|Home||Switchboard||Unix Administration||Red Hat||TCP/IP Networks||Neoliberalism||Toxic Managers|
|May the source be with you, but remember the KISS principle ;-)|
The new report is titled "Move Over, Adam Smith: The Visible Hand of Uncle Sam," and has been published by Sprott Asset Management of Toronto. It was written by the firm's president, John P. Embry, and his assistant, Andrew Hepburn, and concludes that the U.S. government has intervened to support the stock market so many times that "what apparently started as a stopgap measure may have morphed into a serious moral hazard situation, with market manipulation an endemic feature of the U.S. stock market."
The new report relies largely on reports of news organizations and the essays and research papers of economics academics that, as might be expected, have not been well-publicized in the United States. But some of these reports have been circulated by the Gold Anti-Trust Action Committee over the years.
The Sprott report does not maintain that the government should never intervene in the stock market; it recognizes that certain emergencies may argue strongly for temporary intervention, such as the 1987 stock market crash and the terrorist attacks of September 2001. But, the Sprott report notes, frequent surreptitious intervention, conducted through intermediaries, the government's favored financial houses in New York, gives those intermediaries enormous advantages over ordinary investors. Frequent intervention, the Sprott report adds also makes it impossible to distinguish between national emergencies and political expediency.
The Sprott report concludes:
"Given the available information, we do not believe there can be any doubt that the U.S. government has intervened to support the stock market. Too much credible information exists to deny this. Yet virtually no one ever mentions government intervention publicly, preferring instead to pretend as if such activities have never taken place and never would.
"It is time that market participants, the media and, most of all, the government acknowledge what should be blatantly obvious to anyone who reviews the public record on the matter: These markets have been interfered with on numerous occasions. Our primary concern is that what apparently started as a stopgap measure may have morphed into a serious moral hazard situation, with market manipulation an endemic feature of the U.S. stock market.
"We have not taken a position on the wisdom of intervention in this paper, largely because exceptional circumstances could argue for it. In many respects, for instance, the apparent rescue after the 1987 crash and the planned intervention in the wake of September 11 were very defensible. Administered in extremely small doses and with the most stringent safeguards and transparency, market stabilization could be justified.
"But a policy enacted in secret and knowingly withheld from the body politic has created a huge disconnect between those knowledgeable about such activities and the majority of the public, who have no clue whatsoever.
"There can be no doubt that the firms responsible for implementing government interventions enjoy an enviable position unavailable to other investors. Whether they have been indemnified against potential losses or simply made privy to non-public government policy, the major Wall Street firms evidently responsible for preventing plunges no longer must compete on anywhere near a level playing field. It is most unfair that the immensely powerful have been further ensconced in their perched positions and thus effectively insulated from the competitive market forces ostensibly present in our society.
"In addition to creating a privileged class, the manipulation also has little democratic legitimacy in the sense that the citizenry has not given its consent. This has tangible ramifications. By not informing the public, successive U.S. administrations have employed a dangerous policy response that is subject to the worst possible abuse. In this regard, the line between national necessity and political expediency has no doubt been perilously blurred.
"We can only urge people to see what the evidence indicates and debate what is and ought to be a very contentious matter. The time for such a public discussion is long overdue."
The Sprott report can be found in Adobe Acrobat format at the Sprott Internet site here: http://www.sprott.com/pdf/pressrelease/TheVisibleHand.pdf
It also can be found at the GATA Internet site here: http://www.gata.org/SprottReportTheVisibleHand.pdf
The Greenspan legacy
By Adam Hamilton
Speaking Freely is an Asia Times Online feature that allows guest writers to have their say. Please click here if you are interested in contributing.
January 31, 2006, marks the end of a financial era. The longtime chairman of the Federal Reserve, Alan Greenspan, will retire after 18 years at the helm of the United States' central bank. Widely lionized at the pinnacle of his career, Greenspan's legacy will profoundly affect investors worldwide for many years to come.
As Greenspan's tenure as the most powerful man in the financial universe is debated among investors today and historians tomorrow, his many decisions will be dissected and evaluated. But I fear most of this debate will overlook the most foundational and crucial issue. Before Greenspan's actions are considered, the very notion of the Fed itself ought to enter the limelight.
The Federal Reserve is not a capitalistic entity compatible with free markets. Instead it functions just like the miserably failed old-school command-and-control communism model. The core philosophy of the Fed and its Federal Open Market Committee that controls short-term interest rates is that mere mortals meeting in secret like a conspiracy cabal are better suited at setting the price of money than the free markets.
Regardless of who leads the Fed, the whole organization exists because price controllers, no different from those in 20th-century Russia, think they alone can divine the price at which the supply of savings equals the demand for savings. The price of money, or interest rate, leads savers to decide how much of their income to save and debtors to decide how much of someone else's savings to borrow.
Of all the goods and services available on the planet, the price of money is probably the most important one to ensure is not manipulated. Interest rates act as signals to direct capital from unproductive uses to productive ones, which helps build great wealth for nations when the free markets dictate interest rates. But when manipulators try to manipulate interest-rate signals artificially, capital is misappropriated and wasted, leaving nations poorer.
Bubbles are the ultimate case in point. Whenever too much paper money floods into a financial system, which is the inevitable result of artificially low interest rates, it floods into some class of goods or services or investments and inflates prices far beyond where they would be if interest rates were set by free markets. It is ironic as the destination of this excess capital determines whether it is good or bad in investors' minds.
When artificially low-interest-rate-driven excess money floods into technology stocks or tract houses in suburbia, Americans rejoice and think it is a great thing until the resulting bubbles inevitably burst and wreak great pain. But if this same excess money drives up the prices of general goods and services and commodities such as gasoline, the inflation is considered bad. Indeed, the Greenspan Fed spent much time trying to jawbone money into inflating politically correct assets such as houses instead of politically incorrect ones such as commodities.
So before we delve into Greenspan's record on monetary inflation and interest rates, realize he is as far away from being a free-market capitalist as one can possibly be. He is a communist-style elitist who believes that the price of money and even money supplies should be centrally planned as if by the Communist Politburo. This is no less ridiculous than the idea of the Fed mandating the price of every dinner, every pair of shoes, or every book sold in America. History has proved time and time again what an asinine idea central planning truly is.
So how did Alan Greenspan, price fixer and market manipulator, do in his years at the Fed? His record is mixed. Initially he showed some constraint and tried to fight inflation, the scourge of the middle class, but five or six years into his run he started to embrace and nurture inflation. Amazingly in monetary-growth terms he wasn't a great deal better than the horrible Fed chairmen of the 1970s, Arthur Burns and William Miller.
Our first chart looks at 45 years of annual broad money supply (M3) growth compared with annual price inflation as measured by the Consumer Price Index (CPI). From a free-market standpoint, the more stable a money supply, meaning the slower it grows, the more prosperity it generates in all socio-economic strata of society. The faster money supplies grow, the harder life becomes for average Americans with slowly growing incomes.
All these charts run from 1960 to the end of 2005. I chose this scale because I wanted to be able to see the results of Alan Greenspan's decisions in context with history. The blue-shaded area to the right marks Greenspan's tenure. Before we get into the Greenspan years, though, it is useful to recall all the financial pain of the 1970s, which was caused by excessive monetary growth and the severing of the remaining gold standard.
Note the red M3 line above, which is the year-over-year growth rate in the broad US money supply. For virtually the entire 1970s the Fed was allowing the money supply to expand at a breakneck pace, usually exceeding 10% a year. With so much new money flooding into the system, the supply of real goods and services on which to spend it just couldn't keep pace. So relatively more money was chasing after and bidding up the prices of relatively fewer goods and services.
The result of this excessive monetary growth spawned by the Fed artificially manipulating interest rates far lower than the free markets would have set them was the massive inflation of the 1970s. The blue CPI growth-rate line above tracks some of this, with costs of living rising 12% and 15% in just a year during their worst spikes. Everything in the US became more expensive in the 1970s and Americans felt poorer since incomes didn't grow as fast as money supplies.
This was such an enormous problem for the nation that, like an elephant in the living room, even Washington and the Fed couldn't hide it under the rug. So Paul Volcker, the Fed chairman for the eight years before Greenspan's appointment, finally let interest rates float high enough in the early 1980s to strangle the damaging monetary excesses out of the system. Volcker also ensured monetary growth rates continuously declined in the 1980s, which drove down inflation to multi-decade lows.
When Greenspan became chairman in August 1987, the Fed was doing about as well as it possibly could for a communist-style command-and-control price-fixing entity. Monetary growth rates continued to fall, inflation was acceptable, and other than the flukey October 1987 stock-market crash, Greenspan had it easy. All he had to do was not mess around with interest rates and keep the Fed from mucking around too much in money supplies by buying and selling US Treasuries.
And Greenspan was largely successful at this in his early years. Broad monetary growth continued lower and inflation stabilized for the first time in decades. But for some reason near the beginning of 1995, Greenspan forgot about his mission to keep prices stable by not allowing excessive monetary growth. The M3 annual growth rate began to rocket higher and challenged 11% in the late 1990s and exceeded 13% in the early 2000s.
As you can see on the chart above, after 1995 monetary inflation exploded upward to staggering rates not witnessed since the 1970s. Whenever excessive money supplies are pumped into the pipeline of an economy, they will have to find a home somewhere. Typically this is in the form of general price inflation shown in the CPI growth spikes of the 1970s. But strangely, in the mid-1990s the CPI ignored the monetary surge and a major discontinuity was created.
Some believe that Bill Clinton's re-election effort ahead of the 1996 presidential elections involved cooking the books in terms of government statistics. If the CPI was reported to be low through the use of such statistical wizardry as hedonic deflators, then the stock market would thrive, Americans would feel happy about the economy, and the Democrats would win another term. Whether this was the reason or not, the CPI seemed to stop reflecting true monetary inflation in 1995 or so.
With no gold standard and no accountability in the official inflation stats the markets watched, Greenspan allowed M3 growth to rocket up to 1970s levels. This was the fuel for the massive stock-market bubble of the late 1990s, as we'll see in the next chart. Alan Greenspan warned of "irrational exuberance" in 1996 and then he inexplicably kept feeding the very stock-market bubble he saw growing. Eventually he even bought into the New Era nonsense and foolishly believed the "productivity miracle" justified extreme stock prices.
By the dawn of 1999 Greenspan seemed once again to get concerned and start pursuing Fed policies for lowering the blistering monetary growth rates. But then Y2K came along and everyone including the Fed was scared so it injected huge amounts of new money into an already frothy system. Then the Nasdaq crash of early 2000 led to another long surge of increasing monetary growth in an irresponsible attempt to bail out stock speculators.
All of this excessive 1970s-type monetary growth created the situation in which we find ourselves today, with prices of goods and services rising as the Fed's monetary promiscuity floods into the general economy. In terms of monetary growth, Greenspan didn't do much better than the terrible 1970s Fed chairmen and he certainly utterly squandered the inflation-fighting legacy of his predecessor Volcker.
History will rightfully remember Alan Greenspan not as an inflation-fighting hawk, but as a socialist Keynesian advocate of endless inflation that betrayed his own principles expressed earlier in life. In 1966 Alan Greenspan wrote an awesome essay, "Gold and Economic Freedom", in which he said the following: "In the absence of the gold standard, there is no way to protect savings from confiscation through inflation ... Deficit spending is simply a scheme for the "hidden" confiscation of wealth."
In light of his surprisingly poor monetary record, Greenspan's legacy will be remembered as one of the confiscators of Americans' wealth whom he once despised. His senseless inflation contributed to the moral decay of the US, gutting the purchasing power of retirees' savings and ensuring that most American families would have to have two wage earners in order to keep a semblance of middle-class living.
If you are blessed enough to have surplus capital to invest and not live on a fixed income like older or less fortunate Americans, you may not be worried about inflation. Last spring I had a discussion about the Greenspan record with the chief executive officer of a medium-sized publicly traded US corporation. As one blessed to earn a lot of money, he couldn't care less about inflation and didn't seem to understand how damaging it is to average folks. Well, Greenspan's policies also inflicted enormous pain on the wealthy investor class too.
This next chart shows the actual M3 money supply versus the S&P 500. Excessive monetary growth courtesy of the Greenspan Fed directly kindled the dangerous stock-market bubble of the late 1990s.
The investor class can often earn more than enough to stay ahead of inflation. Who cares if a hamburger at McDonald's costs US$20 if you are earning $500,000 or more a year? But Greenspan's pro-monetary-inflation policies at the Fed also caused literally trillions of dollars of damage to investors. If there was one individual alive who could have greatly moderated the 1990s stock-market bubble, it was Alan Greenspan using his Fed.
Early in his career he continued Volcker's policy of disinflation, slowing the monetary growth rate, as the red actual M3 line above shows. When Greenspan took the reins at the Fed there was well less than $4 trillion in circulation. But in 1995 when Greenspan suddenly became a manic inflationist, he unleashed the floodgates of monetary growth just like the failed Fed chairmen of the 1970s. M3 literally started soaring.
As these torrents of paper money freshly created out of thin air cascaded into the economy, many of them gravitated to the stock markets. The surge in monetary inflation that started at the Greenspan discontinuity marked the very moment in time when the US stock markets left a reasonable normal growth ascent slope and went parabolic. While the Fed-fed equity bubble may have been fun for a few years, its ultimate consequences were, are, and will continue to be catastrophic.
After five years of relentless monetary inflation pouring into stocks, by March 2000 the flagship S&P 500, the 500 biggest and best companies in the United States, was worth about $13 trillion, a staggering sum of capital. Yet all this was only an inflation-fed fiction just like past bubbles. These companies didn't have the earnings to support these tremendous valuations, but investors just bid them up indiscriminately anyway because Fed money kept flooding in.
But the Greenspan bubble, like every other bubble in history, eventually had to end. It topped in March 2000 and its first Great Bear downleg lasted until March 2003 or so. Over this period of time the S&P 500 companies lost about 40% of their bubble value, about $5.5 trillion in these elite companies alone. This loss is just mind-blowing, and it damaged the investor class immeasurably. Monetary inflation hurts the wealthy too when the bubbles it creates suddenly pop and wreak great havoc.
At this point Greenspan, if he had loved free-market capitalism, would have acknowledged he screwed up in the late 1990s with his monetary promiscuity and he would have stepped back to let the necessary painful readjustment happen. But instead he did the dumbest thing he could possibly do, something that fits in with his true character as a central planner and market manipulator. He brazenly attempted to bail out stock speculators by slashing interest rates to artificial half-century lows.
Before we get to our next chart showing Greenspan's unbelievably aggressive interest-rate manipulations, note that the red M3 line exceeds $10 trillion today as he leaves the Fed. Why is everything getting more expensive today, from food to medical care to insurance to cars to houses? Because under Greenspan's watch the Fed allowed US money supplies to rocket 185% higher. This is becoming such an embarrassment that the Fed is actually going to quit tracking and publishing M3 in a couple months to hide its horrific Greenspan record.
Our final chart compares one-year interest rates with the value of the US dollar. After the 1995 discontinuity the dollar went on a wild ride that ended soon after Alan Greenspan attempted to bail out stock speculators upset that they were foolish enough to buy in to a massive bubble. While the Fed's primary mandate is to not grow the money supply very fast in order to prevent inflation, the stability of the dollar's purchasing power is a related mission and the Greenspan Fed failed miserably on this front too.
When money supplies grow too rapidly and inflation and inflationary expectations take root as they did in the late 1970s, the only way to sop up all of this excess liquidity is with far higher-than-normal interest rates. Greenspan's predecessor understood this and was willing to be unpopular in order to get the US economy back on track. For nearly six years straight in the early 1980s, one-year interest rates exceeded 10%.
At times during this painful period of sopping up excessive 1970s monetary growth, 30-year fixed mortgage rates exceeded 18%. Thanks to the massive Greenspan inflation of the late 1990s there is a very good chance Americans will again see mortgage rates well into the teens before his inflation is purged from the system. Folks with adjustable-rate mortgages will be ripped to shreds if this happens, all courtesy of the Greenspan legacy.
Early in Greenspan's career he established the precedent of slashing interest rates rapidly for long periods of time in a Keynesian attempt to plan and manage economic growth centrally. It appeared to be successful at the time, but now a decade later the folly of this approach is quite evident. If interest rates hadn't fallen so far in the early 1990s, then the speculative culture that helped drive the stock-market bubble would probably not have taken root to such an extent.
But the biggest mistake Greenspan made was when he launched his bold gambit in early 2001. Even though artificially cheap money had never stopped a bubble bust from fully running its course in history, Greenspan's supreme hubris led him to try anyway. He didn't want his precious public image and acceptance tarnished (read Bob Woodward's excellent Maestro to learn of Greenspan's love of status), so he decided to bail out stock speculators. Rather than letting stock speculators learn from their own mistakes, Greenspan mollycoddled them.
For a free-market society to work, people must be free to succeed or fail. Failure is more important than success in many ways since it teaches the best lessons of life, builds character and wisdom, and lays the foundation for future successes. By trying to buoy the stock markets with artificially low interest rates, Alan Greenspan attempted to short-circuit countless valuable financial lessons from the bust. Instead of becoming more conservative and learning just as speculators in the 1930s had, in the 2000s speculators exercised the Greenspan Put.
A put, of course, is an options contract that protects an investor from downside by guaranteeing him a selling price regardless of market conditions for a period of time. Greenspan's bailout was widely seen as putting a floor under the stock markets which encouraged 1999-style speculative excesses all over again such as we see in Google today. Stock speculators never learned the lessons they should have in the past five years.
When speculators and businesses aren't free to fail, it creates a huge moral hazard problem. After all, if the Fed is going to pull out all stops to keep capital cheap and flowing into the stock markets, then why not continue to bet aggressively? Rather than being wise and prudent and deploying capital in sectors that really needed it like commodities infrastructure, the Greenspan bailout encouraged a renewed tech-bubble focus.
But Greenspan's Gambit of artificially low interest rates created other problems. Capital markets rely on a balance between savers and debtors, between savers earning a fair return on the income they didn't spend and debtors paying a fair price for the income they didn't earn. When interest rates are not where the free markets would set them, the saver-debtor transactions are no longer mutually beneficial and capital flows are grossly distorted.
Thanks to Greenspan aggressively punishing prudent savers to subsidize wanton debtors, savings rates in the US fell to all-time lows. Rather than save capital and put it into productive assets that will make the United States a stronger nation, many Americans instead stuck it into overvalued real estate and created the housing bubble. The bursting of this second Greenspan-spawned bubble in housing will be far more devastating than the stock crash since it will affect all Americans with a mortgage, not just the wealthier stock-investing class.
In light of Greenspan's inflationist record, I suspect his legacy won't be very positive. He made many poor anti-free-market decisions as a command-and-control price fixer and it will take years or decades for the consequences of these to work through the system. For instance, because of the Greenspan bailout the current stock bear is likely to last 17 years instead of just a few as in the early 1930s, and we are only six years into it today. Thanks, Mr Chairman.
And when the housing bubble spawned by Greenspan's attempt to bail out stock speculators with artificially low rates bursts, watch out. Markets are cyclical and artificially low prices are always followed by higher-than-normal ones to balance things out regardless of what the manipulators want. Hence the price of money is headed a lot higher. The economic pain as real-estate prices correct in most places and crash in some is going to be tremendous. It is all courtesy of Alan Greenspan's brazen interest-rate manipulations.
I realize this is a heavy and sobering narrative, and I don't like the Greenspan legacy either. There are a few bright spots, though, ways investors can capitalize on Greenspan's sorry legacy. We are continuing to focus on these opportunities and are being blessed with excellent realized profits on our stock trades.
During the latter two-thirds of Greenspan's reign, his highly inflationary easy-money policies led to enormous misallocations of capital into first tech stocks and then houses. With capital flowing into these counterproductive bubbles, industries that really needed this very capital starved and withered. This contributed to a massive structural undersupply of crucial commodities.
And this capital-starved commodities industry is highly physical, unlike information industries that can be wished into existence overnight. It will take more than a decade to find and deliver enough oil, natural gas, copper, gold, silver, and other key commodities to meet today's demand. And not only are commodities prices rising because their producing infrastructure was starved in the 1990s, but Greenspan's massive monetary inflation is also filtering into commodities, boosting them directly too.
Many stock analysts are now researching elite commodities producers and developing tools to time trades in these companies. While many investors have already been blessed with awesome gains since this commodities bull market launched, odds are the best is yet to come. Astute investors will capitalize on some of the massive capital distortions that need to now be righted thanks to Greenspan.
The bottom line is that Alan Greenspan, despite his huge fan club today, is no different from the Communist Party bosses of Russia before the Cold War ended. Rather than sitting back and letting the invisible hand of the free markets determine the price and growth rates of money, Greenspan chose to play God and horribly messed everything up like all other would-be demigods in history. Price manipulators always fail in the end.
Greenspan's legacy is one of a failed market manipulator and price fixer, a dangerous enemy of free-market capitalism in sheep's clothing. In five or 10 years from now once the full spectrum of the consequences of his highly inflationary and moral-hazard-ridden policies become apparent, I suspect Greenspan will be remembered as a goat, not a guru, a blight on the United States and its economy.
Adam Hamilton is an analyst at Zeal LLC. His weekly essays analyze current market trends from a contrarian perspective to provide investors with information to grow their capital. He has been published or quoted in the Wall Street Journal, GOLD Newsletter, The Silicon Investor, Fall Street and The MoneyChanger.
(Copyright 2000-06 Zeal Research. Used by permission.)
Speaking Freely is an Asia Times Online feature that allows guest writers to have their say. Please click here if you are interested in contributing.
Groupthink : Two Party System as Polyarchy : Corruption of Regulators : Bureaucracies : Understanding Micromanagers and Control Freaks : Toxic Managers : Harvard Mafia : Diplomatic Communication : Surviving a Bad Performance Review : Insufficient Retirement Funds as Immanent Problem of Neoliberal Regime : PseudoScience : Who Rules America : Neoliberalism : The Iron Law of Oligarchy : Libertarian Philosophy
War and Peace : Skeptical Finance : John Kenneth Galbraith :Talleyrand : Oscar Wilde : Otto Von Bismarck : Keynes : George Carlin : Skeptics : Propaganda : SE quotes : Language Design and Programming Quotes : Random IT-related quotes : Somerset Maugham : Marcus Aurelius : Kurt Vonnegut : Eric Hoffer : Winston Churchill : Napoleon Bonaparte : Ambrose Bierce : Bernard Shaw : Mark Twain Quotes
Vol 25, No.12 (December, 2013) Rational Fools vs. Efficient Crooks The efficient markets hypothesis : Political Skeptic Bulletin, 2013 : Unemployment Bulletin, 2010 : Vol 23, No.10 (October, 2011) An observation about corporate security departments : Slightly Skeptical Euromaydan Chronicles, June 2014 : Greenspan legacy bulletin, 2008 : Vol 25, No.10 (October, 2013) Cryptolocker Trojan (Win32/Crilock.A) : Vol 25, No.08 (August, 2013) Cloud providers as intelligence collection hubs : Financial Humor Bulletin, 2010 : Inequality Bulletin, 2009 : Financial Humor Bulletin, 2008 : Copyleft Problems Bulletin, 2004 : Financial Humor Bulletin, 2011 : Energy Bulletin, 2010 : Malware Protection Bulletin, 2010 : Vol 26, No.1 (January, 2013) Object-Oriented Cult : Political Skeptic Bulletin, 2011 : Vol 23, No.11 (November, 2011) Softpanorama classification of sysadmin horror stories : Vol 25, No.05 (May, 2013) Corporate bullshit as a communication method : Vol 25, No.06 (June, 2013) A Note on the Relationship of Brooks Law and Conway Law
Fifty glorious years (1950-2000): the triumph of the US computer engineering : Donald Knuth : TAoCP and its Influence of Computer Science : Richard Stallman : Linus Torvalds : Larry Wall : John K. Ousterhout : CTSS : Multix OS Unix History : Unix shell history : VI editor : History of pipes concept : Solaris : MS DOS : Programming Languages History : PL/1 : Simula 67 : C : History of GCC development : Scripting Languages : Perl history : OS History : Mail : DNS : SSH : CPU Instruction Sets : SPARC systems 1987-2006 : Norton Commander : Norton Utilities : Norton Ghost : Frontpage history : Malware Defense History : GNU Screen : OSS early history
The Peter Principle : Parkinson Law : 1984 : The Mythical Man-Month : How to Solve It by George Polya : The Art of Computer Programming : The Elements of Programming Style : The Unix Haterís Handbook : The Jargon file : The True Believer : Programming Pearls : The Good Soldier Svejk : The Power Elite
Most popular humor pages:
Manifest of the Softpanorama IT Slacker Society : Ten Commandments of the IT Slackers Society : Computer Humor Collection : BSD Logo Story : The Cuckoo's Egg : IT Slang : C++ Humor : ARE YOU A BBS ADDICT? : The Perl Purity Test : Object oriented programmers of all nations : Financial Humor : Financial Humor Bulletin, 2008 : Financial Humor Bulletin, 2010 : The Most Comprehensive Collection of Editor-related Humor : Programming Language Humor : Goldman Sachs related humor : Greenspan humor : C Humor : Scripting Humor : Real Programmers Humor : Web Humor : GPL-related Humor : OFM Humor : Politically Incorrect Humor : IDS Humor : "Linux Sucks" Humor : Russian Musical Humor : Best Russian Programmer Humor : Microsoft plans to buy Catholic Church : Richard Stallman Related Humor : Admin Humor : Perl-related Humor : Linus Torvalds Related humor : PseudoScience Related Humor : Networking Humor : Shell Humor : Financial Humor Bulletin, 2011 : Financial Humor Bulletin, 2012 : Financial Humor Bulletin, 2013 : Java Humor : Software Engineering Humor : Sun Solaris Related Humor : Education Humor : IBM Humor : Assembler-related Humor : VIM Humor : Computer Viruses Humor : Bright tomorrow is rescheduled to a day after tomorrow : Classic Computer Humor
The Last but not Least
Copyright © 1996-2018 by Dr. Nikolai Bezroukov. www.softpanorama.org was initially created as a service to the (now defunct) UN Sustainable Development Networking Programme (SDNP) in the author free time and without any remuneration. This document is an industrial compilation designed and created exclusively for educational use and is distributed under the Softpanorama Content License. Original materials copyright belong to respective owners. Quotes are made for educational purposes only in compliance with the fair use doctrine.
FAIR USE NOTICE This site contains copyrighted material the use of which has not always been specifically authorized by the copyright owner. We are making such material available to advance understanding of computer science, IT technology, economic, scientific, and social issues. We believe this constitutes a 'fair use' of any such copyrighted material as provided by section 107 of the US Copyright Law according to which such material can be distributed without profit exclusively for research and educational purposes.
This is a Spartan WHYFF (We Help You For Free) site written by people for whom English is not a native language. Grammar and spelling errors should be expected. The site contain some broken links as it develops like a living tree...
|You can use PayPal to make a contribution, supporting development of this site and speed up access. In case softpanorama.org is down you can use the at softpanorama.info|
The statements, views and opinions presented on this web page are those of the author (or referenced source) and are not endorsed by, nor do they necessarily reflect, the opinions of the author present and former employers, SDNP or any other organization the author may be associated with. We do not warrant the correctness of the information provided or its fitness for any purpose.
Last modified: September 12, 2017