|May the source be with you, but remember the KISS principle ;-)|
|Contents||Bulletin||Scripting in shell and Perl||Network troubleshooting||History||Humor|
|News||Programmable Keyboards||Recommended Links||Logitech Gaming Software||Creating macros using the MR key|
|G-keyboards LUA Scripting||Microsoft Sidewinder X4 and X6 Keyboards||Logitech G110|
|Troubleshooting Logitech G-keyboards macros||Logitech G600 Gaming Mouse||Sysadmin Horror Stories||Humor||Etc|
One of best programmable keypads on the market is Logitech G13 Programmable Gameboard with LCD Display
It can be used with Microsoft Natural Ergonomic Keyboard 4000. Nice heavy for Frontpage users (and any other sophisticated editor). Acutally professional skills of working with an editor are comparable to the skills that hardcore gamers obtain for thisr favorite game ;-)
The G4, G10, G11, G12 keys are concave for your finger tips, which is nice, The G15 key (the first one in the 3rd row) acts like a shift key and the G20 (first key in the 4th row) is shaped like a CTRL key on a standard keyboard. The button near the joystick would be like a spacebar. However, in the beginning, there is a definitely a slight learning curve to getting used to the feel of this board.
The device requires Logitech Gaming Software. The way the device works is that the software allows you to set up profiles for your games. It is identical to creation of profiles for Logitech G510s gaming keyboard
In a word, the G13 piece is of good quality, actually of higher quality then G510s keyboard. The initial tactile experience with the unit exceeded my expectations. The unit is fairly large. The arc shape mirrors the natural curve of the hand. It has pad at the bottom. The pad is of decent size for someone with average to slightly-larger-than average hands. The keys press easily and are in a comfortable layout. The joystick also moves easily with my thumb. However, the joystick has a "click" attached to it when you press it down which is somewhat difficult to activate while keeping the stick still. It's definitely a hard press.
The unit feels solid and heavy, containing a metal weight embedded in the upper half of the unit. In photos, that large area that says G13 on the bottom is actually a big chunk of metal. Couple this heft with a number of large rubber feet, and the G13 literally become a component of the surface you place it on, imparting an very solid feel.
The palm of your left hand can rests on a firmly-padded textured rubber surface. It has a heavily grained leather-like feel to it, providing a very comfortable no-slip anchor point for your hand.
The keys are of typical membrane Logitech keyboard quality. Still head and shoulders away from what I was expecting.
Some of the keys on the extreme right are difficult to reach, I you can not use them at all or assign not-often-used functions to those keys. The extreme top-left keys are very easy to reach and convininet to use. The left pay of Joystick can emulate the spacebar.
The Logitech G13 has 22 keys plus a joystick button, and two extra buttons near the joystick for a total of 25 programmable items. The ergonomics on the G13 is very good and allows you to keep your wrist in its natural position, as when you are typing
The keys press easily and are in a comfortable layout. The joystick also moves easily with my thumb. However, the joystick has a "click" attached to it when you press it down which is somewhat difficult to activate while keeping the stick still. It's definitely a hard press.
Usage of the gamepad is identical to usage of G510s (or other G-keycboard) or G600 mouse. The same Logitech Gaming Software (LGS) is used. The profile creation is easy. It involves choosing a name and the locating application executable file in you filesystem.
Once you have a new profile, you can choose what to assign to your keys. Your options are key combinations, macros, or scripts. The software makes assigning each of these easy and if you decided to move the assignement to another button you can drag it with mouse.
The software is also where you are allowed to select specific color for the your profile. Using the windows built-in color chooser, you can select any value of RGB to backlight your unit with. Each memory setting (1 - 3) can have its own backlight. This gives you an easy way to distinguish quickly which profile you're on.
Creation of Macros is pretty straightforward. You can launch the macro editor and begin recording keystrokes and mouse clicks and then save them into the macro list. You are then able to assign the macros to G-keys on the board. The macro editor also allows you to add custom durations between events in the macro you're recording, or it can record durations between key presses as you do them. I find it easier to record the macro first and then add delays later.
All G devices allow to use a subset of the LUA scripting language. The subset includes most of the math libraries, strings manipulation but not IO and OS API calls. Using the LUA language, and some custom Logitech event functionality (which are documented) you can control the LCD, moving the mouse, emulating keypresses, etc. Once you create a script, you can assign it to a G-key very easily by choosing it from a list.
That is especially IDE for quickly running commands (compiling, debug, synchronization, etc).
The screen is almost identical to the 2nd rev G15's, however in this case you can change the backlighting to any color you want (the keys as well). The screen is brighter than the G15's, but unfortunately it only has 2 settings; backlit or off. I thought this was a major oversight, as I don't want it full brightness all the time, like in a darkened room. It's not that huge of a deal because since it's off to the left, the screen isn't shining directly in your face. If this were my keyboard I was reviewing, I'd care a bit more about this. I think this is the device's only glaring flaw. The screen sits at a good angle on my desk, though I wish I had the option to adjust it slightly more up, or at least have the option to prop the entire pad up on little feet like you'd find on a keyboard, but I digress. In the end it's very bright, very legible. One cool thing is that you can make the backlighting a different color for every memory mode (of which there are 3).
Jun 3, 2014I'm currently (as I type this) to use it for World of Warcraft on Windows 8.1. I also used it for Windows 8, Vista, and XP. It should also work for Windows 7.
I'm currently (as I type this) to use it for World of Warcraft on Windows 8.1. I also used it for Windows 8, Vista, and XP. It should also work for Windows 7.
Can someone who only has one working hand be a able to use this to play games? Oct 8, 2013 Greetings David, I checked with Logitech support on the subject. I purposed that maybe you could use both devices if you set one on the M1 setting and the other one using the M2 set of buttons. They replied stating that they have tried this and it does not work. The system sees both controllers as one device, so sorry, it could be a good thing, but not yet at any rate. I use a Logitech G700s and find that I have a sufficient amount of options to control any game I have played so far. I have not played any of the MMO's so with them it might be enough and might not. I tried the Razer Naga... "
Will this work on Windows 7 64 bit and is there a profile made for The Elder Scrolls Online? Apr 21, 2014 Yes it will work 100% and it has a pre-loaded profile for Elder Scrolls: Skyrim, along with many other games but i'm not sure with online. Hope this helps!
Marz - See all my reviews
This review is from: Logitech G13 Programmable Gameboard with LCD Display (Personal Computers)Unlike the vast majority of the folks reviewing this product I'm not a gamer. I bought this product to use while I am CADing. I use Solidworks as my CAD program and I have always wanted a left handed keyboard to add to my station. This product has been a great help. Most CAD programs allow the user to program in shortcuts but you quickly find yourself having to hunt all over the keyboard to do what you want. With this gamepad I can program all of the shortcuts conveniently for my left hand.
Overall I am very happy with it and feel that it is well worth the money.
The only cons I see are as follows:
- I have very large hands but I could see where someone with small hands might find it a bit difficult to reach all of the keys
- The thumb joystick could be more ergonomicaly designed to fit the side of the thumb, which is how I think they intended it to be used
- I glued a very small ball bearing to help identify the home keys since the three center keys are identically indented (this is more a failing of my sensitivity of my fingertips I guess)
- A wireless version would have been nice
There is still more I need to learn about the functions and there is, of course, a learning curve. But, I would recommend this to anyone who wants to aid their CADing.
Doug (Seattle) - See all my reviews
Buy it for work, keep it for fun.
I bought this beast for use with reviewing PDF documents (think macros for sticky notes, stamps, typewriter, text edits...) and for use with excel. I'm a tax accountant and recording macros on the fly and setting the device to pick my profile based on what program I'm running is awesome. Sure I'll be shunned for having it at work, but I'm in tax season and don't have time for friends anyway.
Buy it for work, keep it for fun.
Timothy Higgs - See all my reviews
A necessity, but I don't use this product for gaming... sorry,
September 10, 2013
The option of a programmable keypad with a joy stick and ergonomic setup is ideal for many applications. I think advertising it as gaming hardware is really underselling the potential of this kind of hardware. I make my own music and use music editing software such as Music Creator heavily. This keypad allows me to program all my most needed functions and macros and keep them separate from my keyboard so they don't screw up my other computering needs.
The option furthermore of programming multiple profiles and switching between them on the device itself allows for a great increase in convenience while switching between programs. The changing of a key from one command to another is drag and drop. Easy and fully customizable.
A great buy for many applications, not just gaming.
Matt Terrill - See all my reviewsG. Finn - See all my reviews
Love this device,
October 26, 2014
Love this device, mainly because of LUA. I knew nothing about the language but with the help files under scripting it isn't too bad to figure it out.
Not all of the examples are correct but with a little messing around you can figure out the syntax. The construction of the devise is sturdy.
I bought the Noga first but couldn't get it to connect and so I got the G13 and had no issues loading drivers. I'm glad the Noga didn't work.
I'm a CNC Programmer and love this device for automating my tasks. But I should focus this review more on the G13 because most of the Logitech gaming human interface devices have the LUA scripting capability. The keys any mechanical. That would have been cool. I get picked on a little for having this thing on my desk. And I didn't want the keyboard because I also use a 3D connexion space mouse and wanted the room between my two hands. Smaller keyboard that is. This is a long winded review but if you think you want this device then just get it. It's worth the price, the Noga was 120 and a pile of.... Thanks!
Form Meets Moderately-Stable Function,
October 22, 2014
I've been meaning to write this review for a while, but I figured I would make it at the six-month mark. So, these are my thoughts on on the Logitech G13 Gameboard.
Overall, this is a nifty little gadget that's bueatiful as well as incredibly useful for anybody who has a need for only a few keys at a time, namely designers/artists (like myself), gamers (like myself), and/or minimalists (like myself). Being able to program every single key on the G13 is something that I found to be very useful in my photo editing applications as well as open-control games like Kerbal Space Program and League of Legends. I can have my Photoshop hotkeys mapped out just how I like them and with the press of a button I'm ready to play a shoot-em-up or adventure game with friends. It's also fully-integrated with the Logitech G-Sync software (where I have both my mouse and headphones programmed), so changing the mode on the gamepad changes the mode to everything else and I find that very cool.
However, it's not without its caveats: the pad itself is actually quite big. I've got medium-sized hands and it felt like I was stretching my fingers to reach the WASD keys, but I eventually got used to my hand placement. What I found the most uncomfortable was that there's no home row. If you've got hands that are smaller than Andre the Giant's, there's no way you're going to be able to reach all the keys without moving you hand.
I've also noticed it's finicky when you first boot your computer. I've found that with my particular unit it only connects properly some 7 out of 10 times. I've been doing a bit of reading around and this actually seems like a driver problem in Windows 8 that Logitech has yet to address, so I'll just hope that they do eventually. I've found that if it doesn't connect, rebooting the computer solves the problem...sometimes. I still have that chance of it not working (I've only ever had to do a double-reboot once, so I guess that's something).
I ended up going with this over the gamer-style gamepads from NZXT and Razer because it felt like a great compromise between form and function at a good price. Honestly, I'm happy with it, but I wouldn't call it a must-have; just something nice for a niche market. If you're looking for a keypad and want to save a few bucks and don't mind the fact that it sometimes spazzes out on startup, I say go for it. There are better options (but uglier, imo), but this isn't so bad once you get used to it.
Richard Drebsky - See all my reviews
The G13 is built much better than its main competition from Razer,
October 18, 2014
I know other gaming keypads are more popular, but the G13 is built much better than its main competition from Razer.
In general, I also highly recommend gaming keypads. I know people are in favor of gaming mice, but you will really appreciate a gaming keypad once you use it.
Although gaming mice allow for button mapping, hitting the keys is highly dependent on one finger, your thumb. When one uses a gaming keypad, they can use all five of their finger on their off-hand, a mouse + keypad combo is deadly once you get a hang for it.
I use a Mac, and this keypad integrated seamlessly via the Logitech Gaming Center app.
The keypad also has a LCD that displays a choice of incoming emails, media being played, system information, and key game stats after downloading game specific plug ins.
In conclusion, this device is manufactured better than its competition and it's very comfortable. You could still use a gaming mouse, but give a keypad a serious look despite the common mantra of gaming mouse.
Also, it's easier to get these on Amazon because most stores only carry the gaming mice.
H. Lince III - See all my reviews
Verified Purchase(What's this?)This review is from: Logitech G13 Programmable Gameboard with LCD Display (Personal Computers)
I originally bought the nostromo, and kept trying to "deal" with various shortcomings of it. Eventually I woke up, investigated the g13 and in truth it's the best gamepad. If you can undestand basic scripting you can make this device do exactly what you want due to an integrated scripting engine.
Originally I wasn't sure I was going to use the LCD screen, however it's turned out to be useful for performance monitoring but more importantly controlling Pandora Radio.
Overall I have no complaints about this device, It was a little awkward trying to access all of the buttons but I found my natural position fairly fast.
Compared to Nostromo
The Nostromo isn't scriptable (it has macros but that is it.)
The G13 offers a larger range of things each button can do
The G13 can have backlighting changed per memory bank and profile, it can also be controlled via scripts.
-- The above has been very important, in Starcraft II for example I have "Select Group" a white background, Add to group a Cyan color, and Replace/Overwrite group a Pinkish color. There is some on screen display I have programmed with this as well but the color allows me to quickly identify the state of the panel through my peripheral vision.
The G13's joystick is a joystick, the Nostromo is a thumbpad on a d-pad
The G13 has more buttons readily available
The Nostromo has more memory banks, this originally sold me but turned out to be very cumbersome to work with.
The G13 can store profiles on the device which stores very fast. This is important to note because I also have a Razer Imperator which requires the longest write times on the smallest changes to the device.
The G13 (in my opinion) has a more natural curve for my hand, the Nostromo was too drastic and actually led to carpal tunnel-esque pains.
The Nostromo is still a good device but given the relatively tiny price difference between the G13 and Nostromo, the G13 wins hands down.
NoseDaddy (Roseland, SC) - See all my reviewsM. Schneider "Cadman0508" (California) - See all my reviews
Verified Purchase(What's this?)This review is from: Logitech G13 Programmable Gameboard with LCD Display (Personal Computers)
Other comments here have covered what the G13 hardware consists of so I thought I would give a few tips on how I found it easy to use. My comments are aimed at gaming but my career was as a surveyor and I spent many hours turning field data into maps and later in my life I got pretty deep into image editing and creation. The G13 would provide many benefits with them too. I actually had an assignable key keypad but the G13 has a much more comfortable layout and it is much easier to change key assignments.
I am an old guy who went out on disability a few years early from regular retirement and took up video games as a pastime that works with my new physical and mental limitations. I bought the G13 a few years ago to replace an old, seldom used N52 which never seemed to work just right for me- maybe because I seldom played games when healthy. I can no longer have a "normal" life and gaming provides me with a blessed way to keep my no longer sharp mind active while being stuck in a chair. In the last 3 1/2 years, I have played mostly shooters and MMORPG while using this with enthusiasm as an aid to all of them. The only games that I can't do well with it are driving games and that is hindered mostly by my inability to use keyboard keys to move- I use a mouse which most driving games won't allow.
The customization of the layout is easy (simple to me) and switching between profiles for different games OR players is easily achieved two ways: many different profiles (1 for each game or person perhaps) AND 4 different setups in each of those profiles for different players/game requirements. The key assignment/creation procedure in both methods works identically, however the in profile setups is the quickest to change on the fly.
There are four rows of keys-- number of keys in row, top to bottom- 7,7,5,3. There are depressions in the keys that are normally assigned to WASD but I don't require this layout so to mark critical keys with a tactile feel, I went to Lowe's and bought some heavy rubber/foam double sided tape (adhesive both sides) and easily cut pieces to fit the tops of the center keys in each row (the rows are centered on the unit so the four middle keys are vertical). After cutting them, carefully press them down onto the key with some force, running your finger around so it seats firmly on the key. The plastic tape on the top side that keeps the tape from sticking together on the roll can be left on if you have an occasional need for visual feedback. I left it on my application and it is all still on after 2 1/2 years of frequent use. With later applications, I removed that tape which works as well but the main rubbery covering remains sticky for a while. You can solve that by rubbing your finger alongside your nose (or use baby oil) then rubbing the key and the body oil will quickly make the stickiness go away. This marking method works very well and can be removed/relocated at any time according to your needs.
I assign the most used keys to the bottom two rows which gives me 8 normal weapons/tools/spells in instant reach with the upper row keys reserved for the less used "nuclear strike" or "Oh Help Me Lord" functions. These keyboard-like keys are pressed with index, middle and ring fingers which span the whole 4 row key area with small movement from my hands comfortable "combat" resting area. I have never developed reliable key usage with my pinky finger and it gets to loaf. I NEVER get pains in this hand from weird positions.
I then assign the two very convenient buttons adjacent to the stick to "Shift" and "Ctrl" and press them with my thumb. This allows you to triple key function from 22 to 66 different events using 1 finger and the thumb without any significant movement of your hand-- example: 1; Shift+1; Ctrl+1, although there are only so many keys I use this way since too many choices boggle my mind. Incidentally, these keys also work as shift and ctrl when used together with your mouse so you can actually TRIPLE the number of keyed functions on your mouse if the game/software allows it.
The stick is only used for movement in shooters where I can slide rt or left to peek around a corner. In MMO games, the stick in generally only used to access maps, quest log, inventory, gear, mounting, targeting next enemy, etc. Again, the shift and ctrl buttons when used with the stick triple the number of selections to 12.
The press down button function on the stick is firm, slow and not suited for game play-- I assign it to Alt+Tab so I can window out of the game to the G13 programming software when I need to assign/change a key function. IMHO you will start slow with a new game and try out different layouts as you go-- don't forget to save with each change. I find that it works best to have the few most used keys right under my fingers with any normal follow-up actions using the same key with shift or ctrl. Example: your termination shot always works best with a de-buff first followed by an "X" shot within 5 sec-- set up the G13 so you can press the de-buff key, then press the same key again while holding the shift key with your thumb to activate the "X" shot. I suspect that the macro function can work for this but I have never used macros for gameplay.
In MMO games, there are usually only 48 slots on programmable in-game toolbars so you can see that the G13 has an overabundance of selections even when you include those choices (target nearest enemy, volume up, walk/run, etc.) that are set from "preferences".
To sum it up, this is a sturdy, well designed, well made and high function piece of gear. I am a big man and it has stood up to very frequent use and some of that can be rough on those days when I am way out of synch with the demands of that annoying NPC which always seems to run your health out 1 sec before you get them. At my age, with my health problems, I am no longer as reactive as I once was and I seem to meet those guys quite often. I find it hard to imagine that some here have complained about how hard the G13 is to setup when I found it to be as simple as any computer gear I have ever used! I think you will be happy with this if you buy it.
This review is from: Logitech G13 Programmable Gameboard with LCD Display (Personal Computers)I did not buy my G13 through Amazon. I got it for my work. I am an AutoCAD designer. The flexibility of this item is great. I have used the G13 for creating shortcuts in AutoCAD and Navisworks. Now I can do 10 command at the press of a button. I like that it isn't designed so that you can only input your commands one way.
The software allows you to input through "Keystroke", "Multikey", Textblock, "Mouse Function" and "Hotkeys". You can also set it up to play your media and open your computer desktop shortcuts. Like I said it is very flexible. I rate this very high, for several reasons.
One it is not just for one thing gaming, almost any program can be setup to be used by this little gem. Two the fact that I have had it for 3+ years of regular use and not any mechanical or software problems. I have traversed from Windows XP to Windows 7 seamlessly. The profiles transferred very easily. All in all a great buy!
Softpanorama hot topic of the month
FAIR USE NOTICE This site contains copyrighted material the use of which has not always been specifically authorized by the copyright owner. We are making such material available in our efforts to advance understanding of environmental, political, human rights, economic, democracy, scientific, and social justice issues, etc. We believe this constitutes a 'fair use' of any such copyrighted material as provided for in section 107 of the US Copyright Law. In accordance with Title 17 U.S.C. Section 107, the material on this site is distributed without profit exclusivly for research and educational purposes. If you wish to use copyrighted material from this site for purposes of your own that go beyond 'fair use', you must obtain permission from the copyright owner.
ABUSE: IPs or network segments from which we detect a stream of probes might be blocked for no less then 90 days. Multiple types of probes increase this period.
Groupthink : Two Party System as Polyarchy : Corruption of Regulators : Bureaucracies : Understanding Micromanagers and Control Freaks : Toxic Managers : Harvard Mafia : Diplomatic Communication : Surviving a Bad Performance Review : Insufficient Retirement Funds as Immanent Problem of Neoliberal Regime : PseudoScience : Who Rules America : Neoliberalism : The Iron Law of Oligarchy : Libertarian Philosophy
War and Peace : Skeptical Finance : John Kenneth Galbraith :Talleyrand : Oscar Wilde : Otto Von Bismarck : Keynes : George Carlin : Skeptics : Propaganda : SE quotes : Language Design and Programming Quotes : Random IT-related quotes : Somerset Maugham : Marcus Aurelius : Kurt Vonnegut : Eric Hoffer : Winston Churchill : Napoleon Bonaparte : Ambrose Bierce : Bernard Shaw : Mark Twain Quotes
Vol 25, No.12 (December, 2013) Rational Fools vs. Efficient Crooks The efficient markets hypothesis : Political Skeptic Bulletin, 2013 : Unemployment Bulletin, 2010 : Vol 23, No.10 (October, 2011) An observation about corporate security departments : Slightly Skeptical Euromaydan Chronicles, June 2014 : Greenspan legacy bulletin, 2008 : Vol 25, No.10 (October, 2013) Cryptolocker Trojan (Win32/Crilock.A) : Vol 25, No.08 (August, 2013) Cloud providers as intelligence collection hubs : Financial Humor Bulletin, 2010 : Inequality Bulletin, 2009 : Financial Humor Bulletin, 2008 : Copyleft Problems Bulletin, 2004 : Financial Humor Bulletin, 2011 : Energy Bulletin, 2010 : Malware Protection Bulletin, 2010 : Vol 26, No.1 (January, 2013) Object-Oriented Cult : Political Skeptic Bulletin, 2011 : Vol 23, No.11 (November, 2011) Softpanorama classification of sysadmin horror stories : Vol 25, No.05 (May, 2013) Corporate bullshit as a communication method : Vol 25, No.06 (June, 2013) A Note on the Relationship of Brooks Law and Conway Law
Fifty glorious years (1950-2000): the triumph of the US computer engineering : Donald Knuth : TAoCP and its Influence of Computer Science : Richard Stallman : Linus Torvalds : Larry Wall : John K. Ousterhout : CTSS : Multix OS Unix History : Unix shell history : VI editor : History of pipes concept : Solaris : MS DOS : Programming Languages History : PL/1 : Simula 67 : C : History of GCC development : Scripting Languages : Perl history : OS History : Mail : DNS : SSH : CPU Instruction Sets : SPARC systems 1987-2006 : Norton Commander : Norton Utilities : Norton Ghost : Frontpage history : Malware Defense History : GNU Screen : OSS early history
The Peter Principle : Parkinson Law : 1984 : The Mythical Man-Month : How to Solve It by George Polya : The Art of Computer Programming : The Elements of Programming Style : The Unix Haterís Handbook : The Jargon file : The True Believer : Programming Pearls : The Good Soldier Svejk : The Power Elite
Most popular humor pages:
Manifest of the Softpanorama IT Slacker Society : Ten Commandments of the IT Slackers Society : Computer Humor Collection : BSD Logo Story : The Cuckoo's Egg : IT Slang : C++ Humor : ARE YOU A BBS ADDICT? : The Perl Purity Test : Object oriented programmers of all nations : Financial Humor : Financial Humor Bulletin, 2008 : Financial Humor Bulletin, 2010 : The Most Comprehensive Collection of Editor-related Humor : Programming Language Humor : Goldman Sachs related humor : Greenspan humor : C Humor : Scripting Humor : Real Programmers Humor : Web Humor : GPL-related Humor : OFM Humor : Politically Incorrect Humor : IDS Humor : "Linux Sucks" Humor : Russian Musical Humor : Best Russian Programmer Humor : Microsoft plans to buy Catholic Church : Richard Stallman Related Humor : Admin Humor : Perl-related Humor : Linus Torvalds Related humor : PseudoScience Related Humor : Networking Humor : Shell Humor : Financial Humor Bulletin, 2011 : Financial Humor Bulletin, 2012 : Financial Humor Bulletin, 2013 : Java Humor : Software Engineering Humor : Sun Solaris Related Humor : Education Humor : IBM Humor : Assembler-related Humor : VIM Humor : Computer Viruses Humor : Bright tomorrow is rescheduled to a day after tomorrow : Classic Computer Humor
The Last but not Least
Copyright © 1996-2016 by Dr. Nikolai Bezroukov. www.softpanorama.org was created as a service to the UN Sustainable Development Networking Programme (SDNP) in the author free time. This document is an industrial compilation designed and created exclusively for educational use and is distributed under the Softpanorama Content License.
Original materials copyright belong to respective owners. Quotes are made for educational purposes only in compliance with the fair use doctrine.
FAIR USE NOTICE This site contains copyrighted material the use of which has not always been specifically authorized by the copyright owner. We are making such material available to advance understanding of computer science, IT technology, economic, scientific, and social issues. We believe this constitutes a 'fair use' of any such copyrighted material as provided by section 107 of the US Copyright Law according to which such material can be distributed without profit exclusively for research and educational purposes.
This is a Spartan WHYFF (We Help You For Free) site written by people for whom English is not a native language. Grammar and spelling errors should be expected. The site contain some broken links as it develops like a living tree...
|You can use PayPal to make a contribution, supporting development of this site and speed up access. In case softpanorama.org is down you can use the at softpanorama.info|
The statements, views and opinions presented on this web page are those of the author (or referenced source) and are not endorsed by, nor do they necessarily reflect, the opinions of the author present and former employers, SDNP or any other organization the author may be associated with. We do not warrant the correctness of the information provided or its fitness for any purpose.
Last modified: September, 12, 2017