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The Transport layer transports data to and from the correct application. This process is known as end-to-end communication. In TCP/IP the Transport layer provides a transport service for application data.
The Transport layer header includes a destination port number that identifies the destination application program on the remote machine and a source port number that identifies the application on the originating machine.
In addition, the Transport layer handles error detection, can handle
recovery problems, and regulates the flow of information. The way in which
the Transport layer handles error detection, the sequence of data,
and flow regulation depends on which protocol is used.
There are two main protocols that operate at the Transport layer, TCP and UDP. The TCP/IP protocol stack features two Transport layer protocols, TCP and UDP:
Both are implemented as a part of the Solaris kernel. There three important binary properties that serve as the base of classification of transport layer protocols:
The first important distinction between transport layer protocols is connection-oriented vs. connectionless:
The second important distinction is "stateful vs. stateless" protocols:
The third important disctinction is "reliable vs. unreliable":
Based on this classification UDP and TCP looks like complete opposites:
UDP is a connectionless, stateless, and unreliable protocol. It is faster and more efficient for many lightweight or time-sensitive purposes. Also, its stateless nature is useful for servers that answer small queries from huge numbers of clients. UDP is required for broadcast (send to all on local network) and multicast (send to all subscribers).
With UDP, the application is responsible for handling message loss, duplication, sequence (delivery out of order), and loss of connection. UDP receives incoming data from the application and encapsulates the data into UDP datagrams. UDP datagrams have a leading header section hat contains the source and destination port numbers, followed by the data section.
16 32 bits Source port Destination port Length Checksum
TCP is a connection-oriented, stateful, and reliable protocol. TCP is suited for situations where large volumes of data must travel between systems, particularly across multiple routers and gateways. TCP
has four main features:
- Virtual circuit connection
- Full-duplex connection
- Unstructured stream orientation
- Buffered transfer
The TCP segment header has more fields then UDP header. The TCP header structure is as follows:
16 32 bits Source port Destination port Sequence number Acknowledgement number Offset Resrvd U A P R S F Window Checksum Urgent pointer Option + Padding Data TCP header structure
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Transport layer - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Q1. What does the receiving host do with packets when it is using a connection-oriented protocol ?
a. acknowledges only the first and last packet, puts the packets in their proper order.
b. acknowledges only the first and last packet, discards in any packet that have arrived out of sequence.
c. acknowledges each packet and puts the packets in their proper order.
d. acknowledges each packet and discards in any packet that have arrived out of order
Q2. Which set has protocols of ONLY the Network layer ?
a. IP, UDP, TCP, RARP, ICMP
b. IP, UDP, ARP, RARP, ICMP
c. SPX, UDP, GNS, ARP, APPLETALK
d. IPX, FTP, ARP, RARP, ICMP
Q3. What are three purposes of ICMP :
a. router discovery
b. guarantee of transport
c. estimate of bandwidth
d. error messaging
f. guarantee of uniqueness of node addresses
Q4. Connectionless protocols are implemented using ______.
Q5: Which layer in the TCP/IP Five-layer model performs end-to-end data transfers?
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