|May the source be with you, but remember the KISS principle ;-)|
|Contents||Bulletin||Scripting in shell and Perl||Network troubleshooting||History||Humor|
|News||Trunking / Bonding Multiple Network Interfaces||Recommended Links||Bonding Ethernet Interfaces in Red Hat Linux||ethtool||Internet Layer of TCP/IP Protocol|
|Linux ifconfig||Traceroute||Linux route command||Tips||Admin Horror Stories||Humor||Etc|
Red Hat Enterprise Linux allows administrators
to bind multiple network interfaces together into a single channel using the
bonding kernel module and a special network interface called a channel
bonding interface. Channel bonding enables two or more network interfaces to act as one, simultaneously
increasing the bandwidth and providing redundancy.
To create a channel bonding interface, create a file in the
<N> with the number for the interface,
The contents of the file can be identical to whatever type of interface is getting bonded, such as
an Ethernet interface. The only difference is that the
<N> with the number for the interface.
The following is a sample channel bonding configuration file,
DEVICE=bond0 IPADDR=192.168.1.1 NETMASK=255.255.255.0 ONBOOT=yes BOOTPROTO=none USERCTL=no BONDING_OPTS="After the channel bonding interface is created, the network interfaces to be bound together must be configured by adding the
<bonding parameters separated by spaces>"
SLAVE=directives to their configuration files. The configuration files for each of the channel-bonded interfaces can be nearly identical.
For example, if two Ethernet interfaces are being channel
eth1 may look
like the following example:
DEVICE=ethIn this example, replace
<N>BOOTPROTO=none ONBOOT=yes MASTER=bond0 SLAVE=yes USERCTL=no
<N>with the numerical value for the interface.
For a channel bonding interface to be valid, the kernel module must be loaded.
To ensure that the module is loaded when the channel bonding interface is brought up, add the following
<N>with the number of the interface, such as
ImportantDo not place parameters for the bonding kernel module in the
/etc/modprobe.conffile. Instead, specify them as a space-separated list in the
BONDING_OPTS="directive in the
The only exception is the
which cannot be used on a per-device basis, and which should therefore be specified in
/etc/modprobe.conf as follows:
options bonding debug=1For further instructions and advice on configuring the bonding module, as well as to view the list of bonding parameters, refer to Section 45.5.2, “The Channel Bonding Module”.
Channel bonding (also known as “Ethernet bonding”) is a computer networking arrangement in which two or more network interfaces on a host computer are combined for redundancy or increased throughput.
mode=0 (Balance-rr) – This mode provides load balancing and fault tolerance.
mode=1 (active-backup) – This mode provides fault tolerance.
mode=2 (balance-xor) – This mode provides load balancing and fault tolerance.
mode=3 (broadcast) – This mode provides fault tolerance.
mode=4 (802.3ad) – This mode provides load balancing and fault tolerance.
mode=5 (balance-tlb) – Prerequisite: Ethtool support in the base drivers for retrieving the speed of each slave.
mode=6 (balance-alb) – Prerequisite: Ethtool support in the base drivers for retrieving the speed of each slave.
Note: Always append extra configuration in case of a rollback.
# cd /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/
# vi ifcfg-bond0
We’ll be using mode=6 (balance-alb)
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
DEVICE=bond0 USERCTL=no BOOTPROTO=none ONBOOT=yes IPADDR=10.0.0.10 NETMASK=255.255.0.0 NETWORK=10.0.0.0 BONDING_OPTS="miimon=100 mode=balance-alb" TYPE=Unknown IPV6INIT=no
# vi ifcfg-eth0
1 2 3 4 5 6
DEVICE=eth0 BOOTPROTO=none ONBOOT=yes MASTER=bond0 SLAVE=yes USERCTL=no
# vi ifcfg-eth1
1 2 3 4 5 6
DEVICE=eth1 BOOTPROTO=none ONBOOT=yes MASTER=bond0 SLAVE=yes USERCTL=no
# vi ifcfg-eth2
1 2 3 4 5 6
DEVICE=eth2 BOOTPROTO=none ONBOOT=yes MASTER=bond0 SLAVE=yes USERCTL=no
Due to the fact that /etc/modprobe.conf has been deprecated in CentOS 6, the process of bonding network interfaces has changed a bit.
Now instead of defining your bond in your /etc/modprobe.conf, you define it in /etc/modprobe.d/bonding.conf
# vi /etc/modprobe.d/bonding.conf
Append the following onto the end out your modprobe config file
alias bond0 bonding
About George Rushby
# service network restart
Technical Samurai specializing in open source IT Automation and Cloud Infrastructure.
In my previous article I wrote about configuring configuring network interface bonding under Debian Wheezy. Here, I'll briefly outline the steps required to get the same configuration running under recent RHEL-flavoured distributions – namely CentOS 6.4 in my case.
I will be bonding
eth1into a bond named
bond0. Ensure that you're connected to your host via a console. I'll be using active-backup (i.e. failover) bonding, but there are other options available – see the Debian article for links to reference material for those.
First, create the
Due to the fact that /etc/modprobe.conf has been deprecated in RHEL 6, the process of bonding network interfaces has changed a bit.
Now instead of defining your bond in your /etc/modprobe.conf, you define it in /etc/modprobe.d/bonding.conf. No changes in syntax.
alias bond0 bonding
Then in your ifconfig-bond0 file, you define your bonding mode. Note the quotes, and the fact that I explicitly typed out the bonding mode
It was originally written for Mandrakelinux users but it has also been tested on recent versions of Mandriva Linux.
In /etc/modules.conf on a 2.4.x kernel, or in /etc/modprobe.conf on a 2.6.x kernel, you should have something similar to the following:
alias eth0 e1000 # Intel GigE (pci) port 1 alias eth1 e1000 # Intel GigE (pci) port 2 alias bond0 bonding # Kernel nic bonding driver alias bond1 bonding # Another bonded interface options bond0 max_bonds=2 miimon=100 mode=1 # 100ms fail-over timer. Mode 1 = Active/Backup options bond1 miimon=100 mode=1 # Same for bond1
You need the following files in /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ :
ifcfg-bond0 ifcfg-eth0 ifcfg-eth1
ifcfg-eth0 and ifcfg-eth1 should look similar to the following:
DEVICE=eth0 USERCTL=no ONBOOT=yes MASTER=bond0 SLAVE=yes BOOTPROTO=none MII_NOT_SUPPORTED=yes
The DEVICE= section should reflect the interface the file relates to (ifcfg-eth1 should have DEVICE=eth1). The MASTER= section should indicate the bonded interface to be used. Assign both e1000 devices to bond0.
The bond0 file contains the actual IP address information:
DEVICE=bond0 IPADDR=192.168.1.1 NETMASK=255.255.255.0 ONBOOT=yes BOOTPROTO=none USERCTL=no MII_NOT_SUPPORTED=yes
Simply restarting the network service 'service network restart' should present you with a new 'bond0' interface. This is the interface you should see traffic going in and out of if youwere to tcpdump the interface.
You will also notice (using /sbin/ifconfig) that all of the ethX interfaces are also up, and also have IP addresses.
bond0 Link encap:Ethernet HWaddr 00:04:23:61:06:30 inet addr:192.168.1.1 Bcast:188.8.131.52 Mask:255.255.255.224 inet6 addr: fe80::204:23ff:fe61:630/64 Scope:Link UP BROADCAST RUNNING MASTER MULTICAST MTU:1500 Metric:1 RX packets:240339580 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0 TX packets:264367658 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0 collisions:0 txqueuelen:0 RX bytes:3328878476 (3174.6 Mb) TX bytes:2497930422 (2382.2 Mb) eth0 Link encap:Ethernet HWaddr 00:04:23:61:06:30 inet6 addr: fe80::204:23ff:fe61:630/64 Scope:Link UP BROADCAST RUNNING NOARP SLAVE MULTICAST MTU:1500 Metric:1 RX packets:43224057 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0 TX packets:50149177 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0 collisions:0 txqueuelen:1000 RX bytes:965949319 (921.2 Mb) TX bytes:3242163496 (3091.9 Mb) Base address:0xdcc0 Memory:fcfa0000-fcfc0000 eth1 Link encap:Ethernet HWaddr 00:04:23:61:06:30 inet6 addr: fe80::204:23ff:fe61:630/64 Scope:Link UP BROADCAST RUNNING SLAVE MULTICAST MTU:1500 Metric:1 RX packets:197115526 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0 TX packets:214218484 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0 collisions:0 txqueuelen:1000 RX bytes:2362929367 (2253.4 Mb) TX bytes:3550735168 (3386.2 Mb) Base address:0xdc80 Memory:fcf80000-fcfa0000
In this example, we are using the fail-over mode. The eth device without NOARP is the current active SLAVE. You may notice that both ethX interfaces have high traffic counters. This is because the system has been up for around 200 days and at some point the interfaces swapped status.
For further reading, you should also read /usr/src/linux/Documentation/networking/bonding.txt which also gives the different bonding modes you can use. Some of these (like Etherchannel trunking) need compatible switches.
Debian / Ubuntu Linux: Configure Network Bonding [ Teaming / Aggregating NIC ]
by NIX Craft on September 4, 2011 · 19 comments· LAST UPDATED September 6, 2011
in Debian Linux
NIC teaming is nothing but combining or aggregating multiple network connections in parallel. This is done to increase throughput, and to provide redundancy in case one of the links fails or Ethernet card fails. The Linux kernel comes with the bounding driver for aggregating multiple network interfaces into a single logical interface called bond0. In this tutorial, I will explain how to setup bonding under Debian Linux server to aggregate multiple Ethernet devices into a single link, to get higher data rates and link failover.
The instructions were tested using the following setup:
◾2 x PCI-e Gig NIC with jumbo frames.
◾RAID 6 w/ 5 enterprise grade 15k SAS hard disks.
◾Debian Linux 6.0.2 amd64
Please note that the following instructions should also work on Ubuntu Linux server.
by NIX Craft on April 3, 2006 · 121 comments
Finally, today I had implemented NIC bounding (bind both NIC so that it works as a single device). Bonding is nothing but Linux kernel feature that allows to aggregate multiple like interfaces (such as eth0, eth1) into a single virtual link such as bond0. The idea is pretty simple get higher data rates and as well as link failover. The following instructions were tested on:
- RHEL v4 / 5 / 6 amd64
- CentOS v5 / 6 amd64
- Fedora Linux 13 amd64 and up.
- 2 x PCI-e Gigabit Ethernet NICs with Jumbo Frames (MTU 9000)
- Hardware RAID-10 w/ SAS 15k enterprise grade hard disks.
- Gigabit switch with Jumbo Frame
Softpanorama hot topic of the month
RHEL 6 - New Network Bonding Configuration - FATMIN
RHEL 5 Channel Bonding Interfaces
official bounding howto
bonding The Linux Foundation
NIC bonding linux - Linux Howto - nixCraft
FAIR USE NOTICE This site contains copyrighted material the use of which has not always been specifically authorized by the copyright owner. We are making such material available in our efforts to advance understanding of environmental, political, human rights, economic, democracy, scientific, and social justice issues, etc. We believe this constitutes a 'fair use' of any such copyrighted material as provided for in section 107 of the US Copyright Law. In accordance with Title 17 U.S.C. Section 107, the material on this site is distributed without profit exclusivly for research and educational purposes. If you wish to use copyrighted material from this site for purposes of your own that go beyond 'fair use', you must obtain permission from the copyright owner.
ABUSE: IPs or network segments from which we detect a stream of probes might be blocked for no less then 90 days. Multiple types of probes increase this period.
Groupthink : Two Party System as Polyarchy : Corruption of Regulators : Bureaucracies : Understanding Micromanagers and Control Freaks : Toxic Managers : Harvard Mafia : Diplomatic Communication : Surviving a Bad Performance Review : Insufficient Retirement Funds as Immanent Problem of Neoliberal Regime : PseudoScience : Who Rules America : Neoliberalism : The Iron Law of Oligarchy : Libertarian Philosophy
War and Peace : Skeptical Finance : John Kenneth Galbraith :Talleyrand : Oscar Wilde : Otto Von Bismarck : Keynes : George Carlin : Skeptics : Propaganda : SE quotes : Language Design and Programming Quotes : Random IT-related quotes : Somerset Maugham : Marcus Aurelius : Kurt Vonnegut : Eric Hoffer : Winston Churchill : Napoleon Bonaparte : Ambrose Bierce : Bernard Shaw : Mark Twain Quotes
Vol 25, No.12 (December, 2013) Rational Fools vs. Efficient Crooks The efficient markets hypothesis : Political Skeptic Bulletin, 2013 : Unemployment Bulletin, 2010 : Vol 23, No.10 (October, 2011) An observation about corporate security departments : Slightly Skeptical Euromaydan Chronicles, June 2014 : Greenspan legacy bulletin, 2008 : Vol 25, No.10 (October, 2013) Cryptolocker Trojan (Win32/Crilock.A) : Vol 25, No.08 (August, 2013) Cloud providers as intelligence collection hubs : Financial Humor Bulletin, 2010 : Inequality Bulletin, 2009 : Financial Humor Bulletin, 2008 : Copyleft Problems Bulletin, 2004 : Financial Humor Bulletin, 2011 : Energy Bulletin, 2010 : Malware Protection Bulletin, 2010 : Vol 26, No.1 (January, 2013) Object-Oriented Cult : Political Skeptic Bulletin, 2011 : Vol 23, No.11 (November, 2011) Softpanorama classification of sysadmin horror stories : Vol 25, No.05 (May, 2013) Corporate bullshit as a communication method : Vol 25, No.06 (June, 2013) A Note on the Relationship of Brooks Law and Conway Law
Fifty glorious years (1950-2000): the triumph of the US computer engineering : Donald Knuth : TAoCP and its Influence of Computer Science : Richard Stallman : Linus Torvalds : Larry Wall : John K. Ousterhout : CTSS : Multix OS Unix History : Unix shell history : VI editor : History of pipes concept : Solaris : MS DOS : Programming Languages History : PL/1 : Simula 67 : C : History of GCC development : Scripting Languages : Perl history : OS History : Mail : DNS : SSH : CPU Instruction Sets : SPARC systems 1987-2006 : Norton Commander : Norton Utilities : Norton Ghost : Frontpage history : Malware Defense History : GNU Screen : OSS early history
The Peter Principle : Parkinson Law : 1984 : The Mythical Man-Month : How to Solve It by George Polya : The Art of Computer Programming : The Elements of Programming Style : The Unix Hater’s Handbook : The Jargon file : The True Believer : Programming Pearls : The Good Soldier Svejk : The Power Elite
Most popular humor pages:
Manifest of the Softpanorama IT Slacker Society : Ten Commandments of the IT Slackers Society : Computer Humor Collection : BSD Logo Story : The Cuckoo's Egg : IT Slang : C++ Humor : ARE YOU A BBS ADDICT? : The Perl Purity Test : Object oriented programmers of all nations : Financial Humor : Financial Humor Bulletin, 2008 : Financial Humor Bulletin, 2010 : The Most Comprehensive Collection of Editor-related Humor : Programming Language Humor : Goldman Sachs related humor : Greenspan humor : C Humor : Scripting Humor : Real Programmers Humor : Web Humor : GPL-related Humor : OFM Humor : Politically Incorrect Humor : IDS Humor : "Linux Sucks" Humor : Russian Musical Humor : Best Russian Programmer Humor : Microsoft plans to buy Catholic Church : Richard Stallman Related Humor : Admin Humor : Perl-related Humor : Linus Torvalds Related humor : PseudoScience Related Humor : Networking Humor : Shell Humor : Financial Humor Bulletin, 2011 : Financial Humor Bulletin, 2012 : Financial Humor Bulletin, 2013 : Java Humor : Software Engineering Humor : Sun Solaris Related Humor : Education Humor : IBM Humor : Assembler-related Humor : VIM Humor : Computer Viruses Humor : Bright tomorrow is rescheduled to a day after tomorrow : Classic Computer Humor
The Last but not Least
Copyright © 1996-2016 by Dr. Nikolai Bezroukov. www.softpanorama.org was created as a service to the UN Sustainable Development Networking Programme (SDNP) in the author free time. This document is an industrial compilation designed and created exclusively for educational use and is distributed under the Softpanorama Content License.
Original materials copyright belong to respective owners. Quotes are made for educational purposes only in compliance with the fair use doctrine.
FAIR USE NOTICE This site contains copyrighted material the use of which has not always been specifically authorized by the copyright owner. We are making such material available to advance understanding of computer science, IT technology, economic, scientific, and social issues. We believe this constitutes a 'fair use' of any such copyrighted material as provided by section 107 of the US Copyright Law according to which such material can be distributed without profit exclusively for research and educational purposes.
This is a Spartan WHYFF (We Help You For Free) site written by people for whom English is not a native language. Grammar and spelling errors should be expected. The site contain some broken links as it develops like a living tree...
|You can use PayPal to make a contribution, supporting development of this site and speed up access. In case softpanorama.org is down you can use the at softpanorama.info|
The statements, views and opinions presented on this web page are those of the author (or referenced source) and are not endorsed by, nor do they necessarily reflect, the opinions of the author present and former employers, SDNP or any other organization the author may be associated with. We do not warrant the correctness of the information provided or its fitness for any purpose.
Last modified: September, 12, 2017