006 : Norton Commander : Norton Utilities : Norton Ghost : Frontpage history : Malware Defense History : GNU Screen : OSS early history

Classic books:

The Peter Principle : Parkinson Law : 1984 : The Mythical Man-MonthHow to Solve It by George Polya : The Art of Computer Programming : The Elements of Programming Style : The Unix Hater’s Handbook : The Jargon file : The True Believer : Programming Pearls : The Good Soldier Svejk : The Power Elite

Most popular humor pages:

Manifest of the Softpanorama IT Slacker Society : Ten Commandments of the IT Slackers Society : Computer Humor Collection : BSD Logo Story : The Cuckoo's Egg : IT Slang : C++ Humor : ARE YOU A BBS ADDICT? : The Perl Purity Test : Object oriented programmers of all nations : Financial Humor : Financial Humor Bulletin, 2008 : Financial Humor Bulletin, 2010 : The Most Comprehensive Collection of Editor-related Humor : Programming Language Humor : Goldman Sachs related humor : Greenspan humor : C Humor : Scripting Humor : Real Programmers Humor : Web Humor : GPL-related Humor : OFM Humor : Politically Incorrect Humor : IDS Humor : "Linux Sucks" Humor : Russian Musical Humor : Best Russian Programmer Humor : Microsoft plans to buy Catholic Church : Richard Stallman Related Humor : Admin Humor : Perl-related Humor : Linus Torvalds Related humor : PseudoScience Related Humor : Networking Humor : Shell Humor : Financial Humor Bulletin, 2011 : Financial Humor Bulletin, 2012 : Financial Humor Bulletin, 2013 : Java Humor : Software Engineering Humor : Sun Solaris Related Humor : Education Humor : IBM Humor : Assembler-related Humor : VIM Humor : Computer Viruses Humor : Bright tomorrow is rescheduled to a day after tomorrow : Classic Computer Humor

The Last but not Least


Copyright © 1996-2016 by Dr. Nikolai Bezroukov. www.softpanorama.org was created as a service to the UN Sustainable Development Networking Programme (SDNP) in the author free time. This document is an industrial compilation designed and created exclusively for educational use and is distributed under the Softpanorama Content License.

The site uses AdSense so you need to be aware of Google privacy policy. You you do not want to be tracked by Google please disable Javascript for this site. This site is perfectly usable without Javascript.

Original materials copyright belong to respective owners. Quotes are made for educational purposes only in compliance with the fair use doctrine.

FAIR USE NOTICE This site contains copyrighted material the use of which has not always been specifically authorized by the copyright owner. We are making such material available to advance understanding of computer science, IT technology, economic, scientific, and social issues. We believe this constitutes a 'fair use' of any such copyrighted material as provided by section 107 of the US Copyright Law according to which such material can be distributed without profit exclusively for research and educational purposes.

This is a Spartan WHYFF (We Help You For Free) site written by people for whom English is not a native language. Grammar and spelling errors should be expected. The site contain some broken links as it develops like a living tree...

You can use PayPal to make a contribution, supporting development of this site and speed up access. In case softpanorama.org is down you can use the at softpanorama.info

Disclaimer:

The statements, views and opinions presented on this web page are those of the author (or referenced source) and are not endorsed by, nor do they necessarily reflect, the opinions of the author present and former employers, SDNP or any other organization the author may be associated with. We do not warrant the correctness of the information provided or its fitness for any purpose.

Created May 16, 1996; Last modified: September 12, 2017