Softpanorama

May the source be with you, but remember the KISS principle ;-)
Contents Bulletin Scripting in shell and Perl Network troubleshooting History Humor

Transport Layer of TCP/IP Protocol

News

Solaris Networking Certification Recommended Books Recommended Links TCP/Protocol layers  OSI Protocol Layers Examples IP troubleshooting   RFCs
TCP TCP handshake TCP Flow Control User Datagram Protocol (UDP) NAT VPN Socks    
sniffers tcpdump snoop       Hardening TCP/IP stack in Linux Humor Quiz

The Transport layer transports data to and from the correct application. This process is known as end-to-end communication. In TCP/IP the Transport layer  provides a transport service for application data.

The Transport layer header includes a destination port number that identifies the destination application program on the remote machine and a source port number that identifies the application on the originating machine.

In addition, the Transport layer handles error detection, can handle recovery problems, and regulates the flow of information. The way in which the Transport layer handles error detection, the sequence of data,
and flow regulation depends on which protocol is used.

There are two main protocols that operate at the Transport layer, TCP and  UDP. The TCP/IP protocol stack features two Transport layer protocols, TCP and UDP:

Both are implemented as a part of the Solaris kernel. There three important binary properties that serve as the base of classification of transport layer protocols:

  1. connection-oriented vs. connectionless
  2. stateful vs. stateless
  3. reliable vs. unreliable

The first important distinction between transport layer protocols is connection-oriented vs. connectionless:

The second important distinction is "stateful vs. stateless" protocols:

The third important disctinction is "reliable vs. unreliable":

Based on this classification UDP and TCP looks like complete opposites:

Basic UDP information

UDP is a connectionless, stateless, and unreliable protocol.  It is faster and more efficient for many lightweight or time-sensitive purposes. Also, its stateless nature is useful for servers that answer small queries from huge numbers of clients. UDP is required for broadcast (send to all on local network) and multicast (send to all subscribers).

With UDP, the application is responsible for handling message loss, duplication, sequence (delivery out of order), and loss of connection. UDP receives incoming data from the application and encapsulates the data into UDP datagrams. UDP datagrams have a leading header section hat contains the source and destination port numbers, followed by the data section.

16 32 bits
Source port
Destination port
Length
Checksum

Data
 

Basic TCP Information

TCP is a connection-oriented, stateful, and reliable protocol. TCP is suited for situations where large volumes of data must travel between systems, particularly across multiple routers and gateways. TCP
has four main features:

The TCP segment header has more fields then UDP header. The TCP header structure is as follows:

16 32 bits
Source port
Destination port
Sequence number
Acknowledgement number
Offset
Resrvd
U
A
P
R
S
F
Window
Checksum
Urgent pointer
Option + Padding
Data
TCP header structure

Recommended Links

Softpanorama hot topic of the month

Softpanorama Recommended

Top articles

Sites

Transport layer - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Examples

From Wikipedia

  • AEP, AppleTalk Echo Protocol
  • ATP, AppleTalk Transaction Protocol
  • CUDP, Cyclic UDP
  • DCCP, Datagram Congestion Control Protocol
  • FCP, Fiber Channel Protocol
  • FCIP, Fiber Channel over TCP/IP
  • IL, IL Protocol
  • iSCSI, Internet Small Computer System Interface
  • NBP, Name Binding Protocol
  • NetBEUI, NetBIOS Extended User Interface
  • SPX, Sequenced Packet Exchange
  • RTMP, Routing Table Maintenance Protocol
  • SCTP, Stream Control Transmission Protocol
  • SCSI, Small Computer System Interface
  • TCP, Transmission Control Protocol
  • UDP, User Datagram Protocol

    Quiz

    Q1.  What does the receiving host do with packets when it is using a connection-oriented  protocol ?

    a. acknowledges only the first and last packet, puts the packets in their proper order.

    b. acknowledges only the first and last packet, discards in any packet that have arrived out of sequence.

    c. acknowledges each packet and  puts the packets in their proper order.

    d. acknowledges each packet and discards in any packet that have arrived out of order

     A: C

    Q2. Which set has protocols of ONLY the Network layer ?

    a. IP, UDP, TCP, RARP, ICMP

    b. IP, UDP, ARP, RARP, ICMP

    c. SPX, UDP, GNS, ARP, APPLETALK

    d. IPX, FTP, ARP, RARP, ICMP

    A: B

    Q3. What are three purposes of ICMP :

    a. router discovery

    b. guarantee of transport

    c. estimate of bandwidth

    d. error messaging

    e. diagnostics/testing

    f. guarantee of uniqueness of node addresses

     A: A,D,E

    Q4. Connectionless protocols are implemented using ______.

    a. UDP

    b. TCP

    c. IP

    d. ICMP

    A: a

    Q5: Which layer in the TCP/IP Five-layer model performs end-to-end data transfers?



  • Etc

    FAIR USE NOTICE This site contains copyrighted material the use of which has not always been specifically authorized by the copyright owner. We are making such material available in our efforts to advance understanding of environmental, political, human rights, economic, democracy, scientific, and social justice issues, etc. We believe this constitutes a 'fair use' of any such copyrighted material as provided for in section 107 of the US Copyright Law. In accordance with Title 17 U.S.C. Section 107, the material on this site is distributed without profit exclusivly for research and educational purposes.   If you wish to use copyrighted material from this site for purposes of your own that go beyond 'fair use', you must obtain permission from the copyright owner. 

    ABUSE: IPs or network segments from which we detect a stream of probes might be blocked for no less then 90 days. Multiple types of probes increase this period.  

    Society

    Groupthink : Two Party System as Polyarchy : Corruption of Regulators : Bureaucracies : Understanding Micromanagers and Control Freaks : Toxic Managers :   Harvard Mafia : Diplomatic Communication : Surviving a Bad Performance Review : Insufficient Retirement Funds as Immanent Problem of Neoliberal Regime : PseudoScience : Who Rules America : Neoliberalism  : The Iron Law of Oligarchy : Libertarian Philosophy

    Quotes

    War and Peace : Skeptical Finance : John Kenneth Galbraith :Talleyrand : Oscar Wilde : Otto Von Bismarck : Keynes : George Carlin : Skeptics : Propaganda  : SE quotes : Language Design and Programming Quotes : Random IT-related quotesSomerset Maugham : Marcus Aurelius : Kurt Vonnegut : Eric Hoffer : Winston Churchill : Napoleon Bonaparte : Ambrose BierceBernard Shaw : Mark Twain Quotes

    Bulletin:

    Vol 25, No.12 (December, 2013) Rational Fools vs. Efficient Crooks The efficient markets hypothesis : Political Skeptic Bulletin, 2013 : Unemployment Bulletin, 2010 :  Vol 23, No.10 (October, 2011) An observation about corporate security departments : Slightly Skeptical Euromaydan Chronicles, June 2014 : Greenspan legacy bulletin, 2008 : Vol 25, No.10 (October, 2013) Cryptolocker Trojan (Win32/Crilock.A) : Vol 25, No.08 (August, 2013) Cloud providers as intelligence collection hubs : Financial Humor Bulletin, 2010 : Inequality Bulletin, 2009 : Financial Humor Bulletin, 2008 : Copyleft Problems Bulletin, 2004 : Financial Humor Bulletin, 2011 : Energy Bulletin, 2010 : Malware Protection Bulletin, 2010 : Vol 26, No.1 (January, 2013) Object-Oriented Cult : Political Skeptic Bulletin, 2011 : Vol 23, No.11 (November, 2011) Softpanorama classification of sysadmin horror stories : Vol 25, No.05 (May, 2013) Corporate bullshit as a communication method  : Vol 25, No.06 (June, 2013) A Note on the Relationship of Brooks Law and Conway Law

    History:

    Fifty glorious years (1950-2000): the triumph of the US computer engineering : Donald Knuth : TAoCP and its Influence of Computer Science : Richard Stallman : Linus Torvalds  : Larry Wall  : John K. Ousterhout : CTSS : Multix OS Unix History : Unix shell history : VI editor : History of pipes concept : Solaris : MS DOSProgramming Languages History : PL/1 : Simula 67 : C : History of GCC developmentScripting Languages : Perl history   : OS History : Mail : DNS : SSH : CPU Instruction Sets : SPARC systems 1987-2006 : Norton Commander : Norton Utilities : Norton Ghost : Frontpage history : Malware Defense History : GNU Screen : OSS early history

    Classic books:

    The Peter Principle : Parkinson Law : 1984 : The Mythical Man-MonthHow to Solve It by George Polya : The Art of Computer Programming : The Elements of Programming Style : The Unix Haterís Handbook : The Jargon file : The True Believer : Programming Pearls : The Good Soldier Svejk : The Power Elite

    Most popular humor pages:

    Manifest of the Softpanorama IT Slacker Society : Ten Commandments of the IT Slackers Society : Computer Humor Collection : BSD Logo Story : The Cuckoo's Egg : IT Slang : C++ Humor : ARE YOU A BBS ADDICT? : The Perl Purity Test : Object oriented programmers of all nations : Financial Humor : Financial Humor Bulletin, 2008 : Financial Humor Bulletin, 2010 : The Most Comprehensive Collection of Editor-related Humor : Programming Language Humor : Goldman Sachs related humor : Greenspan humor : C Humor : Scripting Humor : Real Programmers Humor : Web Humor : GPL-related Humor : OFM Humor : Politically Incorrect Humor : IDS Humor : "Linux Sucks" Humor : Russian Musical Humor : Best Russian Programmer Humor : Microsoft plans to buy Catholic Church : Richard Stallman Related Humor : Admin Humor : Perl-related Humor : Linus Torvalds Related humor : PseudoScience Related Humor : Networking Humor : Shell Humor : Financial Humor Bulletin, 2011 : Financial Humor Bulletin, 2012 : Financial Humor Bulletin, 2013 : Java Humor : Software Engineering Humor : Sun Solaris Related Humor : Education Humor : IBM Humor : Assembler-related Humor : VIM Humor : Computer Viruses Humor : Bright tomorrow is rescheduled to a day after tomorrow : Classic Computer Humor

    The Last but not Least


    Copyright © 1996-2016 by Dr. Nikolai Bezroukov. www.softpanorama.org was created as a service to the UN Sustainable Development Networking Programme (SDNP) in the author free time. This document is an industrial compilation designed and created exclusively for educational use and is distributed under the Softpanorama Content License.

    The site uses AdSense so you need to be aware of Google privacy policy. You you do not want to be tracked by Google please disable Javascript for this site. This site is perfectly usable without Javascript.

    Original materials copyright belong to respective owners. Quotes are made for educational purposes only in compliance with the fair use doctrine.

    FAIR USE NOTICE This site contains copyrighted material the use of which has not always been specifically authorized by the copyright owner. We are making such material available to advance understanding of computer science, IT technology, economic, scientific, and social issues. We believe this constitutes a 'fair use' of any such copyrighted material as provided by section 107 of the US Copyright Law according to which such material can be distributed without profit exclusively for research and educational purposes.

    This is a Spartan WHYFF (We Help You For Free) site written by people for whom English is not a native language. Grammar and spelling errors should be expected. The site contain some broken links as it develops like a living tree...

    You can use PayPal to make a contribution, supporting development of this site and speed up access. In case softpanorama.org is down you can use the at softpanorama.info

    Disclaimer:

    The statements, views and opinions presented on this web page are those of the author (or referenced source) and are not endorsed by, nor do they necessarily reflect, the opinions of the author present and former employers, SDNP or any other organization the author may be associated with. We do not warrant the correctness of the information provided or its fitness for any purpose.

    Last Modified: June 04, 2016