Softpanorama
May the source be with you, but remember the KISS principle ;-)

Contents Bulletin Scripting in shell and Perl Network troubleshooting History Humor

exec command

News Unix Utilities Recommended Books Recommended Links

eval command

Pipes  Shell Input and Output Redirection
Unix Find Tutorial/Using -exec option with find Unix Xargs tee Unix script command Admin Horror Stories Humor Etc

Introduction

The exec command is one of very little know and underutilized Unix command. The name of the command is identical to the name of a Unix system call which provides semantic of this command.

The  exec  command replaces the current shell process with the specified command. Normally, when you run a command a new process is spawned (forked). The exec  command does not spawn a new process. Instead, the current process is overlaid with the new command. In other words the exec command is executed in place of the current shell without creating a new process. The command implements Unix exec system call.  It is a part of   process control API, the group that also includes fork system call.  See Fork and Exec Unix Model (PowerPoint).

Note: this is completely different command then  Find command option -exec  which permits execution of commands using found file as argument. Xargs is another command that provides means to build and execute command lines from standard input.

Syntax

exec [ command ] [ arg ... ]
exec fd<file
exec fd>file

Arguments

Typical usage

There are three  most common uses of exec command:

Replacement of login shell

This is pretty common situation, when the shell specified in /etc/passwd  is not that you want and you can't or have no power to change the setting, but want to use a different shell. 

For example:

exec bash

Makes you login shell bash. This is a very convenient command on Solaris, HP-US and AIX in which bash shell is typically present, but is not default shell for root and you get used to bash in your daily work.  If you execute this  command, the shell replaces itself in memory with the new command you specified.

Here is a more exotic example,

exec vi myfile

In this case we replaced the shell with the vi. The command places you in vi, so that you can edit myfile. When you exit vi you exit the system because vi has become your login interface to the operating system. This method can be used in "menu" systems when a user is offered several precooked commands on login and need just to select one to execute.

For example:

while true
do
   echo "Go to Mail, Editor, or eXit:"
   read ANSWER
   case "$ANSWER" in
      [mM]) exec MAILX ;;
      [eE]) exec ${EDITOR:=vi} ;;
      [xX]) exec exit ;;
   esac
done

Here the initial script is used to provide a menu and after selection was made serves no useful purpose. So it can be replaced by selected utility via exec call.

A method of redirection of STDIN or STDOUT within the shell scripts

In no command arguments are given this command can modify file descriptors. In other words the exec  command can also be used in shell scripts dynamically open, close, and copy file descriptors. That permits performing redirection of STDIN, STDERR, STDOUT and other file descriptors to various files inside the shell script, instead of command invocation string.  If you do not specify a command or arguments, you can specify redirection symbols and file descriptors to perform these functions.

In other words in shell the exec command can serve as a substitute to OPEN and CLOSE commands that are common in regular scripting languages, like Perl and Python.

Typical beginning of the shell script that sends STDIN to a log file can look something like

LOG=/var/opt/myscript/myscript.log
exec 1>>$LOG
exec 2>&1 

This is essentially equivalent to running the script as

./myscript &>> /var/opt/myscript/myscript.log  # bash 4
./myscript >> /var/opt/myscript/myscript.log  2>&1 # earlier versions of bash and ksh 4

See for Shell Input and Output Redirection an explanations of redirection in Unix shell

This capability also is a great help in debugging. In this role the exec  command can   be used for debugging complex cases of shell scripts, for example when script is submitted via SGE or other scheduler and produces no output.

LOG=/var/opt/myscript/myscript.log
exec 1>>$LOG
exec 2>&1 

Generally it can be used for opening and files in shall like open statement in Perl. The following examples illustrate the use of exec  for manipulating file descriptors:

exec 3< inputfile # Opens inputfile with file descriptor 3 for reading.
exec 4> outputfile # Opens outputfile with file descriptor 4 for writing.
exec 5<&0 # Makes fd 5 a copy of fd 0 (standard input).
exec 6>&p # Attach fd 6 to co-process.

Creating stages of the process using exec command

You can also use the exec  command to create a set of shell scripts that execute one another sequentially like stages of the process. Instead of spawning new processes each time you need to transfer the control to the next script you execute the exec  command .

In this case the last statement of each stage should be exec command that invokes the next stage.

This trick also improves capabilities of sharing environment between stages beacuse after forked process ends the environment is destroyed. 


Top updates

Bulletin Latest Past week Past month
Google Search


NEWS CONTENTS

Old News ;-)

[Jan 12, 2011] Linux piping and redirecting stdin stderr stdout by Adam Palmer

Mar 07, 2009 | Adam Palmer

We have three relevant streams when dealing with passing data around on the command line. STDIN (0), STDOUT (1) and STDERR (2)

echo “hello” will return “hello” to STDOUT

echo “hello” | sed s/llo/y/g
Returns: ‘hey’

echo “hello” will print “hello” to STDOUT which we pipe to sed’s STDIN. The shell will fork both processes, echo and sed, and create a pipe between one’s STDOUT to the other’s STDIN. A ‘broken pipe’ will occur when one terminates unexpectedly.

strace echo “hello” will print the system calls that the command makes. Lets say I just want to print out open() calls.

strace echo “hello” | grep open does not work. It seems that the grep is ignored.

This is because strace sends it’s output to STDERR and not STDOUT. In this case we must redirect STDERR to STDOUT so grep can pick it up on it’s STDIN.

strace echo “hello” 2>&1 | grep open will work successfully.

What if we want to redirect STDOUT and STDERR to a file? We simply redirect STDOUT to a file and then redirect STDERR to STDOUT.

strace echo “hello” >/tmp/strace.output 2>&1

A nonstandard method of achieving the same by redirecting everything in one go is strace echo “hello” &>/tmp/strace.output however this is not guaranteed to work across all implementations.

[Jan 12, 2011] Korn shell exec, read and miscellaneous commands

The exec  command is used for redirection of file descriptors 0:9. Example:

> ksh
$ exec 1>std.out
$ dir ~/test
$ ....
$ exit
In the above example, all output directed to stdout from the command exec  to the command exit is written on file std.out. To use file descriptor 5:
> cat kexec
# open file x.x by descriptor 5 with exec 5>x.x
exec 5>x.x
print -u5 "1. redirect print output to fd 5 opened by exec"
print -u5 "2. prinf on fd 5"
print -u5 "3. print on fd 5 again"
exec 5<&-
# close file x.x with exec 5<&-
echo "\n verify x.x by cat\n"
The kexec script listed above creates file x.x containing the script lines 1.-2.-3..
If the file descriptor is closed, any attempt to access closed file produces the following error message:
> kexec
kexec[13]: print: bad file unit number
exec  may be used to execute a script but user is logged out exec  is invoked when in parent shell.

The read command reads input from the terminal as single variables, piped names or file redirected with exec  as summarized in the following example.

> cat kread
#!/bin/ksh
#-----------kread: read data with Korn shell---------------------
#
echo Proc $0: read command in Korn shell
echo
print "type a name> \c"                              # read var at promp
read name
print "typed name is: " $name
print "\npiped read example:"
print "apr may jun" | read a b c                     # pipe args
print arg1 from pipe is $a
print arg2 from pipe is $b
print arg3 from pipe is $c
print "\nread/write lines with exec redirection\n"
exec 0<$1                                            # redirect i/o
while read LINE
do
   print $LINE
done
#
#----------end script------------------

> kread
Proc kread: read command in Korn shell

type a name> any
typed name is:  any

piped read example:
arg1 from pipe is apr
arg2 from pipe is may
arg3 from pipe is jun

read/write lines with exec redirection

line 1
line 1
<ctrl>C
>
Korn Shell Read Options
-p read line form co-process
-r do not treat \ as continuation
-s save input in history file
-un read from file descriptor n

The prompt can be specified in the read statement:

$ read var?prompt
If var is not defined, input is assigned to variable REPLY. Field separator can be assigned with the IFS  (Internal Field Separator) variable.
Example:
> cat kpwd
#!/bin/ksh
#-----------kpwd: read example in Korn shell
echo Proc $0: type pwd info with Korn shell
echo
read ok?"Type pwd info? (y/n)"                  #read with prompt
[[ $ok = @([Nn])* ]] && exit 1                  #test read variable
echo pwd data are:
echo ""
IFS=:                                           #set IFS to :
exec 0</etc/passwd                              #redirect stdin to /etc/passwd
# list users
#
while read -r NAME PAS UID GID COM HOME SHELL
do
   print "acct= $NAME - home= $HOME - shell= $SHELL:"
done
#----------end script------------------
> kpwd

Type pwd info? (y/n)y
pwd data are:

acct= john - home= /home/john - shell= /bin/tcsh:
acct= mary - home= /home/mary - shell= /bin/tcsh:
acct= tester - home= /d4/check - shell= /bin/sh:
>

[Jan 12, 2011] Using exec

An exec <filename command redirects stdin  to a file. From that point on, all stdin  comes from that file, rather than its normal source (usually keyboard input). This provides a method of reading a file line by line and possibly parsing each line of input using sed and/or awk.

Example 16-1. Redirecting stdin  using exec

   1 #!/bin/bash
   2 # Redirecting stdin using 'exec'.
   3
   4
   5 exec 6<&0          # Link file descriptor #6 with stdin.
   6                    # Saves stdin.
   7
   8 exec < data-file   # stdin replaced by file "data-file"
   9
  10 read a1            # Reads first line of file "data-file".
  11 read a2            # Reads second line of file "data-file."
  12
  13 echo
  14 echo "Following lines read from file."
  15 echo "-------------------------------"
  16 echo $a1
  17 echo $a2
  18
  19 echo; echo; echo
  20
  21 exec 0<&6 6<&-
  22 #  Now restore stdin from fd #6, where it had been saved,
  23 #+ and close fd #6 ( 6<&- ) to free it for other processes to use.
  24 #
  25 # <&6 6<&-    also works.
  26
  27 echo -n "Enter data  "
  28 read b1  # Now "read" functions as expected, reading from normal stdin.
  29 echo "Input read from stdin."
  30 echo "----------------------"
  31 echo "b1 = $b1"
  32
  33 echo
  34
  35 exit 0

Similarly, an exec >filename command redirects stdout  to a designated file. This sends all command output that would normally go to stdout  to that file.


Example 16-2. Redirecting stdout  using exec

   1 #!/bin/bash
   2 # reassign-stdout.sh
   3
   4 LOGFILE=logfile.txt
   5
   6 exec 6>&1           # Link file descriptor #6 with stdout.
   7                     # Saves stdout.
   8
   9 exec > $LOGFILE     # stdout replaced with file "logfile.txt".
  10
  11 # ----------------------------------------------------------- #
  12 # All output from commands in this block sent to file $LOGFILE.
  13
  14 echo -n "Logfile: "
  15 date
  16 echo "-------------------------------------"
  17 echo
  18
  19 echo "Output of \"ls -al\" command"
  20 echo
  21 ls -al
  22 echo; echo
  23 echo "Output of \"df\" command"
  24 echo
  25 df
  26
  27 # ----------------------------------------------------------- #
  28
  29 exec 1>&6 6>&-      # Restore stdout and close file descriptor #6.
  30
  31 echo
  32 echo "== stdout now restored to default == "
  33 echo
  34 ls -al
  35 echo
  36
  37 exit 0

Example 16-3. Redirecting both stdin  and stdout  in the same script with exec

   1 #!/bin/bash
   2 # upperconv.sh
   3 # Converts a specified input file to uppercase.
   4
   5 E_FILE_ACCESS=70
   6 E_WRONG_ARGS=71
   7
   8 if [ ! -r "$1" ]     # Is specified input file readable?
   9 then
  10   echo "Can't read from input file!"
  11   echo "Usage: $0 input-file output-file"
  12   exit $E_FILE_ACCESS
  13 fi                   #  Will exit with same error
  14                      #+ even if input file ($1) not specified.
  15
  16 if [ -z "$2" ]
  17 then
  18   echo "Need to specify output file."
  19   echo "Usage: $0 input-file output-file"
  20   exit $E_WRONG_ARGS
  21 fi
  22
  23
  24 exec 4<&0
  25 exec < $1            # Will read from input file.
  26
  27 exec 7>&1
  28 exec > $2            # Will write to output file.
  29                      # Assumes output file writable (add check?).
  30
  31 # -----------------------------------------------
  32     cat - | tr a-z A-Z   # Uppercase conversion.
  33 #   ^^^^^                # Reads from stdin.
  34 #           ^^^^^^^^^^   # Writes to stdout.
  35 # However, both stdin and stdout were redirected.
  36 # -----------------------------------------------
  37
  38 exec 1>&7 7>&-       # Restore stout.
  39 exec 0<&4 4<&-       # Restore stdin.
  40
  41 # After restoration, the following line prints to stdout as expected.
  42 echo "File \"$1\" written to \"$2\" as uppercase conversion."
  43
  44 exit 0

Notes

[1] A file descriptor is simply a number that the operating system assigns to an open file to keep track of it. Consider it a simplified version of a file pointer. It is analogous to a file handle in C.
[2] Using file descriptor 5  might cause problems. When Bash creates a child process, as with exec, the child inherits fd 5 (see Chet Ramey's archived e-mail, SUBJECT: RE: File descriptor 5 is held open). Best leave this particular fd alone.

[Dec 30, 2010] exec command and field descriptors.. - The UNIX and Linux Forums

Q: According to the many sources the exec command other than its use in find and escaping the shell, has another definitive use.. which I am having a hard time understanding.

according to many resources and info pages that I have read I can use the exec command with a file descriptor.. such as
exec 1< file
or
exec 5>&0
I do not quite understand what a file descriptor is and what is the purpose of this (pattern) or (expression)..
any feedback welcome

A: If you write a script, you can send input into it like this:

./somescript < inputfile

The script can accomplish the same thing internally by using:
exec < inputfile

After that line, the script's input is inputfile. It can do the same to output:

exec > somescript.log 2>&1

This send stderr and stdout combined into the file. There is more to it, but this is the basics.

[Jun 14 2008] Difference between fork and exec command in Unix

Unix-Linux Forum

Hey There,

Simply put, fork duplicates your shell (file descriptors, etc) in a subshell. Usually a forked process will then exec in that subshell.

exec exec's the command in your current shell, basically co-opting it.

In pure versions of exec, if you do, just at the shell prompt:

exec khs <-- instead of exec ksh

your shell will be replaced by khs, which doesn't exist, and you'll lose your shell (get logged out).

Redhat, OpenSolaris, and most Linux brands do a "fake exec" (really a fork and then exec) now, where, even when you call exec and flub it, you don't lose your shell.

Not a very technical explanation, but hopefully helpful

, Mike

[Mar 11, 2007]  Miscellaneous Unix Tips Answering Novice Shell Questions  by Ed Schaefer and John Spurgeon

Sys Admin v16, i03

As Sys Admin contributing editors, we've had the opportunity to answer a number of novice shell questions. In this column, we'll cover a few of the questions we've been asked:

Using the exec & eval Commands

One novice asked when it was suitable to exec  and eval Unix commands:

exec mycommand
eval mycommand
The exec  command works differently depending on the shell; in the Bourne and Korn shells, the exec  command replaces the current shell with the command being exec'ed. Consider this stub script:
exec echo "Hello John"
echo "Hello Ed"
# end stub
When the above stub executes, the current shell will be replaced when exec'ing the echo "Hello John" command. The echo "Hello Ed" command never gets the chance to execute. Obviously, this capability has limited uses.

You might design a shell menu where the requirement is to execute an option that never returns to the menu. Another use would be restricting the user from obtaining the command line. The following last line in the user's .profile file logs the user out as soon as my_executable terminates:

exec my_executable
However, most systems administrators probably use the exit command instead:
my_executable
exit
Don't confuse exec'ing a Unix command with using exec  to assign a file to a file descriptor. Remember that the default descriptors are standard input, output, and error or 0, 1, and 2, respectively.

Let's consider an example where you need to read a file with a while loop and ask the user for input in the same loop. Assign the file to an unused descriptor -- 3 in this case -- and obtain the user input from standard input:

exec 3< file.txt
while read line <&3
do
    echo "$line"
    echo "what is your input? "
    read answer
    .
    .
done
exec 3<&-   # close the file descriptor when done
The eval command is more interesting. A common eval use is to build a dynamic string containing valid Unix commands and then use eval to execute the string. Why do we need eval? Often, you can build a command that doesn't require eval:
evalstr="myexecutable"
$evalstr   # execute the command string
However, chances are the above command won't work if "myexecutable" requires command-line arguments. That's where eval comes in.

Our man page says that the arguments to the eval command are "read as input to the shell and the resulting commands executed". What does that mean? Think of it as the eval command forcing a second pass so the string's arguments become the arguments of the spawned child shell.

In a previous column, we built a dynamic sed command that skipped 3 header lines, printed 5 lines, and skipped 3 more lines until the end of the file:

evalstr="sed -n '4,\${p;n;p;n;p;n;p;n;p;n;n;n;}' data.file"
eval $evalstr  # execute the command string
This command fails without eval. When the sed command executes in the child shell, eval forces the remainder of the string to become arguments to the child.

Possibly the coolest eval use is building dynamic Unix shell variables. The following stub script dynamically creates shell variables user1 and user2 setting them equal to the strings John and Ed, respectively:

COUNT=1
eval user${COUNT}=John
echo $user1

COUNT=2
eval user${COUNT}=Ed
echo $user2
Pasting Files with paste
Another novice asked how to line up three files line by line sending the output to another file. Given the following:
file1:

1
2
3

file2:

a
b
c

file3:

7
8
9
the output file should look like this:
1a7
2b8
3c9
The paste command is a ready-made solution:
paste file1 file2 file3
By default, the delimiter character between the columns is a tab key. The paste command provides a -d delimiter option. Everything after -d is treated as a list. For example, this paste rendition uses the pipe symbol and ampersand characters as a list:
paste -d"|&" file1 file2 file3
The command produces this output:
1|a&7
2|b&8
3|c&9
The pipe symbol character, |, is used between columns 1 and 2, while the ampersand, &, separates column 2 and 3. If the list is completely used, and if the paste command contains more files arguments, then paste starts at the beginning of the list.

To satisfy our original requirement, paste provides a null character, \0, signifying no character. To prevent the shell from interpreting the character, it must also be quoted:

paste -d"\0" file1 file2 file3

The exec command

The exec command will replace the parent process by whatever the command is typed.

Try the following:

exec ls -l                       

As you will have noticed, this closes the shell you are currently using. Why?

The exec command terminated the parent process and started (executed) the ls command and the ls command did what it was supposed to do and exited with a zero status, but ls has no parent process to return to, and thereby the shell is shut down.

If for example, we ran our eatout.sh script, but instead of running it as we have previously, we exec'd it, the script would run but would also close our terminal from which we ran the script.

exec eatout.sh             

This means that when the person finally types exit to exit the menu, they are sent back to the login prompt.

To see this in action, let's consider the following sequence of commands:

pstree -p |less         

You will notice that "pstree" starts with the init command or the init process. Somewhere further down this 'tree', init starts a shell (bash/ksh/csh) which is then going to run the pstree and the less command.

Now, in order to see exec at work, we need to find out the current process id.

Use:

echo $$                       

to determine this (the ps command would give you the same information).

Now type the pstree command again, producing a diagram of your process tree.

pstree -p | less
           
            

Search for your process id recorded from the echo above. Once you have located it, quit pstree and type:

exec bash         

This would replace our current shell (our parent) with a new shell, and thus a new process id (PID).

echo $$           

You can also look at the pstree again.

By using the exec command, instead of making the new shell's parent your original shell, the new shell will be owned by init.

[Chapter 45] 45.7 The exec Command

45.7 The exec Command

The exec command will execute a command in place of the current shell; that is, it terminates the current shell and starts a new process (38.3) in its place.

Historically, exec was often used to execute the last command of a shell script. This would kill the shell slightly earlier; otherwise, the shell would wait until the last command was finished. This practice saved a process and some memory. (Aren't you glad you're using a modern system? This sort of conservation usually isn't necessary any longer unless your system limits the number of processes each user can have.)

exec can be used to replace one shell with another shell:

% exec ksh

without incurring the additional overhead of having an unused shell waiting for the new shell to finish.

exec also manipulates file descriptors (45.21, 45.22) in the Bourne shell. When you use exec to manage file descriptors, it does not replace the current process. For example, the following command makes the standard input of all commands come from the file formfile instead of the default place (usually, your terminal):

exec < formfile

- ML, JP

Recommended Links

Softpanorama Top Visited

Softpanorama Recommended




Etc

Society

Groupthink : Understanding Micromanagers and Control Freaks : Toxic Managers : BureaucraciesHarvard Mafia : Diplomatic Communication : Surviving a Bad Performance Review : Insufficient Retirement Funds as Immanent Problem of Neoliberal Regime : PseudoScience : Who Rules America : Two Party System as Polyarchy : Neoliberalism  : The Iron Law of Oligarchy : Libertarian Philosophy

Quotes

Skeptical Finance : John Kenneth Galbraith : Keynes : George Carlin : Skeptics : Propaganda  : SE quotes : Language Design and Programming Quotes : Random IT-related quotes : Oscar Wilde : Talleyrand : Somerset Maugham : War and Peace : Marcus Aurelius : Eric Hoffer : Kurt Vonnegut : Otto Von Bismarck : Winston Churchill : Napoleon Bonaparte : Ambrose Bierce : Oscar Wilde : Bernard Shaw : Mark Twain Quotes

Bulletin:

Vol 26, No.1 (January, 2013) Object-Oriented Cult : Vol 25, No.12 (December, 2013) Rational Fools vs. Efficient Crooks: The efficient markets hypothesis : Vol 25, No.08 (August, 2013) Cloud providers as intelligence collection hubs : Vol 23, No.10 (October, 2011) An observation about corporate security departments : Vol 23, No.11 (November, 2011) Softpanorama classification of sysadmin horror stories : Vol 25, No.05 (May, 2013) Corporate bullshit as a communication method : Vol 25, No.10 (October, 2013) Cryptolocker Trojan (Win32/Crilock.A) : Vol 25, No.06 (June, 2013) A Note on the Relationship of Brooks Law and Conway Law

History:

Fifty glorious years (1950-2000): the triumph of the US computer engineering : Donald Knuth : TAoCP and its Influence of Computer Science : Richard Stallman : Linus Torvalds  : Larry Wall  : John K. Ousterhout : CTSS : Multix OS Unix History : Unix shell history : VI editor : History of pipes concept : Solaris : MS DOSProgramming Languages History : PL/1 : Simula 67 : C : History of GCC developmentScripting Languages : Perl history   : OS History : Mail : DNS : SSH : CPU Instruction Sets : SPARC systems 1987-2006 : Norton Commander : Norton Utilities : Norton Ghost : Frontpage history : Malware Defense History : GNU Screen : OSS early history

Classic books:

The Peter Principle : Parkinson Law : 1984 : The Mythical Man-MonthHow to Solve It by George Polya : The Art of Computer Programming : The Elements of Programming Style : The Unix Hater’s Handbook : The Jargon file : The True Believer : Programming Pearls : The Good Soldier Svejk : The Power Elite

Most popular humor pages:

Manifest of the Softpanorama IT Slacker Society : Ten Commandments of the IT Slackers Society : Computer Humor Collection : BSD Logo Story : The Cuckoo's Egg : IT Slang : C++ Humor : ARE YOU A BBS ADDICT? : The Perl Purity Test : Object oriented programmers of all nations : Financial Humor : Financial Humor Bulletin, 2008 : Financial Humor Bulletin, 2010 : The Most Comprehensive Collection of Editor-related Humor : Programming Language Humor : Goldman Sachs related humor : Greenspan humor : C Humor : Scripting Humor : Real Programmers Humor : Web Humor : GPL-related Humor : OFM Humor : Politically Incorrect Humor : IDS Humor : "Linux Sucks" Humor : Russian Musical Humor : Best Russian Programmer Humor : Microsoft plans to buy Catholic Church : Richard Stallman Related Humor : Admin Humor : Perl-related Humor : Linus Torvalds Related humor : PseudoScience Related Humor : Networking Humor : Shell Humor : Financial Humor Bulletin, 2011 : Financial Humor Bulletin, 2012 : Financial Humor Bulletin, 2013 : Java Humor : Software Engineering Humor : Sun Solaris Related Humor : Education Humor : IBM Humor : Assembler-related Humor : VIM Humor : Computer Viruses Humor : Bright tomorrow is rescheduled to a day after tomorrow : Classic Computer Humor

 

The Last but not Least


Copyright © 1996-2014 by Dr. Nikolai Bezroukov. www.softpanorama.org was created as a service to the UN Sustainable Development Networking Programme (SDNP) in the author free time. This document is an industrial compilation designed and created exclusively for educational use and is distributed under the Softpanorama Content License. Site uses AdSense so you need to be aware of Google privacy policy. Original materials copyright belong to respective owners. Quotes are made for educational purposes only in compliance with the fair use doctrine. This is a Spartan WHYFF (We Help You For Free) site written by people for whom English is not a native language. Grammar and spelling errors should be expected. The site contain some broken links as it develops like a living tree...

You can use PayPal to make a contribution, supporting hosting of this site with different providers to distribute and speed up access. Currently there are two functional mirrors: softpanorama.info (the fastest) and softpanorama.net.

Disclaimer:

The statements, views and opinions presented on this web page are those of the author and are not endorsed by, nor do they necessarily reflect, the opinions of the author present and former employers, SDNP or any other organization the author may be associated with. We do not warrant the correctness of the information provided or its fitness for any purpose.

Last modified: June 30, 2014